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Small Scale Deformation using Advanced Nanoindentation Techniques

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ISBN: 9783038979661 / 9783038979678 Year: Pages: 168 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-967-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Small scale mechanical deformations have gained a significant interest over the past few decades, driven by the advances in integrated circuits and microelectromechanical systems. One of the most powerful and versatile characterization methods is the nanoindentation technique. The capabilities of these depth-sensing instruments have been improved considerably. They can perform experiments in vacuum and at high temperatures, such as in-situ SEM and TEM nanoindenters. This allows researchers to visualize mechanical deformations and dislocations motion in real time. Time-dependent behavior of soft materials has also been studied in recent research works. This Special Issue on ""Small Scale Deformation using Advanced Nanoindentation Techniques""; will provide a forum for researchers from the academic and industrial communities to present advances in the field of small scale contact mechanics. Materials of interest include metals, glass, and ceramics. Manuscripts related to deformations of biomaterials and biological related specimens are also welcome. Topics of interest include, but are not limited to:

Nanostructure Based Sensors for Gas Sensing: from Devices to Systems

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ISBN: 9783039216369 / 9783039216376 Year: Pages: 86 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-637-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 16:10:12
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The development of solid state gas sensors based on microtransducers and nanostructured sensing materials is the key point in the design of portable measurement systems able to reach sensing and identification performance comparable with analytical ones. In such a context several efforts must be spent of course in the development of the sensing material, but also in the choice of the transducer mechanism and its structure, in the electrical characterization of the performance and in the design of suitable measurement setups. This call for papers invites researchers worldwide to report about their novel results on the most recent advances and overview in design and measurements for applications in gas sensors, along with their relevant features and technological aspects. Original research papers are welcome (but not limited) on all aspects that focus on the most recent advances in: (i) basic principles and modeling of gas and VOCs sensors; (ii) new gas sensor principles and technologies; (iii) Characterization and measurements methodologies; (iv) transduction and sampling systems; (vi) package optimization; (vi) gas sensor based systems and applications.

Radiation Tolerant Electronics

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ISBN: 9783039212798 / 9783039212804 Year: Pages: 210 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-280-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Electrical and Nuclear Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Research on radiation-tolerant electronics has increased rapidly over the past few years, resulting in many interesting approaches to modeling radiation effects and designing radiation-hardened integrated circuits and embedded systems. This research is strongly driven by the growing need for radiation-hardened electronics for space applications, high-energy physics experiments such as those on the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, and many terrestrial nuclear applications including nuclear energy and nuclear safety. With the progressive scaling of integrated circuit technologies and the growing complexity of electronic systems, their susceptibility to ionizing radiation has raised many exciting challenges, which are expected to drive research in the coming decade. In this book we highlight recent breakthroughs in the study of radiation effects in advanced semiconductor devices, as well as in high-performance analog, mixed signal, RF, and digital integrated circuits. We also focus on advances in embedded radiation hardening in both FPGA and microcontroller systems and apply radiation-hardened embedded systems for cryptography and image processing, targeting space applications.

Keywords

physical unclonable function --- FPGA --- total ionizing dose --- Co-60 gamma radiation --- ring-oscillator --- Image processing --- line buffer --- SRAM-based FPGA --- single event upset (SEU) --- configuration memory --- soft error --- radiation-hardened --- instrumentation amplifier --- sensor readout IC --- total ionizing dose --- nuclear fusion --- radiation hardening --- hardening by design --- TMR --- selective hardening --- VHDL --- FPGA --- radiation hardening --- single event upsets --- heavy ions --- error rates --- single-event upsets (SEUs) --- digital integrated circuits --- triple modular redundancy (TMR) --- radiation hardening by design --- TMR --- FMR --- 4MR --- triplex–duplex --- FPGA-based digital controller --- radiation tolerant --- single event effects --- proton irradiation --- RFIC --- SEE testing --- space application --- CMOS --- TDC --- radiation effects --- total ionizing dose (TID) --- single-shot --- PLL --- ring oscillator --- analog single-event transient (ASET) --- bandgap voltage reference (BGR) --- CMOS analog integrated circuits --- gamma-rays --- heavy-ions --- ionization --- protons --- radiation hardening by design (RHBD) --- reference circuits --- single-event effects (SEE) --- space electronics --- total ionization dose (TID) --- voltage reference --- X-rays --- radiation-hardened --- single event gate rupture (SEGR) --- SEB --- power MOSFETs --- Single-Event Upsets (SEUs) --- radiation effects --- Ring Oscillators --- Impulse Sensitive Function --- Radiation Hardening by Design --- fault tolerance --- single event upset --- proton irradiation effects --- neutron irradiation effects --- soft errors --- saturation effect --- gain degradation --- total ionizing dose --- gamma ray --- bipolar transistor --- single event transient (SET) --- single event opset (SEU) --- radiation-hardening-by-design (RHBD) --- frequency synthesizers --- voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) --- frequency divider by two --- CMOS --- n/a

Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Structural Metals and Alloys

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ISBN: 9783038975052 / 9783038975069 Year: Pages: 272 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-506-9 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- Chemical Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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The papers collected in this special issue clearly reflect the modern research trends in materials science. These fields of specific attention are high-Mn TWIP steels, high-Cr heat resistant steels, aluminum alloys, ultrafine grained materials including those developed by severe plastic deformation, and high-entropy alloys. The major portion of the collected papers is focused on the mechanisms of microstructure evolution and the mechanical properties of metallic materials subjected to various thermo-mechanical, deformation or heat treatments. Another large portion of the studies is aimed on the elaboration of alloying design of advanced steels and alloys. The changes in phase content, transformation and particle precipitation and their effect on the properties are also broadly presented in this collection, including the microstructure/property changes caused by irradiation.

Keywords

Mg–Sm–Zn–Zr --- dynamic precipitation --- microstructure --- mechanical property --- bimodal ferrite steel --- ultrafine-grained microstructure --- mechanical properties --- corrosion resistance --- abnormal grain growth --- grain boundary engineering --- electron backscattered diffraction --- growth rate --- Al metal matrix composites --- microstructure --- mechanical properties --- strengthening mechanism --- hot compression --- dynamic recovery --- dynamic recrystallization --- texture --- aluminum alloys --- Al-Fe-Si-Zr system --- microstructure --- hardness --- electrical conductivity --- metal–matrix composite --- high-pressure torsion --- microstructure evolution --- microhardness --- shape memory alloy --- columnar grain --- Cu-Al-Mn --- elastocaloric effect --- strain rate --- measuring temperature --- creep --- lead-free solder --- Sb solder --- Sn-8.0Sb-3.0Ag --- solder microstructure --- martensitic steels --- creep --- precipitation --- electron microscopy --- high-Mn TWIP steel --- cold rolling --- annealing --- recovery --- recrystallization --- strengthening --- austenitic 304 stainless steels --- sub-merged arc welding --- post-weld heat treatment --- aluminum alloys --- aging --- precipitation --- electrical resistivity --- mechanical properties --- ferritic steel --- irradiation --- nanoindentation --- hardness --- transmission electron microscopy (TEM) --- microstructure --- high-entropy alloys --- high-pressure torsion --- microstructure evolution --- twinning --- mechanical properties --- welded rotor --- weld metal --- impact toughness --- PWHT --- microstructure evolution --- Cu-Cr-Zr --- precipitation --- orientation relationship --- recrystallization --- annealing twins --- structural steel plate --- nonmetallic inclusions --- rare earth control --- M23C6 --- ion irradiation --- M6C --- amorphization --- RAFM steels --- hot stamping --- press hardening --- martensitic expansion --- force peak --- cycle time --- high-Mn steel --- deformation twinning --- dynamic recrystallization --- grain refinement --- work hardening --- in situ tensile testing --- super duplex stainless steel --- SDSS --- low-temperature --- ?-phase --- SEM --- EBSD --- microstructure analysis --- n/a

Novel Photoactive Materials

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ISBN: 9783038976509 Year: Pages: 166 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-651-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Physics (General) --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-03-05 14:29:32
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Photoactivity represents the ability of a material, generally speaking a semiconductor, to become active when interacting with light. It can be declined in many ways, and several functionalities arising from this behavior of materials can be exploited, all leading to positive repercussions on our environment. There are several classes of effects of photoactivity, all of which have been deeply investigated in the last few decades, allowing to develop more and more efficient materials and devices. All of them share a common point, that is, the interaction of a material with light, although many different materials are taken into account depending on the effect desired—from elemental semiconductors like silicon, to more complex compounds like CdTe or GaAs, to metal oxides like TiO2 and ZnO. Given the broadness of the field, a huge number of works fall within this topic, and new areas of discovery are constantly explored. The special issue “Novel Photoactive Materials” has been proposed as a means to present recent developments in the field, and for this reason the articles included touch different aspects of photoactivity, from photocatalysis to photovoltaics to light emitting materials.

Marine Glycosides

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ISBN: 9783038979029 9783038979036 Year: Pages: 264 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-903-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-05-09 17:16:14
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In recent years, there has been a steady increase in the publication of papers on the chemistry, biology, and potential clinical uses of marine glycosides. Indeed, more than half of the papers published in this field are less than a decade old. Glycosides have been isolated from species as diverse as algae, fungi, anthozoans, and echinoderms. Even fish of the genus Pardachirus produce glycosides, which they use as shark repellents.The major interest in these compounds as potential drugs stems from their broad spectrum of biological effects. They have been shown to have antimicrobial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, immune modulatory, and anticancer effects. The anticancer effects of marine glycosides include cell cycle suppression, the induction of apoptosis, and the inhibition of migration, invasion, and metastasis, as well as antiangiogenesis. Marine glycosides influence membrane permeability and have been shown to influence membrane transport at the molecular level through effects on transport carriers and pumps, as well as effects on ligand-gated and voltage-gated channels. Various marine glycosides have been shown to activate sphingomyelinase and ceramide synthesis, to inhibit topoisomerase activity, receptor tyrosine kinase activity, and multidrug resistance protein activity, and to antagonize eicosanoid receptors.This Special Issue covers the entire scope of marine organism-derived glycosides that are of potential value as pharmaceutical agents or leads. These include, but are not limited to, tetracyclic triterpene glycosides, other triterpene glycosides, steroid glycosides, and glycosides of non-isoprenoid aglycones.

Titanium Dioxide Photocatalysis

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ISBN: 9783038976943 / 9783038976950 Year: Pages: 208 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-695-0 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Although the seminal work of Fujishima et al. dates back to 1971, TiO2 still remains the most diffused and studied semiconductor, employed in photo-oxidation processes for cleantech (i.e., polluted water and air treatment), in solar fuel production (mainly hydrogen production by water photo splitting), and in Carbon Capture and Utilization (CCU) processes by CO2 photoreduction. The eleven articles, among them three reviews, in this book cover recent results and research trends of various aspects of titanium dioxide photocatalysis, with the chief aim of improving the final efficiency of TiO2-based materials. Strategies include doping, metal co-catalyst deposition, and the realization of composites with plasmonic materials, other semiconductors, and graphene. Photocatalysts with high efficiency and selectivity can be also obtained by controlling the precise crystal shape (and homogeneous size) and the organization in superstructures from ultrathin films to hierarchical nanostructures. Finally, the theoretical modeling of TiO2 nanoparticles is discussed and highlighted. The range of topics addressed in this book will stimulate the reader’s interest as well as provide a valuable source of information for researchers in academia and industry.

Tribological Performance of Artificial Joints

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ISBN: 9783039210787 / 9783039210794 Year: Pages: 178 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-079-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Surgery
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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Joint replacement is a very successful medical treatment. However, the survivorship of the implants could be adversely affected due to the loss of materials in the form of particles or ions as the bearing surfaces articulate against earch other. The consequent tissue and immune response to the wear products, remain one of the key factors of their failure. Tribology has been defined as the science and technology of interacting surfaces in relative motion and all related wear products (e.g., particles, ions, etc.). Over the last few decades, in an attempt to understand and improve joint replacement technology, the tribological performance of several material combinations have been studied experimentally and assessed clinically. In addition, research has focused on the biological effects and long term consequences of wear products. Improvements have been made in manufacturing processes, precision engineering capabilities, device designs and materials properties in order to minimize wear and friction and maximize component longevity in vivo.

Bioactive and Therapeutic Dental Materials

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ISBN: 9783039214198 / 9783039214204 Year: Pages: 216 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-420-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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This book focus principally on ions-releasing and other smart dental materials for application in preventive and restorative dentistry, as well as in endodontics in the form of adhesives, resin-based composites, pastes, varnishes, liners and dental cements. Special attention has been given to bioactive materials developed to induce cells differentiation/stimulation, hard tissue formation and exert antimicrobial actions. New innovations are necessary to continue to help reinforcing existing technologies and to introduce new paradigms for treating dental disease and restoring teeth seriously compromised by caries lesions via biomimetic and more biological operative approaches. Dental bioactive materials is arguably the latest research area in dentistry and thus the amount of new research is overwhelming. However, in this day and age of evidence based practice it important for this new information to be distilled into a practical and understandable format.

Keywords

orthodontic resin --- photocatalyst TiO2 --- antibacterial --- cariogenic --- early colonizer --- hydrophilic properties --- irradiation --- calcium silicate cements --- pulpal response --- mineralization --- calcific barrier --- inflammation --- odontoblastic layer --- resin cements --- shrinkage stress --- water sorption --- hydroscopic expansion --- photoelastic investigation --- antibacterial --- calcium --- doxycycline --- nanoparticles --- zinc --- dental composites --- antibacterial properties --- silver --- mechanical properties --- degree of conversion --- sorption --- solubility --- color stability --- mechanical properties --- nanotubes --- resin composite --- Streptococcus mutans --- triclosan --- bleaching products --- diffusion --- cytotoxicity --- dental pulp --- stem cells --- nanoporous silica --- glass-ionomer cement --- calcium --- preclinical biosafety --- bone substitute --- mesenchymal stem cells --- ?-tricalcium phosphate --- tissue engineering --- dental sealant --- resin sealant --- calcium phosphate nanoparticles --- long-term ion release --- remineralization --- ion recharge --- dentin --- desmineralization --- microtensile bond strength --- adhesion --- bioactive --- cycling mechanical stress --- dentine --- longevity --- resin-modified glass ionomer cements --- polyacrylic acid treatment --- bone regeneration --- ?-tricalcium phosphate --- calcium sulfate --- bone substitutes --- animal study --- n/a --- adhesion --- cycling mechanical stress --- dentine --- longevity --- glass-ionomer cements --- universal adhesives

Materials for Nuclear Waste Immobilization

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ISBN: 9783039218462 / 9783039218479 Year: Pages: 220 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-847-9 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-30 16:39:46
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The book outlines recent advances in nuclear wasteform materials including glasses, ceramics and cements and spent nuclear fuel. It focuses on durability aspects and contains data on performance of nuclear wasteforms as well as expected behavior in a disposal environment.

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