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Les formes de l’action : Sémantique et sociologie

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ISBN: 9782713230790 Year: DOI: 10.4000/books.editionsehess.25282 Language: French
Publisher: Éditions de l’École des hautes études en sciences sociales
Subject: Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-09-09 12:19:29
License: OpenEdition Licence for Books

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L’analyse de l’action est remise au premier plan par certains courants actuels de la philosophie et des sciences sociales. L’étude de la sémantique de l’action (intention, volonté, motif, désir, etc.) a fait apparaître le rôle important du langage dans la constitution du champ pratique. Elle a permis d’éclairer sous un jour nouveau les rapports entre langage ordinaire et analyse sociale. Cet ouvrage restitue l’état du débat suscité, en sciences sociales, par la prise en compte de la spécificité du langage de l’action, et présente quelques-unes des recherches qui en sont issues. Les formes de l’action inaugure une série de volumes collectifs qui interviendront sur des questions vives d’épistémologie, d’analyse sociologique et de théorie sociale, dans un souci de confrontation avec les principaux courants de réflexion qui, depuis plusieurs décennies, modifient nos façons de concevoir l’homme, la culture et la vie sociale.

Keywords

action --- langage --- sémantique --- motif --- intention --- raison pratique

Understanding Social Signals: How Do We Recognize the Intentions of Others?

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198450 Year: Pages: 141 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-845-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Powerful and economic sensors such as high definition cameras and corresponding recognition software have become readily available, e.g. for face and motion recognition. However, designing user interfaces for robots, phones and computers that facilitate a seamless, intuitive, and apparently effortless communication as between humans is still highly challenging. This has shifted the focus from developing ever faster and higher resolution sensors to interpreting available sensor data for understanding social signals and recognising users' intentions. Psychologists, Ethnologists, Linguists and Sociologists have investigated social behaviour in human-human interaction. But their findings are rarely applied in the human-robot interaction domain. Instead, robot designers tend to rely on either proof-of-concept or machine learning based methods. In proving the concept, developers effectively demonstrate that users are able to adapt to robots deployed in the public space. Typically, an initial period of collecting human-robot interaction data is used for identifying frequently occurring problems. These are then addressed by adjusting the interaction policies on the basis of the collected data. However, the updated policies are strongly biased by the initial design of the robot and might not reflect natural, spontaneous user behaviour. In the machine learning approach, learning algorithms are used for finding a mapping between the sensor data space and a hypothesised or estimated set of intentions. However, this brute-force approach ignores the possibility that some signals or modalities are superfluous or even disruptive in intention recognition. Furthermore, this method is very sensitive to peculiarities of the training data. In sum, both methods cannot reliably support natural interaction as they crucially depend on an accurate model of human intention recognition. Therefore, approaches to social robotics from engineers and computer scientists urgently have to be informed by studies of intention recognition in natural human-human communication. Combining the investigation of natural human behaviour and the design of computer and robot interfaces can significantly improve the usability of modern technology. For example, robots will be easier to use by a broad public if they can interpret the social signals that users spontaneously produce for conveying their intentions anyway. By correctly identifying and even anticipating the user's intention, the user will perceive that the system truly understands her/his needs. Vice versa, if a robot produces socially appropriate signals, it will be easier for its users to understand the robot's intentions. Furthermore, studying natural behaviour as a basis for controlling robots and other devices results in greater robustness, responsiveness and approachability. Thus, we welcome submissions that (a) investigate how relevant social signals can be identified in human behaviour, (b) investigate the meaning of social signals in a specific context or task, (c) identify the minimal set of intentions for describing a context or task, (d) demonstrate how insights from the analysis of social behaviour can improve a robot's capabilities, or (e) demonstrate how a robot can make itself more understandable to the user by producing more human-like social signals.

Verfahren und Intention des Kombinatorischen in B. A. Pil'njaks "Ivan da Mar'ja"

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Book Series: Slavistische Beitraege ISBN: 9783876904535 Year: Pages: 260 DOI: 10.3726/b12239 Language: German
Publisher: Peter Lang International Academic Publishing Group
Subject: Languages and Literatures
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:31:49
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Die vorliegende Arbeit stellt den Versuch dar, den Aufbau des "ornamentalen" Prosatextes in Hinblick auf das Verhältnis zwischen Teil und Ganzem zu analysieren.

Learning Dynamic Systems for Intention Recognition in Human-Robot-Cooperation

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Book Series: Karlsruhe Series on Intelligent Sensor-Actuator-Systems / Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, Intelligent Sensor-Actuator-Systems Laboratory ISSN: 18673813 ISBN: 9783866449527 Year: Volume: 11 Pages: XIV, 210 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000031356 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:58
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This thesis is concerned with intention recognition for a humanoid robot and investigates how the challenges of uncertain and incomplete observations, a high degree of detail of the used models, and real-time inference may be addressed by modeling the human rationale as hybrid, dynamic Bayesian networks and performing inference with these models. The key focus lies on the automatic identification of the employed nonlinear stochastic dependencies and the situation-specific inference.

Sustainable Tourism Marketing

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9783039286829 / 9783039286836 Year: Pages: 204 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-683-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Business and Management
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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In this book, we introduce the themes and approaches covered in the issue Sustainable Tourism Marketing. Its objective was to analyze the main contributions made as a result of research related to sustainable tourism–marketing management and current trends in the field. This book gathered articles about the marketing of destinations, and the marketing and communication management of companies and tourism organizations from a sustainable tourism perspective.

Widening International Entrepreneurship Research

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039282807 9783039282814 Year: Pages: 128 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-281-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:08
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Widening International Entrepreneurship Research addresses several unresolved questions and thus moves forward by acknowledging that future international entrepreneurship research needs to find new ways to further enrich its knowledge. The book presents the results of six studies that explain how human resource management contributes to the strategy of early internationalization, compares different experiences in several countries, assesses innovation in international entrepreneurship education teaching, analyses the effects of entrepreneurial education on entrepreneurial skills, and provides new knowledge about the effect of digitalization on firm performance in international markets. This collection of papers reviews the main factors that have been identified as having a high explanatory power at different levels.

Sustainable Work Ability and Aging

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ISBN: 9783039280643 9783039280650 Year: Pages: 258 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-065-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Social Sciences --- Sociology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:08
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In many industrialized countries, there is a sharp increase of the aging population due to a decrease in fertility rate and an increase in life expectancy. Due to which, the age dependency ratio rises and may cause increased economic burden among working age population. One strategy to combat this problem is to prolong peoples working career. A sufficient work ability is a requirement for a sustainable and prolonged employment. Work ability is primarily a question of balance between work and personal resources. Personal resources change with age, whereas work demands may not change parallel to that, or only change due to globalization or new technology. Work ability, on average, decreases with age, although several different work ability pathways exist during the life course. Work-related factors, as well as general lifestyle, may explain the declines and improvements in work ability during aging. A sustainable work ability throughout the life course is a main incentive for a prolonged working career and a healthy aging. Work ability and work-related factors, are therefore important occupational and public health issues when the age of the population increases. This Special Issue, “Sustainable Work Ability and Aging”, includes in all 16 original articles and one opinion paper, organized in three sections. The research topics cover

Keywords

group identification --- older workers --- job performance --- psychological capital --- self-efficacy --- age difference --- exhaustion --- well-being --- work stress --- work environment --- stress --- occupational health --- intervention --- burnout --- well-being --- job resources --- job demands --- burnout --- occupational turnover intention --- JD-R model --- longitudinal approach --- Dutch nurses --- age --- occupational cohort --- register-based --- work disability --- sedentary --- physical heaviness --- prospective --- e-health --- health promotion --- prevention --- sustainable employment --- work ability --- stress --- social status --- aging workforces --- health --- intermediate outcomes --- sustainable employment --- occupational health --- work ability --- aging --- short-form validation --- need for recovery --- criterion validity --- construct validity --- content validity --- responsiveness --- work ability --- work environment --- physical hazards --- psychosocial hazards --- multisite pain --- musculoskeletal pain --- trajectories --- intention to retire --- work ability --- ageing workers --- work wellbeing --- psychosocial work exposures --- perceived work ability --- meaningfulness of work --- perceived fit with current job --- future-orientedness of the job --- sustainable careers --- age --- work ability index (WAI) --- work ability concept --- intervention research --- knowing–doing gap --- implementation --- healthy aging --- work --- occupational stress --- occupational health --- socioeconomic factors --- data accuracy --- demography --- work ability --- life course --- aging --- longitudinal studies --- prolonged work career --- healthcare worker --- work ability --- work ability index --- WAI --- measurement --- occupational health --- occupational epidemiology --- WAI --- municipal workers --- prospective study --- COPSOQ II --- predictive factors --- predictors --- voluntary --- involuntary --- workforce transitions --- mature ages --- Australia

The Impact of Beverages on Ingestive Behavior

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ISBN: 9783038978121 9783038978138 Year: Pages: 166 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-813-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Nutrition and Food Sciences --- Biology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-05-13 09:19:27
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Nutrients is planning a Special Issue focusing on beverages and ingestive behavior. This Special Issue will focus on research related to all aspects of beverage consumption and post-ingestive consequences. There continues to be much controversy surrounding the influence of beverage choice on health outcomes. Research investigating the impact of beverage choice has on human health and post-ingestive consequences continue to grow. We know from the growing body of literature that beverage choice has a substantial impact on metabolism, food reinforcement and eating behaviors.

Marketing for Sustainable Tourism

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039288731 / 9783039288748 Year: Pages: 260 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-874-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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The aim of the Special Issue is to discuss the main current topics concerning marketing for sustainable tourism with reference to territories (i.e., tourism destinations, protected areas, parks and/or natural sites, UNESCO World Heritage Sites, rural regions/areas, etc.) and tourism enterprises and/or organisations (i.e., destination management organisations, hospitality enterprises, restaurant enterprises, cableway companies, travel agencies, etc.). In destinations where natural resources are pull factors for tourism development, the relationships among local actors (public, private, and local community), as well as marketing choices, are essential to develop sustainable tourism products. To this end, the Special Issue encourages papers that analyse marketing strategies adopted by tourism destinations and/or tourism enterprises to avoid overtourism, to manage mass sustainable tourism (as defined by Weaver, 2000), and to encourage and promote sustainable tourism in marginal areas or in territories suffering lack of integration in the tourism offer. Special attention will be given to contributions on the best practices to manage territories and/or enterprises adopting sustainable marketing strategies.

Keywords

tourism development --- economic growth --- panel threshold regression model --- disaster-stricken counties --- Wenchuan earthquake --- Butler’s Tourism Area Life Cycle --- customer satisfaction --- experiential marketing --- tourism factory --- tourism marketing --- service innovation --- post-industrial tourism --- The Industrial Monuments Route --- business models --- multi-attraction travel --- social network analysis --- degree centrality --- density --- tourist behaviors --- tourism destination image --- behavioral intention --- Chinese tourist --- hot spring --- customer satisfaction --- interpretive structural modeling --- decisive factors --- grounded theory --- country brand --- gastronomy --- tourism --- Spain --- ski-resort management --- ski-resort marketing --- ski resorts --- audit --- mountain tourism --- tourism development --- Lanzarote --- sustainability --- alternative product development --- strategy --- biospheric values --- environmental self-identity --- environmental self-efficacy --- personal norm --- tourists’ environmentally responsible behavior --- China --- Seasonality --- tourism demand --- expenditure --- seemingly unrelated regression --- destination marketing --- tourism advertisement --- sustainability --- responsible tourism --- transit port --- port of call --- Mediterranean cruise destinations --- experience economy --- pleasure --- satisfaction --- airport image --- sustainable development of airport --- destination offering --- destination attribute --- visitor experience --- online review --- micro-scale destination --- local attraction --- UCG --- economic sustainability --- sustainable tourism --- positioning --- destination marketing --- tourist intelligence --- n/a

Towards Sustainable Global Food Systems. Conceptual and Policy Analysis of Agriculture, Food and Environment Linkages

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038978145 9783038978152 Year: Pages: 356 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-815-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- Environmental Technology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-05-09 17:16:14
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One of the major knowledge challenges in the domain of Resilient and Sustainable Food Systems refers to the integration of perspectives on consumption, patterns that support public health, inclusive value chains, and environmentally sustainable food production. While there is a long record of the analysis of separate interventions, this special issue generates integrated insights, provides cross-cutting perspectives, and outlines practical and policy solutions that address these global challenges.The collection of papers promotes the view that sustainable food systems require thorough insights into the structure and dynamics of agri-food production systems, the drivers for integrating food value chains and markets, and key incentives for supporting healthier consumer choices. On the production side, potential linkages between agricultural commercialization and intensification and their effects for food security and nutritional outcomes are analyzed. Value Chains are assessed for their contribution to improving exchange networks and markets for food products that simultaneously support efficiency, circularity, and responsiveness. Individual motives and market structures for food consumption need to be understood in order to be able to outline suitable incentives to enhance healthy dietary choice.The contributed papers focus on interfaces between food system activities and processes of adaptive change that are critical for overcoming key constraints and trade-offs between sustainable food and healthy diets.

Keywords

agricultural impacts --- climate change impacts --- integrated assessment model --- CGE model --- Ostrea edulis --- native oyster restoration --- North Sea --- site selection --- pilot study --- offshore wind farms --- sustainability --- food systems --- nutrition --- public-private cooperation --- corporate values --- sanitary control --- food safety --- prosperity --- sustainable development --- alternative agri-food networks --- transition theories --- grassroots innovations --- socio-technical systems --- agroecology --- ecovillages --- social movements --- certification --- organic agriculture --- Participatory Guarantee Systems --- Spain --- alternative certification systems --- food systems --- metrics --- interdisciplinarity --- sustainable food and nutrition security --- food system assessment --- participatory approach --- SUSFANS --- agribusiness cluster --- commercialization --- sustainable intensification --- dairy value chain --- farming system --- service arrangements --- Ethiopia --- Kenya --- sustainable diets --- diet adoption --- sustainable food system --- intention-behavior gap --- citizen participation --- innovation workshop --- Agricultural commercialization --- food and nutrition security --- salutogenesis --- life course perspective --- food systems --- multi-level --- positive deviance --- Myanmar --- social innovation --- agricultural commercialization --- nutrition sensitive transformation --- Myanmar --- vegetable consumption --- food choice motives --- knowledge --- self-efficacy --- socio-economic classes --- food environment --- Nigeria --- sustainable development goals --- sustainability assessment --- agricultural sustainability --- food security --- LCA broadening --- LCA deepening --- food systems --- interdisciplinary research --- feedbacks &amp --- interlinkages --- food policy --- 3I Approach --- value chain development --- participatory approach --- context-specific interventions --- behavioural change --- postharvest losses --- tomato --- Nigeria --- supply chain --- raffia basket --- plastic crate --- systems approach --- conceptual framework --- food loss practices --- food loss causes --- food loss solutions --- supply-chain stages --- literature --- socio-economic indicators --- tomato --- Nigeria --- adoption --- conservation agriculture --- social capital --- count outcome models --- pca --- marginal treatment effects --- Nigeria --- food security --- CGE model --- nutrition --- diet diversity --- land substitution --- agricultural intensification --- baseline projections --- commercialization --- Vietnam --- food system --- fertilizer use --- caloric intake --- dietary diversity Vietnam Living Standards Survey (VLSS)

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