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Advances in Organic Conductors and Superconductors

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ISBN: 9783038971801 9783038971818 Year: Pages: 344 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-181-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-10-04 12:13:06
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ca. 200 words; this text will present the book in all promotional forms (e.g. flyers). Please describe the book in straightforward and consumer-friendly terms.Crystalline conductors and superconductors based on organic molecules are a rapidly progressing field of solid-state science, comprising chemists, and experimental and theoretical physicists from all around the world. In focus are solids with electronic properties governed by delocalized π-electrons. Although carbon-based materials of various shades have gained enormous interest in recent years, charge transfer salts are still paradigmatic in this field. Progress in molecular design is achieved via tiny but ingenious modifications, as well as by fundamentally different approaches. The wealth of exciting physical phenomena is unprecedented and could not have been imagined when the field took off almost half a century ago. Organic low-dimensional conductors are prime examples of Luttinger liquids, exhibit a tendency toward Fermi surface instabilities, but can also be tuned across a dimension¬a¬lity-driven phase diagram like no other system. Superconductivity comes at the border to ordered phases in the spin and charge sectors, and, at high fields, the Fulde–Ferrell–Larkin–Ovchinnikov (FFLO) state is well established. The interplay between charge and magnetic order is still under debate, but electronic ferroelectricity is well established. After decades of intense search, the spin liquid state was first discovered in organic conductors when the amount of geometrical frustration and electronic correlations is just right. They drive the metal and superconductor into an insulating Mott state, solely via electron–electron interactions. However, what do we know about the effect of disorder? Can we tune the electronic properties by pressure, by light, or by field? Research is still addressing basic questions, but devices are not out of reach. These are currently open questions, as well as hot and timely topics. The present Special Issue on “Advances in Organic Conductors and Superconductors” provides a status report summarizing the progress achieved in the last five years.

Nanoelectronic Materials, Devices and Modeling

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ISBN: 9783039212255 9783039212262 Year: Pages: 242 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-226-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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As CMOS scaling is approaching the fundamental physical limits, a wide range of new nanoelectronic materials and devices have been proposed and explored to extend and/or replace the current electronic devices and circuits so as to maintain progress with respect to speed and integration density. The major limitations, including low carrier mobility, degraded subthreshold slope, and heat dissipation, have become more challenging to address as the size of silicon-based metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) has decreased to nanometers, while device integration density has increased. This book aims to present technical approaches that address the need for new nanoelectronic materials and devices. The focus is on new concepts and knowledge in nanoscience and nanotechnology for applications in logic, memory, sensors, photonics, and renewable energy. This research on nanoelectronic materials and devices will be instructive in finding solutions to address the challenges of current electronics in switching speed, power consumption, and heat dissipation and will be of great interest to academic society and the industry.

Keywords

UAV --- vision localization --- hierarchical --- landing --- information integration --- memristor --- synaptic device --- spike-timing-dependent plasticity --- neuromorphic computation --- memristive device --- ZnO films --- conditioned reflex --- quantum dot --- sample grating --- cross-gain modulation --- bistability --- distributed Bragg --- semiconductor optical amplifier --- topological insulator --- field-effect transistor --- nanostructure synthesis --- optoelectronic devices --- topological magnetoelectric effect --- drain-induced barrier lowering (DIBL) --- gate-induced drain leakage (GIDL) --- silicon on insulator (SOI) --- graphene --- supercapacitor --- energy storage --- ionic liquid --- UV irradiation --- luminescent centres --- bismuth ions --- two-photon process --- oscillatory neural networks --- pattern recognition --- higher order synchronization --- thermal coupling --- vanadium dioxide --- band-to-band tunneling --- L-shaped tunnel field-effect-transistor --- double-gate tunnel field-effect-transistor --- corner-effect --- AlGaN/GaN --- high-electron mobility transistor (HEMTs) --- p-GaN --- enhancement-mode --- 2DEG density --- InAlN/GaN heterostructure --- polarization effect --- quantum mechanical --- gallium nitride --- MISHEMT --- dielectric layer --- interface traps --- current collapse --- PECVD --- gate-induced drain leakage (GIDL) --- drain-induced barrier lowering (DIBL) --- recessed channel array transistor (RCAT) --- on-current (Ion) --- off-current (Ioff) --- subthreshold slope (SS) --- threshold voltage (VTH) --- saddle FinFET (S-FinFET) --- potential drop width (PDW) --- shallow trench isolation (STI) --- source/drain (S/D) --- conductivity --- 2D material --- Green’s function --- reflection transmision method --- variational form --- dual-switching transistor --- third harmonic tuning --- low voltage --- high efficiency --- CMOS power amplifier IC --- insulator–metal transition (IMT) --- charge injection --- Mott transition --- conductive atomic force microscopy (cAFM) --- gate field effect --- atomic layer deposition (ALD) --- zinc oxide --- silicon --- ZnO/Si --- electron affinity --- bandgap tuning --- conduction band offset --- heterojunction --- solar cells --- PC1D --- vertical field-effect transistor (VFET) --- back current blocking layer (BCBL) --- gallium nitride (GaN) --- normally off power devices --- n/a

Applications of Computational Intelligence to Power Systems

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ISBN: 9783039217601 9783039217618 Year: Pages: 116 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-761-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-11-08 11:31:56
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Electric power systems around the world are changing in terms of structure, operation, management and ownership due to technical, financial, and ideological reasons. Power systems keep on expanding in terms of geographical areas, asset additions, and the penetration of new technologies in generation, transmission, and distribution. The conventional methods for solving the power system design, planning, operation, and control problems have been extensively used for different applications, but these methods suffer from several difficulties, thus providing suboptimal solutions. Computationally intelligent methods can offer better solutions for several conditions and are being widely applied in electrical engineering applications. This Special Issue represents a thorough treatment of computational intelligence from an electrical power system engineer’s perspective. Thorough, well-organised, and up-to-date, it examines in detail some of the important aspects of this very exciting and rapidly emerging technology, including machine learning, particle swarm optimization, genetic algorithms, and deep learning systems. Written in a concise and flowing manner by experts in the area of electrical power systems who have experience in the application of computational intelligence for solving many complex and difficult power system problems, this Special Issue is ideal for professional engineers and postgraduate students entering this exciting field.

High Voltage Engineering and Applications

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ISBN: 9783039287161 / 9783039287178 Year: Pages: 304 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-717-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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This book is a collection of recent publications from researchers all over the globe in the broad area of high-voltage engineering. The presented research papers cover both experimental and simulation studies, with a focus on topics related to insulation monitoring using state-of-the-art sensors and advanced machine learning algorithms. Special attention was given in the Special Issue to partial discharge monitoring as one of the most important techniques in insulation condition assessment. Moreover, this Special Issue contains several articles which focus on different modeling techniques that help researchers to better evaluate the condition of insulation systems. Different power system assets are addressed in this book, including transformers, outdoor insulators, underground cables, and gas-insulated substations.

Keywords

space/interface charge --- electrical field strength --- temperature --- oil-paper insulation --- simulation --- bipolar charge transport model --- earthing systems --- electrode’s geometry --- fast-impulses --- high-magnitude currents and impulse polarity --- grounding --- grounding electrodes --- high impulse conditions --- seasonal --- soil resistivity --- partial discharges (PD) --- partial discharge --- calibrator --- Tettex 9520 --- DDX 8003 --- DDX 9121b --- secondary arc --- short-circuit discharge --- numerical modeling --- plasma discharge --- post insulator --- non-uniform pollution between windward and leeward sides --- residual resistance formulation --- flashover dynamic model --- artificial flashover tests --- flashover characteristics --- feature selection --- insulation health index --- machine learning --- oil/paper insulation --- transformer asset management --- thermal effect --- cable --- XLPE --- laying modes --- Comsol Multiphysics --- thermal parameters --- cable ampacity --- partial discharge --- surface discharge --- UHF sensor --- FDTD simulation --- cavity discharge --- partial discharge --- denoising --- RF signal --- wavelet transform --- artificial neural network --- curve fitting --- saline mechanism --- shoreline --- wind speed --- outdoor insulators --- dry band arcing --- flashover --- tracking --- ageing --- hydrophobicity --- leakage current --- dry band arcing --- degradation --- polymeric insulation --- tracking test setup --- composite insulator --- dry band formation --- heat transfer model --- generalized finite difference time domain --- corona discharge --- electric field analysis --- ion flow field --- space charge density --- UFVM --- partial discharge --- optical-UHF integrated detection --- photoelectric fusion pattern --- GIL --- NSCT --- cable joint --- charge simulation method --- electrical tree --- random walk theory --- finite element analysis --- partial discharge modeling --- high-frequency --- fast-rise square wave voltages --- silicone gel --- wide bandgap power modules --- surface discharge --- flashover --- gas --- modelling --- pressure --- thermal properties

Development of CMOS-MEMS/NEMS Devices

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ISBN: 9783039210688 9783039210695 Year: Pages: 165 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-069-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:07
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Micro and nano-electro-mechanical system (M/NEMS) devices constitute key technological building blocks to enable increased additional functionalities within Integrated Circuits (ICs) in the More-Than-Moore era, as described in the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors. The CMOS ICs and M/NEMS dies can be combined in the same package (SiP), or integrated within a single chip (SoC). In the SoC approach the M/NEMS devices are monolithically integrated together with CMOS circuitry allowing the development of compact and low-cost CMOS-M/NEMS devices for multiple applications (physical sensors, chemical sensors, biosensors, actuators, energy actuators, filters, mechanical relays, and others). On-chip CMOS electronics integration can overcome limitations related to the extremely low-level signals in sub-micrometer and nanometer scale electromechanical transducers enabling novel breakthrough applications. This Special Issue aims to gather high quality research contributions dealing with MEMS and NEMS devices monolithically integrated with CMOS, independently of the final application and fabrication approach adopted (MEMS-first, interleaved MEMS, MEMS-last or others).]

Repetitive DNA Sequences

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9783039283668 9783039283675 Year: Pages: 206 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-367-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Genetics
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:08
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Repetitive DNA is ubiquitous in eukaryotic genomes, and, in many species, comprises the bulk of the genome. Repeats include transposable elements that can self-mobilize and disperse around the genome, and tandemly-repeated satellite DNAs that increase in copy number due to replication slippage and unequal crossing over. Despite their abundance, repetitive DNA is often ignored in genomic studies due to technical challenges in their identification, assembly, and quantification. New technologies and methods are now providing the unprecedented power to analyze repetitive DNAs across diverse taxa. Repetitive DNA is of particular interest because it can represent distinct modes of genome evolution. Some repetitive DNA forms essential genome structures, such as telomeres and centromeres, which are required for proper chromosome maintenance and segregation, whereas others form piRNA clusters that regulate transposable elements; thus, these elements are expected to evolve under purifying selection. In contrast, other repeats evolve selfishly and produce genetic conflicts with their host species that drive adaptive evolution of host defense systems. However, the majority of repeats likely accumulate in eukaryotes in the absence of selection due to mechanisms of transposition and unequal crossing over. Even these neutral repeats may indirectly influence genome evolution as they reach high abundance. In this Special Issue, the contributing authors explore these questions from a range of perspectives.

Artificial Intelligence for Smart and Sustainable Energy Systems and Applications

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039288892 / 9783039288908 Year: Pages: 258 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-890-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Energy has been a crucial element for human beings and sustainable development. The issues of global warming and non-green energy have yet to be resolved. This book is a collection of twelve articles that provide strong evidence for the success of artificial intelligence deployment in energy research, particularly research devoted to non-intrusive load monitoring, network, and grid, as well as other emerging topics. The presented artificial intelligence algorithms may provide insight into how to apply similar approaches, subject to fine-tuning and customization, to other unexplored energy research. The ultimate goal is to fully apply artificial intelligence to the energy sector. This book may serve as a guide for professionals, researchers, and data scientists—namely, how to share opinions and exchange ideas so as to facilitate a better fusion of energy, academic, and industry research, and improve in the quality of people's daily life activities.

Miniaturized Transistors

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ISBN: 9783039210107 9783039210114 Year: Pages: 202 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-011-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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What is the future of CMOS? Sustaining increased transistor densities along the path of Moore's Law has become increasingly challenging with limited power budgets, interconnect bandwidths, and fabrication capabilities. In the last decade alone, transistors have undergone significant design makeovers; from planar transistors of ten years ago, technological advancements have accelerated to today's FinFETs, which hardly resemble their bulky ancestors. FinFETs could potentially take us to the 5-nm node, but what comes after it? From gate-all-around devices to single electron transistors and two-dimensional semiconductors, a torrent of research is being carried out in order to design the next transistor generation, engineer the optimal materials, improve the fabrication technology, and properly model future devices. We invite insight from investigators and scientists in the field to showcase their work in this Special Issue with research papers, short communications, and review articles that focus on trends in micro- and nanotechnology from fundamental research to applications.

Keywords

flux calculation --- etching simulation --- process simulation --- topography simulation --- CMOS --- field-effect transistor --- ferroelectrics --- MOS devices --- negative-capacitance --- piezoelectrics --- power consumption --- thin-film transistors (TFTs) --- compact model --- surface potential --- technology computer-aided design (TCAD) --- metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) --- topography simulation --- metal gate stack --- level set --- high-k --- fin field effect transistor (FinFET) --- line edge roughness --- metal gate granularity --- nanowire --- non-equilibrium Green’s function --- random discrete dopants --- SiGe --- variability --- band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) --- electrostatic discharge (ESD) --- tunnel field-effect transistor (TFET) --- Silicon-Germanium source/drain (SiGe S/D) --- technology computer aided design (TCAD) --- bulk NMOS devices --- radiation hardened by design (RHBD) --- total ionizing dose (TID) --- Sentaurus TCAD --- layout --- two-dimensional material --- field effect transistor --- indium selenide --- phonon scattering --- mobility --- high-? dielectric --- low-frequency noise --- silicon-on-insulator --- MOSFET --- inversion channel --- buried channel --- subthreshold bias range --- low voltage --- low energy --- theoretical model --- process simulation --- device simulation --- compact models --- process variations --- systematic variations --- statistical variations --- FinFETs --- nanowires --- nanosheets --- semi-floating gate --- synaptic transistor --- neuromorphic system --- spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) --- highly miniaturized transistor structure --- low power consumption --- drain engineered --- tunnel field effect transistor (TFET) --- polarization --- ambipolar --- subthreshold --- ON-state --- doping incorporation --- plasma-aided molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) --- segregation --- silicon nanowire --- n/a

Computational Methods for Fracture

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ISBN: 9783039216864 9783039216871 Year: Pages: 404 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-687-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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This book offers a collection of 17 scientific papers about the computational modeling of fracture. Some of the manuscripts propose new computational methods and/or how to improve existing cutting edge methods for fracture. These contributions can be classified into two categories: 1. Methods which treat the crack as strong discontinuity such as peridynamics, scaled boundary elements or specific versions of the smoothed finite element methods applied to fracture and 2. Continuous approaches to fracture based on, for instance, phase field models or continuum damage mechanics. On the other hand, the book also offers a wide range of applications where state-of-the-art techniques are employed to solve challenging engineering problems such as fractures in rock, glass, concrete. Also, larger systems such as fracture in subway stations due to fire, arch dams, or concrete decks are studied.

Keywords

plate --- FSDT --- HSDT --- Mindlin --- incompatible approximation --- fracture --- screened-Poisson model --- gradient-enhanced model --- damage-plasticity model --- implicit gradient-enhancement --- rock --- shear failure --- elastoplastic behavior --- extended scaled boundary finite element method (X-SBFEM) --- stress intensity factors --- fracture process zone (FPZ) --- thermomechanical analysis --- moderate fire --- finite element simulations --- metallic glass matrix composite --- finite element analysis --- shear band --- microstructure --- ductility --- peridynamics --- fatigue --- rolling contact --- damage --- rail squats --- cracks --- steel reinforced concrete frame --- reinforced concrete core tube --- progressive collapse analysis --- loss of key components --- self-healing --- damage-healing mechanics --- super healing --- anisotropic --- brittle material --- Brittle Fracture --- cell-based smoothed-finite element method (CS-FEM) --- Phase-field model --- ABAQUS UEL --- the Xulong arch dam --- yielding region --- cracking risk --- overall stability --- dam stress zones --- concrete creep --- prestressing stress --- compressive stress --- FE analysis --- force transfer --- grouting --- fracture network modeling --- numerical simulation --- fluid–structure interaction --- bulk damage --- brittle fracture --- rock fracture --- random fracture --- Mohr-Coulomb --- Discontinuous Galerkin --- EPB shield machine --- conditioned sandy pebble --- particle element model --- parameters calibration --- geometric phase --- photonic orbital angular momentum --- topological insulator --- topological photonic crystal --- fatigue crack growth --- surface crack --- crack shape change --- three-parameter model --- LEFM --- XFEM/GFEM --- SBFEM --- phase field --- n/a

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