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Measures of Spirituality/Religiosity—Description of Concepts and Validation of Instruments

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ISBN: 9783038977582 9783038977599 Year: Pages: 148 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-759-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Religion
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-25 16:37:17
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Why do we need more questionnaires to measure aspects of spirituality/religiosity when we already have so many well-tried instruments in use? One answer is that research in this field is growing and that new research questions continuously do arise. Several of these new questions cannot be easily answered with the instruments designed for previous questions. The field is expanding and, consequently, the research topics. Meanwhile several multidimensional instruments were developed which cover existential, prosocial, religious and non-religious forms of spirituality, hope, peace and trust&mdash;and several more. The &lsquo;disadvantage&rsquo; of these instruments is the fact that some are conceptually broad and often rather unspecific, but they might be suited quite well for culturally and spiritually diverse populations when the intention is to compare such diverse groups. This is the reason why more research on new instruments is needed as can be found in this Special Issue, and to stimulate a critical debate about their pros and cons.

Geoinformatics in Citizen Science

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ISBN: 9783039210725 9783039210732 Year: Pages: 206 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-073-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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The book features contributions that report original research in the theoretical, technological, and social aspects of geoinformation methods, as applied to supporting citizen science. Specifically, the book focuses on the technological aspects of the field and their application toward the recruitment of volunteers and the collection, management, and analysis of geotagged information to support volunteer involvement in scientific projects. Internationally renowned research groups share research in three areas: First, the key methods of geoinformatics within citizen science initiatives to support scientists in discovering new knowledge in specific application domains or in performing relevant activities, such as reliable geodata filtering, management, analysis, synthesis, sharing, and visualization; second, the critical aspects of citizen science initiatives that call for emerging or novel approaches of geoinformatics to acquire and handle geoinformation; and third, novel geoinformatics research that could serve in support of citizen science.

Remote Sensing of Evapotranspiration (ET)

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ISBN: 9783039216024 9783039216031 Year: Pages: 240 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-603-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- Biotechnology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Evapotranspiration (ET) is a critical component of the water and energy balances, and the number of remote sensing-based ET products and estimation methods has increased in recent years. Various aspects of remote sensing of ET are reported in the 11 papers published in this book. The major research areas covered by this book include inter-comparison and performance evaluation of widely used one- and two-source energy balance models, a new dual-source model (Soil Plant Atmosphere and Remote Sensing Evapotranspiration, SPARSE), and a process-based model (ETMonitor); assessment of multi-source (e.g., remote sensing, reanalysis, and land surface model) ET products; development or improvement of data fusion frameworks to predict continuous daily ET at a high spatial resolution (field-scale or 30 m) by fusing the advanced spaceborne thermal emission reflectance radiometer (ASTER), the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS), and Landsat data; and investigating uncertainties in ET estimates using an ET ensemble composed of several land surface models and diagnostic datasets. The effects of the differences between ET products on water resources and ecosystem management were also investigated. More accurate ET estimates and improved understanding of remotely sensed ET products are crucial for maximizing crop productivity while minimizing water losses and management costs.

Internet and Mobile Phone Addiction. Health and Educational Effects

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ISBN: 9783038976042 Year: Pages: 328 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-605-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-03-21 15:50:41
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Internet use-related addiction problems (e.g., Internet addiction, problem mobile phone use, problem gaming, and social networking) have been defined according to the same core element: the addictive symptomatology presented by individuals who excessively and problematically behave using the technology. Online activity is the most important factor in their lives, causing them the loss of control by stress and difficulties in managing at least one aspect of their daily life, affecting users’ wellbeing and health. In 2018, Gaming Disorder was included as a mental disease in the 11th Revision of the International Classification of Diseases by the World Health Organization. In 2013, the American Psychiatric Association requested additional research on Internet Gaming Disorder. The papers contained in this e-Book provide unique and original perspectives on the concept, development, and early detection of the prevention of these health problems. They are diverse in the nature of the problems they deal with, methodologies, populations, cultures, and contain insights and a clear indication of the impact of individual, social, and environmental factors on Internet use-related addiction problems. The e-Book illustrates recent progress in the evolution of research, with great emphasis on gaming and smartphone problems, signaling areas in which research would be useful, even cross-culturally.

Keywords

commuting --- well-being --- personality --- gender --- stress --- Internet addiction --- Internet gaming disorder --- game device usage pattern --- smartphone --- comorbidity --- Internet gaming disorder --- IGD --- emotional regulation --- cognitive reappraisal --- suppression --- depression --- hostility --- internet gaming disorder --- Dickman Impulsivity Inventory-Short Version (DII) --- Brief Self-Control Scale (BSCS) --- Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) --- Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System (BIS/BAS) --- Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM-5) --- gambling --- video-game addiction --- screen addiction --- immersion --- problematic Internet use --- comorbidity --- cognitive distortion --- problematic smartphone use --- smartphone addiction --- social media --- approaches to learning --- deep approach to learning --- surface approach to learning --- smartphone --- problematic mobile phone use --- convergent design --- focus group --- survey --- internet gaming disorder --- impulsivity --- depression --- interpersonal relationships --- serial mediation --- Internet addiction --- mobile phone addiction --- online social network --- university students --- technological addictions --- behavioral addictions --- CERI --- CERM --- mobile phone dependence --- mobile phone use --- impulsivity --- China --- Internet addiction --- Internet-use disorder --- Internet literacy --- expectancies --- personality --- cultural differences --- pathological video-game use --- Internet Gaming Disorder --- comorbid psychopathology --- review --- Internet Use Disorder --- prevalence --- epidemiology --- adolescence --- latent profile analysis --- anxiety --- depression --- Internet addiction --- smartphone addiction --- propensity score --- Internet addiction --- coping strategies --- personality traits --- young people --- mobile phone use --- smartphone use --- Problematic Mobile Phone Use --- Problematic Mobile Phone Use Questionnaire --- psychometric testing --- measurement invariance --- time --- gaming disorder --- interpersonal relations --- self-efficacy --- self-control --- expectations --- fear of missing out (FOMO) --- social media --- problematic social media use (PSMU) --- phubbing --- teenagers --- adolescents --- addiction --- internet addiction --- mobile phone (or smartphone) use --- young children --- early childhood education --- parenting --- emergent bilinguals --- intergenerational language transmission --- behavioural addictions --- generalised versus specific problem Internet uses --- Internet addiction --- gaming disorder --- social networking --- mixed methods research

Extraintestinal Manifestations of Coeliac Disease

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038977988 9783038977995 Year: Pages: 270 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-799-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-25 16:37:17
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Coeliac Disease (CD) affects at least 1% of the population. &ldquo;Classical&rdquo; CD refers to gastrointestinal presentations with anaemia and gastrointestinal symptoms. CD can, however, present with extraintestinal manifestations, the commonest of which are dermatitis herpetiformis and neurological presentations (e.g., ataxia, neuropathy, encephalopathy). Recognition and research into the pathophysiology of such manifestations is likely to enhance our understanding of this complex autoimmune disorder.

Keywords

dermatitis herpetiformis --- coeliac disease --- fracture --- bone health --- quality of life --- Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) --- children and adults --- motor and vocal/phonic tics --- obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) --- non-coeliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) --- gluten-free diet --- one-year adherence --- dermatitis herpetiformis --- coeliac disease --- prevalence --- epidermal transglutaminase --- gluten-free diet --- long-term prognosis --- dermatitis herpetiformis --- coeliac disease --- gluten-free diet --- small bowel --- villous atrophy --- prognosis --- gluten neuropathy --- coeliac disease --- gluten free diet --- quality of life --- male --- extra-intestinal --- gastrointestinal --- celiac disease --- celiac disease --- dermatitis herpetiformis --- urticaria --- atopic dermatitis --- psoriasis --- recurrent aphtous ulceration --- rosacea --- alopecia areata --- cutaneous vasculitis --- gluten-free diet --- celiac disease --- glandular autoimmunity --- autoimmune thyroid disease --- type 1 diabetes --- polyglandular autoimmune syndrome --- coeliac disease --- osteoporosis --- fractures --- celiac disease --- non-celiac gluten sensitivity --- psychiatric disorders --- depression --- anxiety disorders --- eating disorders --- ADHD --- autism --- psychosis --- autoimmunity --- celiac hepatitis --- gut–liver axis --- liver immunity --- non-alcoholic fatty liver disease --- tolerance --- intestinal barrier --- celiac disease --- extraintestinal --- recognition --- diagnosis --- clinical presentation --- gluten-free diet --- prognosis --- movement disorders --- coeliac disease --- gluten --- gluten free diet --- celiac disease --- gluten --- gliadin --- autoantibody --- B cell --- T cell --- transglutaminase --- synapsin --- ganglioside --- gluten sensitivity --- gastrointestinal symptoms --- molecular mimicry --- intermolecular help --- biomarker --- autoimmune pancreatitis --- coeliac disease --- pancreatic disorders --- screening --- Gluten ataxia --- antigliadin antibodies --- coeliac disease --- MR spectroscopy --- gluten sensitive enteropathy --- antigliadin antibody titre --- gluten sensitivity --- coeliac disease --- gluten free diet --- migraine --- headache --- fatigue --- energy --- celiac disease --- extra-intestinal manifestations --- gluten --- latent celiac disease --- potential celiac disease --- extra-intestinal manifestations --- mild enteropathy --- early developing celiac disease --- genetic gluten intolerance --- natural history --- celiac trait --- celiac disease --- gluten neuropathy --- gluten ataxia --- prevalence --- incidence --- gluten-free diet

Innovation Issues in Water, Agriculture and Food

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039211654 9783039211661 Year: Pages: 406 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-166-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Agriculture (General) --- Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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In a worldwide context of ever-growing competition for water and land, climate change, droughts and man-made water scarcity, and less-participatory water governance, agriculture faces the great challenge of producing enough food for a continually increasing population. In this line, this book provides a broad overview of innovation issues in the complex water–agriculture–food nexus, thus also relative to their interconnections and dependences. Issues refer to different spatial scales, from the field or the farm to the irrigation system or the river basin. Multidisciplinary approaches are used when analyzing the relationships between water, agriculture, and food security. The covered issues are quite diverse and include: innovation in crop evapotranspiration, crop coefficients and modeling; updates in research relative to crop water use and saving; irrigation scheduling and systems design; simulation models to support water and agricultural decisions; issues to cope with water scarcity and climate change; advances in water resource quality and sustainable uses; new tools for mapping and use of remote sensing information; and fostering a participative and inclusive governance of water for food security and population welfare. This book brings together a variety of contributions by leading international experts, professionals, and scholars in those diverse fields. It represents a major synthesis and state-of-the-art on various subjects, thus providing a valuable and updated resource for all researchers, professionals, policymakers, and post-graduate students interested in the complex world of the water–agriculture–food nexus.

Keywords

drought classes --- Standardized Precipitation and Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) --- Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) --- North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) --- log-linear modeling --- persistence --- surface irrigation modelling --- precise land levelling --- irrigation systems design --- beneficial water use --- decision support systems (DSS) --- inflow rates --- cut-off time --- crop water requirements --- latent heat flux --- remote sensing --- olive orchard --- spatial variability --- agriculture --- impact --- measures --- nitrogen --- Sensitive Zones --- Tagus River Basin --- Vulnerable Zones --- basal crop coefficients --- crop coefficient curves --- crop transpiration --- Kcb from ground cover --- SIMDualKc model --- soil evaporation --- soil moisture --- soil temperature --- soil nutrient --- crop yield --- Corn --- Black soil --- deficit irrigation --- Fiesta grapes --- drip irrigation --- dried on the vine --- sustained deficit irrigation --- regulated deficit irrigation --- water–energy–food nexus --- policy-making --- stakeholder engagement --- fuzzy cognitive maps --- Spain --- Andalusia --- calibration --- irrigation district --- evapotranspiration --- crop growth --- validation --- Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. --- crop transpiration --- soil evaporation --- drip and basin irrigation --- deficit irrigation --- reform --- Participatory Irrigation Management --- Transfer --- water users association --- biomass --- crop transpiration --- direct forcing --- leaf area index --- soil evaporation --- soil temperature --- soil water storage depletion --- root growth --- maize yield --- semi-arid region --- actual evapotranspiration --- Pampa biome --- eddy covariance --- evaporative fraction --- hysteresis loops --- dry drainage system --- water and salt balance --- groundwater --- evaporation --- salinity --- irrigation scheduling --- wheat --- soil water balance --- new technologies --- smartphone application --- reference evapotranspiration --- local advection --- aridity effects --- satellite observations --- Evapotranspiration --- Irrigation --- Density coefficient --- Dual crop coefficients --- Row crops --- water and land management --- water users’ organization --- water balance --- supply–demand balance model --- organizational analysis --- participatory management --- pressurized irrigation systems --- on-demand operation --- perturbation --- unsteady flow --- hydrant risk indicator --- relative pressure exceedance --- agricultural intensification --- DPSIR --- nitrogen --- pressures --- policies --- surface water pollution --- water-agriculture-food nexus --- crop water use and evapotranspiration --- irrigation scheduling --- design of irrigation systems --- simulation models --- droughts --- irrigation water governance --- economic and environmental issues

Long-Term Health Effects of the 9/11 Disaster

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039218127 9783039218134 Year: Pages: 298 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-813-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Philosophy
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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The terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center towers on September 11, 2001, also referred as 9/11, was an iconic event in US history that altered the global and political response to terrorism. The attacks, which involved two planes hitting the twin towers in Lower Manhattan, New York City, resulted in the collapse of the buildings and over 2800 deaths of occupants of the buildings, fire, police and other responders and persons on the street in the vicinity of the collapsing buildings. The destroyed towers and the surrounding buildings have since been replaced but the health effects that resulted from the release of tons of dust, gases and debris as well as the life threat trauma are ongoing, and represent a major health burden among persons directly exposed. Hundreds of scientific publications have documented the physical and mental health effects attributed to the disaster. The current state-of-the-art in understanding the ongoing interactions of physical and mental health, especially PTSD, and the unique mechanisms by which pollutants from the building collapse, have resulted in long term pulmonary dysfunction, course of previously reported conditions, potential emerging conditions (e.g., heart disease and autoimmune diseases), as well as quality of life, functioning and unmet health care needs would be in the purview of this Special Issue on the 9/11 Disaster.

Keywords

counseling --- post-disaster --- psychotherapy --- mental health treatment --- treatment utilization --- World Trade Center --- indoor allergens sensitization --- asthma quality of life --- asthma control --- asthma outcomes --- mini asthma quality of life questionnaire --- asthma morbidity --- WTC-related asthma --- immunoglobulin E --- allergen exposure --- WTC attack --- respiratory symptoms --- lower Manhattan residents --- cleaning practices --- WTC --- fibrotic sarcoid --- injury --- inflammation --- fibrosis --- World Trade Center disaster --- pulmonary fibrosis --- dust --- injury --- physical health --- mental health --- World Trade Center disaster --- Short Form-12 (SF-12) --- HQoL --- 9/11 --- 9/11 disaster --- handgrip strength --- WTC responders --- PTSD --- depression --- aging --- 9/11 impact --- retirement --- chronic disease --- PTSD --- disaster --- income loss --- PTSD symptom change --- PCL score --- longitudinal analysis --- PTSD cluster --- WTC survivors --- 9/11 disaster --- obstructive sleep apnea --- comorbid insomnia --- sleep-related quality of life --- chronic sinusitis --- sleepiness --- WTC responders --- thyroid cancer --- 9/11 disaster --- World Trade Center --- surveillance bias --- sarcoidosis --- World Trade Center (WTC) --- Scadding stage --- lung function --- severe lung disease --- extrathoracic sarcoidosis --- cardiac sarcoidosis --- unmet mental health care needs --- Asian Americans --- World Trade Center attack --- disaster --- mental health conditions --- mental health service use --- health insurance --- social support --- stressful life events --- cognitive reserve --- cognitive decline --- latent class analysis --- disaster epidemiology --- PTSD --- airway physiology --- dust --- environmental health --- forced oscillation --- respiratory function --- small airway disease --- paresthesia --- neuropathic symptoms --- Cox regression --- hazard function --- World Trade Center exposure --- metabolic syndrome --- airway hyperreactivity --- World Trade Center --- disaster mental health --- evidence-based treatment --- mental health service utilization --- quality improvement --- 9/11 --- screening --- thyroid cancer --- biomarkers --- medical imaging --- pulmonary function tests --- lung injury --- occupational exposure --- epidemiological studies --- peripheral neuropathy --- prevalence --- World Trade Center --- rescue/recovery workers --- occupational exposure --- sarcoidosis --- World Trade Center --- 9/11 --- genetics --- firefighters --- FDNY --- 9/11 disaster --- asthma --- trigger(s) --- air pollution --- irritant(s) --- health-related quality of life --- n/a

Advances in Quantitative Remote Sensing in China – In Memory of Prof. Xiaowen Li

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783038972709 Year: Volume: 1 Pages: 404 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-271-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Geography
Added to DOAB on : 2019-03-08 11:42:05
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Quantitative land remote sensing has recently advanced dramatically, particularly in China. It has been largely driven by vast governmental investment, the availability of a huge amount of Chinese satellite data, geospatial information requirements for addressing pressing environmental issues and other societal benefits. Many individuals have also fostered and made great contributions to its development, and Prof. Xiaowen Li was one of these leading figures. This book is published in memory of Prof. Li. The papers collected in this book cover topics from surface reflectance simulation, inversion algorithm and estimation of variables, to applications in optical, thermal, Lidar and microwave remote sensing. The wide range of variables include directional reflectance, chlorophyll fluorescence, aerosol optical depth, incident solar radiation, albedo, surface temperature, upward longwave radiation, leaf area index, fractional vegetation cover, forest biomass, precipitation, evapotranspiration, freeze/thaw snow cover, vegetation productivity, phenology and biodiversity indicators. They clearly reflect the current level of research in this area. This book constitutes an excellent reference suitable for upper-level undergraduate students, graduate students and professionals in remote sensing.

Keywords

evapotranspiration --- Northeast China --- MS–PT algorithm --- spatial-temporal variations --- controlling factors --- potential evapotranspiration --- vegetation remote sensing --- reflectance model --- spectra --- leaf --- copper --- PROSPECT --- leaf area density --- terrestrial LiDAR --- tree canopy --- vertical structure --- voxel --- spatial representativeness --- heterogeneity --- validation --- land-surface temperature products (LSTs) --- observations --- HiWATER --- remote sensing --- spatiotemporal representative --- cost-efficient, sampling design --- heterogeneity --- validation --- FY-3C/MERSI --- GLASS --- Land surface temperature --- Land surface emissivity --- GPP --- SIF --- MuSyQ-GPP algorithm --- BEPS --- vegetation phenology --- Tibetan Plateau --- MODIS --- NDVI --- start of growing season (SOS) --- end of growing season (EOS) --- GLASS LAI time series --- forest disturbance --- disturbance index --- latent heat --- machine learning algorithms --- plant functional type --- high-resolution freeze/thaw --- AMSR2 --- MODIS --- LAI --- ZY-3 MUX --- GF-1 WFV --- HJ-1 CCD --- maize --- PROSPECT-5B+SAILH (PROSAIL) model --- spatial heterogeneity --- variability --- evapotranspiration --- land surface variables --- probability density function --- HiWATER --- spectral --- albedometer --- interference filter --- photoelectric detector --- validation --- land surface albedo --- multi-scale validation --- rugged terrain --- MRT-based model --- MCD43A3 C6 --- precipitation --- statistics methods --- China --- Tibetan Plateau --- South China’s --- drought --- SPI --- TMI data --- crop-growing regions --- downward shortwave radiation --- machine learning --- gradient boosting regression tree --- AVHRR --- CMA --- BRDF --- aerosol --- MODIS --- sunphotometer --- arid/semiarid --- solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence --- fluorescence quantum efficiency in dark-adapted conditions (FQE) --- SCOPE --- Fraunhofer Line Discrimination (FLD) --- gross primary productivity (GPP) --- longwave upwelling radiation (LWUP) --- Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) --- surface radiation budget --- hybrid method --- remote sensing --- leaf age --- leaf spectral properties --- leaf area index --- Cunninghamia --- Chinese fir --- canopy reflectance --- NIR --- EVI2 --- geometric optical radiative transfer (GORT) model --- land surface albedo --- snow-free albedo --- rugged terrain --- topographic effects --- black-sky albedo (BSA) --- GPP --- NPP --- MODIS --- validation --- phenology --- RADARSAT-2 --- rice --- Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) --- decision tree --- forest canopy height --- aboveground biomass --- ICESat GLAS --- Landsat --- random forest model --- anisotropic reflectance --- BRDF --- rugged terrain --- solo slope --- composite slope --- surface solar irradiance --- geostationary satellite --- polar orbiting satellite --- LUT method --- SURFRAD --- downward shortwave radiation --- daily average value --- Antarctica --- sinusoidal method --- cloud fraction --- interpolation --- boreal forest --- GPP --- spatiotemporal distribution and variation --- meteorological factors --- phenological parameters --- multisource data fusion --- aerosol retrieval --- urban scale --- vegetation dust-retention --- multiple ecological factors --- geographical detector model --- snow cover --- passive microwave --- FY-3C/MWRI --- algorithmic assessment --- China --- land surface temperature --- satellite observations --- flux measurements --- latitudinal pattern --- land cover change --- fractional vegetation cover (FVC) --- multi-data set --- northern China --- spatio-temporal --- inter-annual variation --- uncertainty --- standard error of the mean --- downscaling --- GPP --- spatial heterogeneity --- remote sensing --- subpixel information --- LiDAR --- point cloud --- leaf --- gap fraction --- 3D reconstruction --- biodiversity --- remote sensing --- species richness --- metric comparison --- metric integration --- leaf area index --- MODIS products --- Landsat --- high resolution --- homogeneous and pure pixel filter --- pixel unmixing --- vertical vegetation stratification --- gross primary production (GPP) --- light use efficiency --- dense forest --- MODIS --- VPM --- temperature profiles --- humidity profiles --- n/a --- geometric-optical model --- thermal radiation directionality --- quantitative remote sensing inversion --- scale effects --- comprehensive field experiment

Advances in Quantitative Remote Sensing in China – In Memory of Prof. Xiaowen Li

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783038972761 Year: Volume: 2 Pages: 404 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-277-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Geography
Added to DOAB on : 2019-03-08 11:42:05
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Abstract

Quantitative land remote sensing has recently advanced dramatically, particularly in China. It has been largely driven by vast governmental investment, the availability of a huge amount of Chinese satellite data, geospatial information requirements for addressing pressing environmental issues and other societal benefits. Many individuals have also fostered and made great contributions to its development, and Prof. Xiaowen Li was one of these leading figures. This book is published in memory of Prof. Li. The papers collected in this book cover topics from surface reflectance simulation, inversion algorithm and estimation of variables, to applications in optical, thermal, Lidar and microwave remote sensing. The wide range of variables include directional reflectance, chlorophyll fluorescence, aerosol optical depth, incident solar radiation, albedo, surface temperature, upward longwave radiation, leaf area index, fractional vegetation cover, forest biomass, precipitation, evapotranspiration, freeze/thaw snow cover, vegetation productivity, phenology and biodiversity indicators. They clearly reflect the current level of research in this area. This book constitutes an excellent reference suitable for upper-level undergraduate students, graduate students and professionals in remote sensing.

Keywords

evapotranspiration --- Northeast China --- MS–PT algorithm --- spatial-temporal variations --- controlling factors --- potential evapotranspiration --- vegetation remote sensing --- reflectance model --- spectra --- leaf --- copper --- PROSPECT --- leaf area density --- terrestrial LiDAR --- tree canopy --- vertical structure --- voxel --- spatial representativeness --- heterogeneity --- validation --- land-surface temperature products (LSTs) --- observations --- HiWATER --- remote sensing --- spatiotemporal representative --- cost-efficient, sampling design --- heterogeneity --- validation --- FY-3C/MERSI --- GLASS --- Land surface temperature --- Land surface emissivity --- GPP --- SIF --- MuSyQ-GPP algorithm --- BEPS --- vegetation phenology --- Tibetan Plateau --- MODIS --- NDVI --- start of growing season (SOS) --- end of growing season (EOS) --- GLASS LAI time series --- forest disturbance --- disturbance index --- latent heat --- machine learning algorithms --- plant functional type --- high-resolution freeze/thaw --- AMSR2 --- MODIS --- LAI --- ZY-3 MUX --- GF-1 WFV --- HJ-1 CCD --- maize --- PROSPECT-5B+SAILH (PROSAIL) model --- spatial heterogeneity --- variability --- evapotranspiration --- land surface variables --- probability density function --- HiWATER --- spectral --- albedometer --- interference filter --- photoelectric detector --- validation --- land surface albedo --- multi-scale validation --- rugged terrain --- MRT-based model --- MCD43A3 C6 --- precipitation --- statistics methods --- China --- Tibetan Plateau --- South China’s --- drought --- SPI --- TMI data --- crop-growing regions --- downward shortwave radiation --- machine learning --- gradient boosting regression tree --- AVHRR --- CMA --- BRDF --- aerosol --- MODIS --- sunphotometer --- arid/semiarid --- solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence --- fluorescence quantum efficiency in dark-adapted conditions (FQE) --- SCOPE --- Fraunhofer Line Discrimination (FLD) --- gross primary productivity (GPP) --- longwave upwelling radiation (LWUP) --- Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) --- surface radiation budget --- hybrid method --- remote sensing --- leaf age --- leaf spectral properties --- leaf area index --- Cunninghamia --- Chinese fir --- canopy reflectance --- NIR --- EVI2 --- geometric optical radiative transfer (GORT) model --- land surface albedo --- snow-free albedo --- rugged terrain --- topographic effects --- black-sky albedo (BSA) --- GPP --- NPP --- MODIS --- validation --- phenology --- RADARSAT-2 --- rice --- Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) --- decision tree --- forest canopy height --- aboveground biomass --- ICESat GLAS --- Landsat --- random forest model --- anisotropic reflectance --- BRDF --- rugged terrain --- solo slope --- composite slope --- surface solar irradiance --- geostationary satellite --- polar orbiting satellite --- LUT method --- SURFRAD --- downward shortwave radiation --- daily average value --- Antarctica --- sinusoidal method --- cloud fraction --- interpolation --- boreal forest --- GPP --- spatiotemporal distribution and variation --- meteorological factors --- phenological parameters --- multisource data fusion --- aerosol retrieval --- urban scale --- vegetation dust-retention --- multiple ecological factors --- geographical detector model --- snow cover --- passive microwave --- FY-3C/MWRI --- algorithmic assessment --- China --- land surface temperature --- satellite observations --- flux measurements --- latitudinal pattern --- land cover change --- fractional vegetation cover (FVC) --- multi-data set --- northern China --- spatio-temporal --- inter-annual variation --- uncertainty --- standard error of the mean --- downscaling --- GPP --- spatial heterogeneity --- remote sensing --- subpixel information --- LiDAR --- point cloud --- leaf --- gap fraction --- 3D reconstruction --- biodiversity --- remote sensing --- species richness --- metric comparison --- metric integration --- leaf area index --- MODIS products --- Landsat --- high resolution --- homogeneous and pure pixel filter --- pixel unmixing --- vertical vegetation stratification --- gross primary production (GPP) --- light use efficiency --- dense forest --- MODIS --- VPM --- temperature profiles --- humidity profiles --- n/a --- geometric-optical model --- thermal radiation directionality --- quantitative remote sensing inversion --- scale effects --- comprehensive field experiment

Additive Manufacturing: Alloy Design and Process Innovations

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039283521 / 9783039283538 Year: Pages: 372 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-353-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Abstract

Additive manufacturing (AM) is one of the manufacturing processes that warrants the attention of industrialists, researchers and scientists, because of its ability to produce materials with a complex shape without theoretical restrictions and with added functionalities. There are several advantages to employing additive manufacturing as the primary additive manufacturing process. However, there exist several challenges that need to be addressed systematically. A couple such issues are alloy design and process development. Traditionally alloys designed for conventional cast/powder metallurgical processes were fabricated using advanced AM processes. This is the wrong approach considering that the alloys should be coined based on the process characteristics and meta-stable nature of the process. Hence, we must focus on alloy design and development for AM that suits the AM processes. The AM processes, however, improve almost every day, either in terms of processing capabilities or processing conditions. Hence, the processing part warrants a section that is devoted to these advancements and innovations. Accordingly, the present Special Issue (book) focuses on two aspects of alloy development and process innovations. Here, 45 articles are presented covering different AM processes including selective laser melting, electron beam melting, laser cladding, direct metal laser sintering, ultrasonic consolidation, wire arc additive manufacturing, and hybrid manufacturing. I believe that this Special Issue bears is vital to the field of AM and will be a valuable addition.

Keywords

concrete --- slag --- valorization --- cement --- circular economy --- wire feeding additive manufacturing --- wire lateral feeding --- macro defects --- side spatters --- selective laser melting --- numerical analysis --- thermal behaviour --- AlSi10Mg alloy --- design --- disc brake --- 3D metal printing --- direct metal laser sintering --- thermal stress analysis --- radial grooves --- nickel alloys --- Hastelloy X alloy --- additive manufacturing --- microstructure --- scanning electron microscopy (SEM) --- laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) --- selective laser melting --- titanium alloy --- heat treatment --- microstructure --- microhardness measurement --- arc additive manufacturing --- Al–5Si alloy --- pulse frequency --- arc current --- microstructure --- porosity --- 2219 aluminum alloy --- constitutive model --- microstructural evolution --- continuous dynamic recrystallization --- hot deformation --- selective laser melting --- amorphous alloy --- finite element analysis --- residual stress --- 2219 aluminum alloy --- intermediate thermo-mechanical treatment --- storage energy --- CuAl2 phase --- grain refinement --- selective laser melting --- GH4169 --- temperature and stress fields --- simulation --- model --- selective laser melting --- divisional scanning --- residual stress --- deformation --- thermal conductivity --- tensile strength --- inoculation --- gray cast iron --- additive manufacturing --- selective laser melting --- AlSi10Mg --- Al6061 --- SLM process parameters --- performance characteristics --- AlSi10Mg --- multi-laser manufacturing --- selective laser melting --- microstructure --- mechanical property --- additive manufacturing --- metal powders --- powder flowability --- powder properties --- aluminum --- water absorption --- laser cladding deposition --- 12CrNi2 alloy steel powder --- substrate preheating --- microstructure and properties --- residual stress --- ultrafast laser --- femtosecond --- ablation --- scanning --- additive surface structuring --- hydrophobicity --- parts design --- additive manufacturing --- fused filament fabrication --- fatigue --- Taguchi --- ABS --- additive manufacturing --- selective laser melting --- AlSi10Mg --- Al6061 --- SLM process parameters --- quality of the as-built parts --- aluminum alloys --- selective laser melting (SLM) --- mechanical properties --- selective laser melting --- H13 tool steel --- process parameters --- scanning strategy --- support strategy --- porosity reduction --- selective laser melting --- Ti6Al4V alloy --- martensitic transformation --- texture evolution --- mechanical properties --- M300 mold steel --- elastic abrasive --- PSO-BP neural network algorithm --- parameter optimization --- WxNbMoTa --- refractory high-entropy alloy --- laser cladding deposition --- rapid solidification --- bulk metallic glasses --- selective laser melting --- Cu50Zr43Al7 --- mechanical properties --- Ti-6Al-4V --- wear --- additive manufacturing --- properties --- in-process temperature in MPBAM --- analytical modeling --- high computational efficiency --- molten pool evolution --- laser power absorption --- latent heat --- scanning strategy --- powder packing --- graphene nano-sheets (GNSs) --- epoxy solder --- intermetallic compound (IMC) --- laser powder bed fusion --- additive manufacturing --- aluminum --- composition --- mechanical properties --- localized inductive heating --- hot stamping steel blanks --- tailored properties --- magnetizer --- selective laser melting --- AlSi10Mg alloy --- dynamic properties --- impact --- crystallographic texture --- Additive manufacturing --- selective laser melting --- volumetric heat source --- thermal capillary effects --- melt pool size --- selective laser melting --- Inconel 718 --- crystallographic texture --- subgranular dendrites --- epitaxial growth --- 3D printing --- continuous carbon fiber --- thermosetting epoxy resin --- mechanical properties --- Powder bed --- fatigue --- Hot Isostatic Pressure --- Electron Beam Melting --- stability lobe diagram --- milling --- process-damping --- dynamic characteristics --- thin-walled weak rigidity parts --- Al–Si --- selective laser melting (SLM) --- microstructure --- mechanical properties --- selective laser melting --- microstructure --- defects --- Inconel 718 --- laser energy density --- selective laser melting --- molten pool dynamic behavior --- equivalent processing model --- workpiece scale --- nickel-based superalloy --- numerical simulation --- metallic glasses --- composite materials --- interfaces --- additive manufacturing --- ultrasonic bonding --- 3D printing --- Al–Mg–Si alloy --- quenching rate --- microstructures --- mechanical properties --- paint bake-hardening --- precipitates --- additive manufacturing --- powder bed fusion --- selective laser melting --- regular mixing --- ball milling --- flowability --- Ti-6Al-4V --- microstructure --- element segregation --- laves phase --- vanadium --- laser cladding --- arc additive manufacture --- Al–Mg alloy --- Mg content --- microstructure --- mechanical properties --- n/a

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