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Safety, Quality and Processing of Fruits and Vegetables

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ISBN: 9783039288298 / 9783039288304 Year: Pages: 216 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-830-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Nowadays, one of the main objectives of the fruit and vegetable industry is to develop innovative novel products with high quality, safety, and optimal nutritional characteristics in order to respond, with efficiency, to increasing consumer expectations. Various unconventional technologies (e.g., pulsed electric field, pulsed light, ultrasound, high pressure, and microwave drying) have emerged and enable the processing of fruits and vegetables in a way that increases their stability while preserving their thermolabile nutrients, flavour, texture, and overall quality. Some of these technologies can also be used for waste and byproduct valorisation. The application of fast noninvasive methods for process control is of great importance for the fruit and vegetable industry. The following Special Issue “Safety, Quality, and Processing of Fruits and Vegetables” consists of 11 papers which represent a high-value contribution to the existing knowledge on safety aspects, quality evaluation, and emerging processing technologies for fruits and vegetables.

Biomass Chars: Elaboration, Characterization and Applications ?

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ISBN: 9783039216628 9783039216635 Year: Pages: 342 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-663-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Agriculture (General) --- Biology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Biomass can be converted to energy, biofuels, and bioproducts via thermochemical conversion processes, such as combustion, pyrolysis, and gasification. Combustion technology is most widely applied on an industrial scale. However, biomass gasification and pyrolysis processes are still in the research and development stage. The major products from these processes are syngas, bio-oil, and char (called also biochar for agronomic application). Among these products, biomass chars have received increasing attention for different applications, such as gasification, co-combustion, catalysts or adsorbents precursors, soil amendment, carbon fuel cells, and supercapacitors. This Special Issue provides an overview of biomass char production methods (pyrolysis, hydrothermal carbonization, etc.), characterization techniques (e.g., scanning electronic microscopy, X-ray fluorescence, nitrogen adsorption, Raman spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and temperature programmed desorption and mass spectrometry), their properties, and their suitable recovery processes.

Keywords

biomass production --- multicriteria model --- ELECTRE III --- combustion --- oxygen enrichment --- low-rank coal char --- char oxidation --- reaction kinetics --- salty food waste --- FT-IR --- pyrolysis --- biochar --- NaCl --- hydrothermal carbonization --- anaerobic digestion --- poultry slaughterhouse --- sludge cake --- energy recovery efficiency --- gasification --- kinetic model --- active site --- chemisorption --- hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) --- Chinese reed --- biocrude --- biochar --- high heating value (HHV) --- biochar --- steam --- gasification --- chemical speciation --- AAEMs --- underground coal gasification --- ash layer --- effective diffusion coefficient --- internal diffusion resistance --- pyrolysis --- hydrothermal carbonization --- biochar engineering --- porosity --- nutrients --- polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) --- nitrogen --- biomass --- amino acid --- pyrrole --- NOx --- pyrolysis --- grape marc --- kinetic models --- characterization --- pyrolysis --- Texaco pilot plant --- reactor modelling --- ash fusion temperature (AFT) --- melting phenomenon --- food waste compost --- sawdust --- pyrolysis --- biochar --- thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) --- calorific value --- biogas purification --- coconut shells --- biomass valorization --- textural characterization --- adsorption isotherms --- breakthrough curves --- olive mill solid wastes (OMSWs) --- fixed bed combustor --- pellets --- combustion parameters --- gaseous emissions --- waste wood --- interactions --- interferences --- partial combustion reaction in gasification --- Boudouard reaction in gasification --- MTDATA --- biomass --- steam gasification --- kinetics --- pyrolysis conditions --- thermogravimetric analysis --- characteristic time analysis --- biomass --- combustion --- thermogravimetric analysis --- kinetic parameters --- thermal characteristics --- food waste --- food-waste biochar --- pyrolysis --- NaCl template --- desalination --- biochar --- ash from biomass --- giant miscanthus --- fertilisation --- CO2 adsorption --- CH4 adsorption --- biomass --- activated carbon --- n/a

Symmetry and Fluid Mechanics

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ISBN: 9783039284269 9783039284276 Year: Pages: 446 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-427-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
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Since the 1980s, attention has increased in the research of fluid mechanics due to its wide application in industry and phycology. Major advances have occurred in the modeling of key topics such Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids, nanoparticles, thermal management, and physiological fluid phenomena in biological systems, which have been published in this Special Issue on symmetry and fluid mechanics for Symmetry. Although, this book is not a formal textbook, it will be useful for university teachers, research students, and industrial researchers and for overcoming the difficulties that occur when considering the nonlinear governing equations. For such types of equations, obtaining an analytic or even a numerical solution is often more difficult. This book addresses this challenging job by outlining the latest techniques. In addition, the findings of the simulation are logically realistic and meet the standard of sufficient scientific value.

Keywords

stagnation point flow --- numerical solution --- magnetic field --- nanofuid --- unsteady rotating flow --- porous medium --- aqueous suspensions of CNT’s --- nonlinear thermal radiation --- viscous dissipation effect --- HAM --- chemical reaction --- activation energy --- peristalsis --- couple stress fluid --- nanoparticle --- Keller-box method --- Newtonian heating --- nonlinear thermal radiation --- nonlinear stretching cylinder --- homogeneous/heterogeneous reactions --- nanofluid --- steady laminar flow --- nanofluid --- heat source/sink --- magnetic field --- stretching sheet --- SWCNT/MWCNT nanofluid --- thin needle --- classical and fractional order problems --- APCM technique --- SWCNTs --- MWCNTs --- stretched surface --- rotating system --- nanofluid --- MHD --- thermal radiation --- HAM --- nonlinear hydroelastic waves --- uniform current --- thin elastic plate --- solitary waves --- PLK method --- Permeable walls --- suction/injection --- nanofluids --- porous medium --- mixed convection --- magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) --- dual solution --- stability analysis --- Darcy Forchheimer model --- nanofluid --- exponential sheet --- Jeffrey fluid --- laminar g-Jitter flow --- inclined stretching sheet --- heat source/sink --- Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) --- Jefferey, Maxwell and Oldroyd-B fluids --- Cattaneo–Christov heat flux --- homogeneous–heterogeneous reactions --- analytical technique --- Numerical technique --- viscous fluid --- Caputo–Fabrizio time-fractional derivative --- Laplace and Fourier transformations --- side walls --- oscillating shear stress --- forced convection --- microducts --- Knudsen number --- Nusselt number --- artificial neural networks --- particle swarm optimization --- Casson fluid --- chemical reaction --- cylinder --- heat generation --- magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) --- slip --- Carreau fluid --- Cattaneo–Christov heat flux model --- convective heat boundary condition --- temperature dependent thermal conductivity --- homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions --- integer and non-integer order derivatives --- GO-W/GO-EG nanofluids --- Marangoni convection --- FDE-12 numerical method --- couple stress fluid --- Hafnium particles --- Couette–Poiseuille flow --- shooting method --- magnetic field --- Darcy–Brinkman porous medium --- viscous dissipation --- slip conditions --- porous dissipation --- permeable sheet --- stretchable rotating disk --- CNTs (MWCNTs and SWCNTs) --- velocity slip --- convective boundary condition --- OHAM --- Casson fluid model --- rotating rigid disk --- nanoparticles --- Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) --- Oil/MWCNT nanofluid --- heat transfer --- finite volume method --- laminar flow --- slip coefficient --- microchannel --- arched surface --- nonlinear thermal radiation --- molecular diameter --- Al2O3 nanoparticles --- streamlines --- isotherms --- RK scheme --- peristaltic transport --- tapered channel --- porous medium --- smart pumping for hemodialysis --- thermal radiation --- compressible viscous flow --- symmetric linear equations --- generalized finite difference scheme --- kernel gradient free --- Lagrangian approach --- Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids --- nanofluids and particle shape effects --- convective heat and mass transfer --- steady and unsteady flow problems --- multiphase flow simulations --- fractional order differential equations --- thermodynamics --- physiological fluid phenomena in biological systems

Development of Unconventional Reservoirs

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ISBN: 9783039285808 / 9783039285815 Year: Pages: 522 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-581-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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The need for energy is increasing and but the production from conventional reservoirs is declining quickly. This requires an economically and technically feasible source of energy for the coming years. Among some alternative future energy solutions, the most reasonable source is from unconventional reservoirs. As the name “unconventional” implies, different and challenging approaches are required to characterize and develop these resources. This Special Issue covers some of the technical challenges for developing unconventional energy sources from shale gas/oil, tight gas sand, and coalbed methane.

Keywords

CO2 huff-n-puff --- condensate recovery --- shale gas condensate reservoir --- fractured tight reservoir --- stress-dependent permeability --- fracture penetration extent --- theoretical model --- shale gas --- multi-stage fracturing horizontal wells --- well interference --- transient pressure --- numerical analysis --- shale gas --- methane adsorption capacity --- Langmuir volume --- Langmuir pressure --- total organic carbon --- clay content --- coal rank --- petrophysical properties --- coalbed methane --- adsorption capacity --- Niutitang formation --- TOC recovery --- organic pores --- porosity --- pore structure --- unconventional reservoirs --- gravel pack --- sand control --- gradation optimization --- visual experiment --- coal measure gases (coalbed gas --- shale gas --- and tight sand gas) --- co-exploitation --- wellbore stability --- wettability --- zeta potential --- drilling fluid --- adsorption and desorption isotherms --- sorption hysteresis --- medium volatile bituminous coal --- equation of state --- NIST-Refprop --- gas compressibility factors --- original gas in-place --- gas shale --- NMR --- helium porosimetry --- clay bound water --- porosity --- pore size distribution --- low-pressure gas adsorption --- MICP --- tight gas reservoirs --- Klinkenberg slippage theory --- high pressure and low flowrate --- gas permeability measurement --- adsorption --- unconventional reservoirs --- pulse decay test --- unsteady state non-equilibrium sorption --- pseudo-steady-state non-equilibrium sorption --- equilibrium sorption --- capillary number --- initial water saturation --- capillary trapping --- residual gas distribution --- nuclear magnetic resonance --- ultra-deep well --- shock loads --- perforated string --- safety analysis --- optimization measures --- convolutional neural network --- well testing --- tight reservoirs --- pressure derivative --- automatic classification --- air flooding --- catalyst-activated low temperature oxidation --- oxidation reaction pathway --- catalytic oxidation characteristics --- Changqing tight oil --- organic-rich shale --- gas adsorption and desorption --- sorption hysteresis --- Langmuir model --- compositional 3D --- dual-porosity system --- total organic carbon (TOC) --- Computer Modelling Group (CMG) --- GEM® --- coalbed methane --- gas content --- diffusion coefficient --- reservoir simulation --- deepwater well --- perforation safety --- peak pressure --- numerical model --- orthogonal test --- limestone and calcareous mudstone interbedding --- gas content --- source-mixed gas --- fractures --- northern Guizhou --- water imbibition --- oil migration --- tight oil reservoirs --- nuclear magnetic resonance --- semi-analytical model --- reorientation fractures --- horizontal well --- tight reservoir --- flow behavior --- tight gas sand --- unconventional --- porosity–permeability --- hydraulic flow units --- electrical resistivity --- NMR --- micro-CT image --- petrophysics --- petrography --- carbon dioxide sequestration --- caprock integrity --- shale alteration --- rock-water-CO2 interaction --- lab tests under reservoir condition --- fractured-vuggy reservoirs --- physical model --- water flooding effect --- injection and production pattern --- gravity differentiation --- flow channel

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