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9. Sammenhengen mellom mindfulness og eksekutiv funksjon hos profesjonelle fotballspillere (Book chapter)

Book title: Trender for idrettspsykologisk forskning i Skandinavia

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9788202596903 9788202596903 Year: Pages: 18 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.39.ch9 Language: Norwegian
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-07-28 11:01:02
License: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)

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"Mindfulness has become a popular tool for athletes, but the knowledge about the&#xD;exact associations between trait mindfulness and key performance variables are lacking. This&#xD;is especially problematic for athletes competing at a higher level where minor costs of a trait or&#xD;an intervention could easily outweigh the benefits. In this study we investigated the association&#xD;between self-reported level of mindfulness and performance on two PC based tests of inhibitory&#xD;control on forty-two professional soccer players. The results showed that the observation&#xD;facet of mindfulness was associated with better performance on one of the tests, while the&#xD;non-judgement facet was associated with lower performance on both tests due to more impulsive&#xD;responding. These findings suggest that trait mindfulness and inhibitory control is related,&#xD;but that the relationship may not only be beneficial."&#xD;

Inhibitory Function in Auditory Processing

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196678 Year: Pages: 231 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-667-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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There seems little doubt that from the earliest evolutionary beginnings, inhibition has been a fundamental feature of neuronal circuits - even the simplest life forms sense and interact with their environment, orienting or approaching positive stimuli while avoiding aversive stimuli. This requires internal signals that both drive and suppress behavior. Traditional descriptions of inhibition sometimes limit its role to the suppression of action potential generation. This view fails to capture the vast breadth of inhibitory function now known to exist in neural circuits. A modern perspective on inhibitory signaling comprises a multitude of mechanisms. For example, inhibition can act via a shunting mechanism to speed the membrane time constant and reduce synaptic integration time. It can act via G-protein coupled receptors to initiate second messenger cascades that influence synaptic strength. Inhibition contributes to rhythm generation and can even activate ion channels that mediate inward currents to drive action potential generation. Inhibition also appears to play a role in shaping the properties of neural circuitry over longer time scales. Experience-dependent synaptic plasticity in developing and mature neural circuits underlies behavioral memory and has been intensively studied over the past decade. At excitatory synapses, adjustments of synaptic efficacy are regulated predominantly by changes in the number and function of postsynaptic glutamate receptors. There is, however, increasing evidence for inhibitory modulation of target neuron excitability playing key roles in experience-dependent plasticity. One reason for our limited knowledge about plasticity at inhibitory synapses is that in most circuits, neurons receive convergent inputs from disparate sources. This problem can be overcome by investigating inhibitory circuits in a system with well-defined inhibitory nuclei and projections, each with a known computational function. Compared to other sensory systems, the auditory system has evolved a large number of subthalamic nuclei each devoted to processing distinct features of sound stimuli. This information once extracted is then re-assembled to form the percept the acoustic world around us. The well-understood function of many of these auditory nuclei has enhanced our understanding of inhibition's role in shaping their responses from easily distinguished inhibitory inputs. In particular, neurons devoted to processing the location of sound sources receive a complement of discrete inputs for which in vivo activity and function are well understood. Investigation of these areas has led to significant advances in understanding the development, physiology, and mechanistic underpinnings of inhibition that apply broadly to neuroscience. In this series of papers, we provide an authoritative resource for those interested in exploring the variety of inhibitory circuits and their function in auditory processing. We present original research and focused reviews touching on development, plasticity, anatomy, and evolution of inhibitory circuitry. We hope our readers will find these papers valuable and inspirational to their own research endeavors.

Regulation of Chemokine- Receptor Interactions and Functions

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ISBN: 9783038427285 9783038427278 Year: Pages: 228 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biochemistry
Added to DOAB on : 2018-03-26 15:44:06
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A hallmark of inflammation is the accumulation of leukocytes, which can serve to remove pathogens and necrotic tissue, but may also damage healthy tissue and exacerbate the inflammatory response. Our understanding of leukocyte recruitment in inflammation was revolutionized in the late 1980s by the discovery of chemokines (chemotactic cytokines), a family of small, secreted proteins that induce migration of selective subsets of leukocytes. Shortly afterwards, chemokines were found to exert their functions through the now familiar chemokine receptors, members of the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily. As their physiological and pathological functions were elucidated, chemokine receptors have become popular targets for drug development in inflammatory diseases as well as cancer metastasis and HIV infection. Extensive research has revealed that the functions of chemokines and their receptors are regulated at numerous levels, including: genetic mutations/polymorphisms; control of expression levels; ligand internalization via functional or decoy receptors; intrinsic selectivity of chemokine-receptor binding; hetero- or homo-oligomerization of chemokines or of receptors; alternative signalling pathways; interaction of chemokines with glycosaminoglycans; post-translational modifications; and binding to pathogen-derived inhibitors. This Special Issue of IJMS focused on the natural and pharmacological mechanisms by which the activities of chemokines and their receptors can be regulated.

Hidden Transfers of Assets and Hidden Payouts of Profit

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ISBN: 9789616842709 Year: Volume: 1 Pages: 257 DOI: 10.4335/978-961-6842-70-9 Language: Slovenian
Publisher: Institute for Local Self-Government and Public Procurement Maribor
Subject: Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2016-09-28 16:45:30
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The concept of "hidden payout of profit” is characteristic for tax law, but inappropriate for corporate law, although it became deep-rooted in this field by practice. Within the context of corporate law it is not only about the problem of profit payouts, but also about the protection of the so-called tied up assets of a capital company within the so-called principle of capital preservation. The purpose of the corporate legislation is to prevent inadmissible interferences of shareholders or associates in the company's assets. Unlike corporate law, the purpose of tax law is to protect (fiscal) interests of the state, primarily to protect the tax base of the company as an independent and only subject to taxation, therefore the payouts of profit don’t have an effect on the amount of the tax base, irrespective of whether the company pays out the profit in an open or hidden way. Hidden payouts of profit - as the open ones - do not reduce the tax base for income. The subject of the discussion are both aspects - the corporate aspect of hidden transfers of assets and the tax aspects of hidden transfers of assets within the law of joint-stock companies and limited liability companies.

La pluralité interprétative

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ISSN: 9782722601109 ISBN: 9782722601109 9782722601321 Year: Language: French
Publisher: Collège de France
Added to DOAB on : 2014-02-27 14:16:29
License: OpenEdition licence for Books

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L’étroitesse d’esprit, le dogmatisme, l’intolérance, le fanatisme sont, à des degrés divers, des formes d’enfermement dans un schéma mental. Pour y échapper, il faut accéder à la « pluralité interprétative » : devenir capable de « manipuler » ses propres représentations et ses idées pour adopter, au moins temporairement et en imagination, d’autres points de vue que le sien. Mais quelles sont les bases cérébrales et mentales d’une telle capacité chez l’enfant et chez l’adulte ? À travers quell...

Thermophiles and Thermozymes

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ISBN: 9783038978169 9783038978176 Year: Pages: 198 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-817-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-25 16:37:17
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Interest in the study of life in hot environments, both with respect to the inhabiting microorganisms and the enzymes they produce, is currently very high. The biological mechanisms responsible for the resistance to high temperatures are not yet fully understood, whereas thermostability is a highly required feature for industrial applications. In this e-book, the invited authors provide diverse evidence contributing to the understanding of such mechanisms and the unlocking of the biotechnological potential of thermophiles and thermozymes.

Microbial Fuel Cells 2018

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ISBN: 9783039215355 / 9783039215348 Year: Pages: 84 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-534-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Environmental Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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The rapid growth of global energy consumption and simultaneous waste discharge requires more sustainable energy production and waste disposal/recovery technology. In this respect, microbial fuel cell and bioelectrochemical systems have been highlighted to provide a platform for waste-to-energy and cost-efficient treatment. Microbial fuel cell technology has also contributed to both academia and industry through the development of breakthrough sustainable technologies, enabling cross- and multi-disciplinary approaches in microbiology, biotechnology, electrochemistry, and bioprocess engineering. To further spread these technologies and to help the implementation of microbial fuel cells, this Special Issue, entitled “Microbial Fuel Cells 2018”, was proposed for the international journal Energies. This Special Issue mainly covers original research and studies related to the above-mentioned topic, including, but not limited to, bioelectricity generation, microbial electrochemistry, useful resource recovery, system and process design, and the implementation of microbial fuel cells.

Cognitive Development and Individual Variability

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039210527 / 9783039210534 Year: Pages: 158 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-053-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Philosophy
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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The standard approach to cognitive development most frequently consists of cross-sectional studies comparing different ages and groups while restricted to a single task. The necessity to focus on the individual in an idiographic perspective, rather than on the task or the variable, has been repeatedly emphasized, most recently in several very important papers by Nesselroade and Molenaar. Variability has also emerged as a crucial characteristic. Moreover, understanding the developmental construction of a given cognitive achievement is imperative to understanding cognitive functioning in adulthood. The general objective of this book is to focus on the individual by studying intraindividual and interindividual variability in various cognitive tasks, that is, intraindividual variability across items of a given task (inconsistency), across various cognitive tasks (dispersion), and/or across years (intraindividual change), and of course, on interindividual differences in intraindividual variability. This book presents empirical studies that have been conducted by research groups in Europe and in North America, prominent in the field of variability and development or methodology. The 26 authors/co-authors include senior authors such as Lautrey, Schmiedek, Dauvier, van der Maas, Ghisletta, Stawski, MacDonald, and de Ribaupierre.

Development and Application of Herbal Medicine from Marine Origin

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039212217 / 9783039212224 Year: Pages: 140 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-222-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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Marine herbal medicine generally refers to the use of marine plants as original materials to develop crude drugs, or for other medical purposes. The term ‘marine plants’ usually denotes macroalgae grown between intertidal and subintertidal zones, including Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta, and Rhodophyta. Considerable progress has been made in the field of biomedical research into marine microalgae and microorganisms in the past decade. As the most important source of fundamental products in the world, marine plants have a very important role in biomedical research. Furthermore, worldwide studies have consistently demonstrated that many crude drugs derived from marine plants contain novel ingredients that may benefit health or can be used in the treatment of diseases; some have been developed into health foods, and some even into drugs. It is expected that there are many substances of marine plant origin that will have medical applications in terms of improving human health and are awaiting discovery.In this Special Issue, entitled “Development and Application of Herbal Medicine of Marine Origin”, we will provide a platform for researchers to publish biomedical studies on substances of marine plant origin. We welcome submissions from scientists and academics from across the world.

Biocatalysis and Pharmaceuticals: A Smart Tool for Sustainable Development

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ISBN: 9783039217083 / 9783039217090 Year: Pages: 176 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-709-0 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- Biotechnology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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Biocatalysis, that is, the use of biological catalysts (enzymes, cells, etc.) for the preparation of highly valuable compounds is undergoing a great development, being considered an extremely sustainable approach to undertaking environmental demands. In this scenario, this book illustrates the versatility of applied biocatalysis for the preparation of drugs and other bioactive compounds through the presentation of different research articles and reviews, in which several authors describe the most recent developments in this appealing scientific area. By reading the excellent contributions gathered in this book, it is possible to have an updated idea about new advances and possibilities for a new exciting future.

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