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Carbohydrate Metabolism in Health and Disease

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ISBN: 9783038429999 9783038970002 Year: Pages: X, 256 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-07-04 13:00:08
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Carbohydrate metabolism is a fundamental aspect of health and a crucial function in a variety of species, including humans. A primary disfunction in major global diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes, is dysregulation of thecarbohydrate metabolism. Furthermore, certain disease outcomes may be impacted by the amount and type of dietary carbohydrates consumed. Finally, carbohydrate obtainability is essential for optimal performance and endurance during sporting events. This book collates articles that either describe original research, or review the scientific literature on the topic of carbohydrate metabolism in health and disease. .

Obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194285 Year: Pages: 120 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-428-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Internal medicine --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Immune response and metabolic regulation are highly integrated and this interface maintains a central homeostatic system, dysfunction of which can cause obesity-associated metabolic disorder such as type 2 diabetes, fatty liver disease and cardiovascular disease. Insulin resistance is an underlying basis for the pathogenesis of these metabolic diseases. Overnutrition or obesity activates the innate immune system with subsequent recruitment of immune cells such as macrophages and T cells, which contributes to the development of insulin resistance. In particular, a significant advance in our understanding of obesity-associated inflammation and insulin resistance has been recognition of the critical role of adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs). ATMs are a prominent source of proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-a and IL-6, that can block insulin action in adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and liver autocrine/paracrine signaling and cause systemic insulin resistance via endocrine signaling, providing a potential link between inflammation and insulin resistance. All articles in this topic highlight the interconnection between obesity, inflammation, and insulin resistance in all its diversity to the mechanisms of obesity-induced inflammation and role of immune system in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and diabetes.

Carotid Body: A New Target for Rescuing Neural Control of Cardiorespiratory Balance in Disease

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199433 Year: Pages: 134 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-943-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Physiology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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The carotid body (CB) is in charge of adjusting ventilatory and cardiovascular function during changes in arterial blood gases. Regardless this essential function, the CB has been implicated in the sensing of other physiological signals such as changes in blood flow and glucose levels. More important, malfunction of the CB chemoreceptors has been associated with the progression and deterioration of several disease states such as hypertension, heart failure, renal failure, insulin resistance, diabetes and sleep apnea. Although the mechanisms involved in the alterations of the CB function in pathophysiology are currently under intense research, the development of therapeutic approaches to restore normal CB chemoreflex function remains unsolved. Recent studies showing the effect of CB denervation in pathophysiology have unveiled a key role of these arterial chemoreceptors in the development of autonomic imbalance and respiratory disturbances, and suggest that targeting the CB could represent a novel strategy to improve disease outcome. Unfortunately, classical pharmacotherapy intended to normalize CB function may be hard to establish since several cellular pathways are involved in the CB dysfunction. Augmented levels of angiotensin II, endothelin-1, cytokines and free radicals along with decreases in nitric oxide had all been related to the CB dysfunction. Moreover, changes in expression of angiotensin receptors, nitric oxide synthases and cytokines that take place within the CB tissue in pathological states also contribute to the enhanced CB chemoreflex drive. It has been shown in heart failure, hypertension and obstructive sleep apnea that the CB becomes tonically hyper-reactive. During the progression of the disease this CB chemosensory facilitation process induces central nervous system plasticity. The altered autonomic-respiratory control leads to increased cardiorespiratory distress and the deterioration of the condition. The focus of this e-book will be to cover the role of the CB in pathophysiology and to provide new evidence of the pathways involved in the maladaptive potentiation of the CB chemoreflex function. In memory of Professor Mashiko Shirahata and Professor Constancio Gonzalez.

The Coming of Age of Insulin-Signalling in Insects

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193141 Year: Pages: 138 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-314-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Physiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-02-05 17:24:33
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The new millennium has seen a major paradigm shift in insect endocrinology. Great advancements are being made which establish that nutrition and growth play a central role in diverse cellular and physiological phenomena during insect development and reproduction. Nutrition affects rates of growth and is mainly regulated by the function of the pathway of insulin/insulin-like growth factor signalling. This pathway is highly conserved across species and ultimately regulates rates of cell growth and proliferation in growing organs. Insulin and insulin-like peptides (ILPs) are some of the best studied hormones in the animal kingdom and all share a common structural motif and initiate a wide range of closely similar physiological processes in higher organisms. In insects, nutrition, via circulating sugar, promotes release of ILPs from brain neurosecretory cells into the haemolymph, which act on peripheral tissues and stimulate protein synthesis and cell growth. Therefore, insect ILPs are common mediators between nutrition and growth in insects and are functionally analogous to mammalian insulin. The 1980s and 1990s witnessed great progress in elucidation of the physiological and molecular mechanism of action of numerous insect hormones involved in regulation of growth, development, reproduction and metabolism. But the signals for the initiation or termination of controlled events remained largely unknown. ILPs were first identified from the silkmoth Bombyx mori and were named bombyxins, but related peptides were soon found in numerous species and their functions elucidated. The insulin signalling pathway is now recognized as a central factor in the timing of cell proliferation, growth, longevity, reproduction, and reproductive diapause, as well as social behaviour. Recent work has revealed that the insulin signalling pathway is closely integrated with that of various other hormones, including ecdysteroids, the juvenile hormones and neuropeptide(s) such a prothoracicotropic hormone. In addition, the pathway is also linked with both circadian (daily) and photoperiodic (seasonal) clocks potentially providing a basis for its timing function. This Research Topic aims to provide the only current collection of recent advances on insect ILPs. We encouraged submissions on all areas related to identification, characterization, regulation and physiological functions of insect ILPs. We welcomed both full and short reviews and original research articles.

Obesity and Diabetes: Energy Regulation by Free Fatty Acid Receptors

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197477 Year: Pages: 45 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-747-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Internal medicine --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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Food intake regulates energy balance and its dysregulation leads to metabolic disorder, such as obesity and diabetes. During feeding, free fatty acids (FFAs) are not only essential nutrients but also act as signaling molecules in various cellular processes. Recently, several orphan G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that act as FFA receptors (FFARs) have been identified; GPR40/FFAR1, GPR119, and GPR120 are activated by medium- and long-chain FFAs. GPR84 is activated by medium-chain FFAs. GPR41/FFAR3 and GPR43/FFAR2 are activated by short-chain FFAs. These FFARs have come to be regarded as new drug targets for metabolic disorder such as obesity and type 2 diabetes, because a number of pharmacological and physiological studies have shown that these receptors are primarily involved in the energy metabolism in various tissues; insulin secretion, gastrointestinal hormone secretion, adipokine secretion, regulation of inflammation, regulation of autonomic nervous system, relation to gut microbiota, and so on. This Research Topic provides a comprehensive overview of the energy regulation by free fatty acid receptors and a new prospect for treatment of metabolic disorder such as obesity and type 2 diabetes.

Trends in Neuroendocrinology

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450725 Year: Pages: 138 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-072-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General) --- Internal medicine --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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Neuroendocrinology is the discipline that investigates the interplay between the nervous and endocrine systems i.e. the control of endocrine glands by the central and peripheral nervous systems, the action of hormones on nerve cells and the production of hormones by the nervous system. The present Research Topic is a compilation of contributions stemming from the 8th International Congress of Neuroendocrinology (ICN2014) held in Sydney, Australia, that illustrates various facets of current neuroendocrine research.

Nutritional Intake and the Risk for Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD)

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ISBN: 9783038975984 9783038975991 Year: Pages: 142 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-599-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Internal medicine --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-02-13 10:25:01
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The aim of this Special Issue focusing on “Nutritional Intake and the Risk of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease” is to provide an in-depth overview of the role of the intake of different macro- and micronutrients in the development and progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, as well as in its prevention and treatment. General over-nutrition but also alterations of the dietary pattern (e.g., towards a higher intake of fat, cholesterol, and sugar—and herein especially fructose) are discussed as being critical in the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, it has also been suggested that a general reduction of caloric intake and/or modulation of dietary composition, be it in regard to fat or to sugar intake, may have beneficial effects on the liver status in settings of NAFLD. Furthermore, in more recent years, the intake of pre- and probiotics, but also of specific micronutrients or secondary plant compounds, has also been considered a means in the prevention and therapy of this disease. Despite intense research efforts during the last decades, our understanding of the effects of nutritional intake on the development as well as on the prevention and cure of NAFLD is still limited.Providing a better understanding of the effects of diet and especially of specific macro- and micronutrients as well as pre- and probiotics and secondary plant compounds in the context of the development of NAFLD and its progression could lead to novel prevention and therapeutic strategies for this metabolic liver disease. This Special Issue will thus include original research and scientific perspectives on the relationship between NAFLD and dietary constituents that may 1) be involved in the development of the disease and 2) prevent its onset and progression. Mechanistic insights defining the contribution of certain nutritional factors (e.g., macronutrients like fat and sugar but also micronutrients and secondary plant compounds as well as pre- and probiotics) to the occurrence and management of NAFLD will improve our understanding of the disease and eventually lead to the development of universally accepted prevention and therapeutic strategies.

Dietary Fructose and Glucose: The Multifacetted Aspects of Their Metabolism and Implication for Human Health (Vol. 1)

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ISBN: 9783038970538 9783038970545 Year: Volume: 1 Pages: X, 318 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2018-08-15 09:00:11
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We welcome the submission of manuscripts, either describing original research, or reviewing scientific literature. Manuscripts should focus on well-defined topics, not previously reported extensively in the literature, such as (without being limited to): functional aspects of fructose and glucose metabolism health effects of chronic fructose and glucose consumption molecular and mechanistic insights of hexoses-induced metabolic adaptations sugars, sweet taste receptors and brain responses intervention studies in humansPapers covering species comparisons of nutrition/metabolism or evolutionary perspectives, or effects of fructose and glucose in specific physiological conditions (physical activity, pregnancy, growth, etc.) or special tissues (testis, placenta) are welcome.

Dietary Fructose and Glucose: The Multifacetted Aspects of Their Metabolism and Implication for Human Health (Vol. 2)

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ISBN: 9783038970835 9783038970842 Year: Volume: 2 Pages: X, 318 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2018-08-15 09:25:11
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We welcome the submission of manuscripts, either describing original research, or reviewing scientific literature. Manuscripts should focus on well-defined topics, not previously reported extensively in the literature, such as (without being limited to): functional aspects of fructose and glucose metabolism health effects of chronic fructose and glucose consumption molecular and mechanistic insights of hexoses-induced metabolic adaptations sugars, sweet taste receptors and brain responses intervention studies in humansPapers covering species comparisons of nutrition/metabolism or evolutionary perspectives, or effects of fructose and glucose in specific physiological conditions (physical activity, pregnancy, growth, etc.) or special tissues (testis, placenta) are welcome.

Berry Antioxidants in Health and Disease

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ISBN: 9783038423485 9783038423492 Year: Pages: VIII, 156 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-349-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Genetics --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2017-02-21 07:38:04
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During the last decade, a high volume of work has been published on the health-promoting effects of berries (e.g., blueberries, cranberries, blackberries, etc.) that are rich in antioxidant phytochemicals, polyphenols. Consuming a diet rich in polyphenols has been documented to attenuate the risk of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, certain cancers, diabetes mellitus, and neurodegenerative disorders. Recent evidence also reveals that the biological effects of polyphenols extend beyond their traditional antioxidant role.This Special Issue includes 10 peer-reviewed papers, including original research papers and reviews. They present the most recent advances in the role of berry antioxidants, not only in maintaining health but also in preventing and/or reversing disease both in cell culture, animal models and in humans. Additionally, the molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways modulated by berry antioxidants are presented. Chapters include the role of berry antioxidants in whole fruit and leaves on the metabolic syndrome, obesity, diabetes and glucose intolerance, cancer, inflammation, oxidative stress and neuroprotection as well as cardiovascular disease. As a guest editor, I would like to acknowledge the authors of all chapters for their valuable contributions and reviewers for their thoughtful and constructive suggestions and time. Special thanks to the publishing team of the Antioxidants Journal for their professionalism, attention to detail and timely completion of this volume.

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