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Influenza Virus Vaccines and Immunotherapies

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198115 Year: Pages: 185 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-811-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Allergy and Immunology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Influenza virus infections lead to thousands of deaths worldwide annually and billions of dollars economic burden. Despite continuing advances in our understanding of the immune evasion mechanism, the disease remains one of the foremost threat for human being. Traditional vaccines (attenuated and inactivated) mainly provide protection by inducing virus neutralizing antibodies, targeting ever changing surface antigens: Haemagultinin (HA) and Neuraminidase (NA). Due to genetic shift and immune selection pressure, prevalence of circulating influenza virus subtypes changes every year. Therefore, mismatch between circulating strain and vaccine strain can critically affect the success rate of these conventional flu vaccines, and requires continuous monitoring of circulating influenza virus subtypes and change in the vaccine formulations accordingly. The collective limitations of existing flu vaccines urgently call for the development of a novel universal vaccines that might provide the required protective immunity to a range of influenza virus subtypes. New approaches are being investigated mainly targeting conserved regions of flu proteins. Some of these approaches include universally conserved epitopes of HA, nucleoprotein (NP), capsid protein (M1) and ion channel protein (M2) that induced strong immune responses in animal models. Some attention and progress appears to be focused on vaccines based on the M2 ectodomain (M2e) employing a variety of constructs, adjuvants and delivery systems, including M2e-hepatitis B core antigen, flagellin constructs, and virus-like particles (VLP). Animal studies with these M2e candidate vaccines demonstrated that these vaccine candidates can prevent severe illness and death but not infection, which may pose difficulties in both the evaluation of clinical efficacy and approval by the regulatory authorities. VLP vaccines appear to be promising, but still are mostly limited to animal studies. The discovery and development of new and improved vaccines have been greatly facilitated by the application of new technologies. The use of nucleic acid-based vaccines, to combine the benefits of in-situ expression of antigens with the safety of inactivated and subunit vaccines, has been a key advancement. Upon their discovery more than 20 years ago, nucleic acid vaccines promised to be a safe and effective mean to mimic immunization with a live organism vaccine, particularly for induction of T cell immunity. In addition, the manufacturing of nucleic acid-based vaccines offered the potential to be relatively simple, inexpensive and generic. Reverse Vaccinology and in-silico designing of vaccines are very innovative approaches and being considered as future of vaccines. Furthermore, various immuno-therapeutic agents also being developed to treat and minimize immuno-pathological damage in patients suffering from life threatening complications. For the treatment of such pathological conditions, various novel approaches such as administration of immune suppressive cytokines, blocking co-stimulatory signals or activating co-inhibitory signal of T cell activation, are being tested both in lab and clinics. The Research Topic on influenza virus vaccine and therapeutics will give an insight in to the current status and future scope of these new innovative approaches and technologies. Moreover, these new methods will also serve as a reference tool for the development of future vaccines against several other pathogens.

Why vaccines to HIV, HCV and Malaria have so far failed - Challenges to developing vaccines against immunoregulating pathogens

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199662 Year: Pages: 157 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-966-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology --- Medicine (General) --- Allergy and Immunology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Despite continuous progress in the development of anti-viral and anti-bacterial/parasite drugs, the high cost of medicines and the potential for re-infection, especially in high risk groups, suggest that protective vaccines to some of the most dangerous persistent infections are still highly desirable. There are no vaccines available for HIV, HCV and Malaria, and all attempts to make a broadly effective vaccine have failed so far. In this Research Topic we look into why vaccines have failed over the years, and what we have learn from these attempts. Rather than only showing positive results, this issue aims to reflect on failed efforts in vaccine development. Coming to understand our limitations will have theoretical and practical implications for the future development of vaccines to these major global disease burdens.

Keywords

Vaccine --- Infectious Disease --- HIV --- HCV --- Malaria --- influenza --- immunology --- Genetics

How aging affects T lymphocyte-mediated immunity

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194186 Year: Pages: 77 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-418-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Allergy and Immunology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-10 11:59:06
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Increasing age has been associated with an insufficient protection following vaccination and an increased incidence and severity of infectious diseases. The predicted acceleration of global population aging will accentuate the need to understand the mechanisms that drive the age-related decline of the immune system and to, eventually, identify strategies to lower the burden of infectious diseases in elderly people. One type of immune cell appears to be most dramatically affected by the aging process: T lymphocytes. Age-related changes of the bone marrow and the thymus microenvironment lead to a decreased thymic output of functional, naïve T lymphocytes. As T lymphocytes are key players of the adaptive immune system, this research topic will summarize our current understanding on how aging affects the microenvironmental niches and molecular networks that are important for the generation, survival and function of naïve, memory and effector T lymphocytes. This research topic will also address the impact of aging on the different T lymphocyte lineages, such as regulatory T cells and Th17 cells and how age-related changes of the microenvironment affect organ- and tissue-resident memory T lymphocytes. Eventually, the identification of a set of markers for immunosenescence would facilitate the design and application of more specific therapies and improved vaccines and vaccination strategies for elderly people, thereby increasing life and health span.

Dual-Use Life Science Research and Biosecurity in the 21st Century: Social, Technical, Policy, and Ethical Challenges

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195688 Year: Pages: 95 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-568-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Public Health --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-02-05 17:24:33
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In September 2011, scientists announced new experimental findings that would not only threaten the conduct and publication of influenza research, but would have significant policy and intelligence implications. The findings presented a modified variant of the H5N1 avian influenza virus (hereafter referred to as the H5N1 virus) that was transmissible via aerosol between ferrets. These results suggested a worrisome possibility: the existence of a new airborne and highly lethal H5N1 virus that could cause a deadly global pandemic. In response, a series of international discussions on the nature of dual-use life science arose. These discussions addressed the complex social, technical, political, security, and ethical issues related to dual-use research. This Research Topic will be devoted to contributions that explore this matrix of issues from a variety of case study and international perspectives.

Remote Sensing and Geospatial Technologies in Public Health

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ISBN: 9783038971726 9783038971733 Year: Pages: 244 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-173-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-09-21 11:22:29
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This book demonstrates the utilization of remote sensing and geospatial technologies for a wide range of public health studies.Although remote sensing and geospatial technologies have been successfully applied for more than 50 years, continuous advancements are essential to better understand the complex environment around us that impacts our health and well-being.Thankfully, the availability of spatial analytical tools and necessary data have enabled us to reveal multifaceted, obscured spatial relationships that would have been unexplored otherwise. Now, we are able to make more precise and effective public health-related decisions. However, without a proper understanding of the methodologies, applying these tools may result in inaccurate findings for decision-making.With 15 selected papers, this book covers diverse topics and discusses different methodologies that are fundamentals for spatial analysis in public health. Readers will have an opportunity to experience the advancements in spatial tools, data, and methodologies that are applicable to public health investigations.This book, Remote Sensing and Geospatial Technologies in Public Health, is expected to encourage academicians and professionals to further advance their knowledge in this sub-discipline.

One Health and Zoonoses

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ISBN: 9783039212958 / 9783039212965 Year: Pages: 140 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-296-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Public Health
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 16:10:12
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The One Health concept recognizes that the health of humans, animals, and their ecosystems are interconnected, and that a coordinated, collaborative, multidisciplinary, and cross-sectoral approach is necessary to fully understand and respond to potential or existing risks that originate at the animal–human–ecosystems interfaces. Thus, the One Health concept represents a holistic vision for addressing some of the complex challenges that threaten human and animal health, food safety, and the environments in which diseases flourish. There are many examples showing how the health of humans is related to the health of animals and the environment. Diseases shared between humans and animals are zoonoses. Some zoonoses have been known for many years, whereas others have emerged suddenly and unexpectedly. Over 70% of all new emerging diseases over the past few decades have been zoonoses that have emerged from wildlife, most often from bats, rodents, or birds. Examples of zoonoses are many and varied, ranging from rabies to bovine tuberculosis, and from Japanese encephalitis to SARS. Clearly, a One Health approach is essential for understanding their ecology, and for outbreak response and the development of control strategies. However, the One Health concept and approach is much broader than zoonoses; it extends to including antimicrobial resistance, food safety, and environmental health and, consequently, impacts on global health security, economic wellbeing, and international trade. It is this breadth of One Health that connects the papers in this Special Issue.

Dual Specificity Phosphatases: From Molecular Mechanisms to Biological Function

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ISBN: 9783039216888 / 9783039216895 Year: Pages: 240 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-689-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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Dual specificity phosphatases (DUSPs) constitute a heterogeneous group of protein tyrosine phosphatases with the ability to dephosphorylate Ser/Thr and Tyr residues from proteins, as well as from other non-proteinaceous substrates including signaling lipids. DUSPs include, among others, MAP kinase (MAPK) phosphatases (MKPs) and small-size atypical DUSPs. MKPs are enzymes specialized in regulating the activity and subcellular location of MAPKs, whereas the function of small-size atypical DUSPs seems to be more diverse. DUSPs have emerged as key players in the regulation of cell growth, differentiation, stress response, and apoptosis. DUSPs regulate essential physiological processes, including immunity, neurobiology and metabolic homeostasis, and have been implicated in tumorigenesis, pathological inflammation and metabolic disorders. Accordingly, alterations in the expression or function of MKPs and small-size atypical DUSPs have consequences essential to human disease, making these enzymes potential biological markers and therapeutic targets. This Special Issue covers recent advances in the molecular mechanisms and biological functions of MKPs and small-size atypical DUSPs, and their relevance in human disease.

Human Mobility, Spatiotemporal Context, and Environmental Health: Recent Advances in Approaches and Methods

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ISBN: 9783039211838 / 9783039211845 Year: Pages: 382 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-184-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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Environmental health researchers have long used concepts like the neighborhood effect to assessing people’s exposure to environmental influences and the associated health impact. However, these are static notions that ignore people’s daily mobility at various spatial and temporal scales (e.g., daily travel, migratory movements, and movements over the life course) and the influence of neighborhood contexts outside their residential neighborhoods. Recent studies have started to incorporate human mobility, non-residential neighborhoods, and the temporality of exposures through collecting and using data from GPS, accelerometers, mobile phones, various types of sensors, and social media. Innovative approaches and methods have been developed. This Special Issue aims to showcase studies that use new approaches, methods, and data to examine the role of human mobility and non-residential contexts on human health behaviors and outcomes. It includes 21 articles that cover a wide range of topics, including individual exposure to air pollution, exposure and access to green spaces, spatial access to healthcare services, environmental influences on physical activity, food environmental and diet behavior, exposure to noise and its impact on mental health, and broader methodological issues such as the uncertain geographic context problem (UGCoP) and the neighborhood effect averaging problem (NEAP). This collection will be a valuable reference for scholars and students interested in recent advances in the concepts and methods in environmental health and health geography.

Keywords

obesity --- built environment --- activity space --- regression analysis --- UGCoP --- foodscape exposure --- activity space --- commuting route --- space-time kernel density estimation --- time-weighted exposure --- Beijing --- cycling for transportation --- bike paths --- train stations --- subway stations --- adults --- Brazil --- fuel consumption --- emissions estimation --- GPS trace --- big data --- air pollution exposure --- human mobility --- mobile phone data --- dynamic assessment --- GIS --- GPS --- activity space --- environmental exposure --- the uncertain geographic context problem --- noise pollution --- mental disorders --- built environment --- multilevel model --- China --- PM concentrations --- crop residue burning --- correlation analysis --- interannual and seasonal variations --- China --- the neighborhood effect averaging problem (NEAP) --- human mobility --- environmental exposure --- the uncertain geographic context problem --- UGCoP --- car ownership --- car use --- built environment --- spatial autocorrelation --- multilevel Bayesian model --- geographical accessibility --- Healthcare services --- GIS --- E2SFCA --- CHAS --- Singapore --- environmental health --- food environment --- environmental context cube --- environmental context exposure index --- the uncertain geographic context problem (UGCoP) --- GPS --- GIS --- healthcare accessibility --- catchment areas --- access probability --- taxi GPS trajectories --- E2SFCA --- greenspace exposure --- health --- human mobility --- physical activity --- structural equation modeling --- Guangzhou --- healthcare accessibility --- population demand --- geographic impedance --- the elderly --- urban planning --- 3SFCA --- real-time traffic --- crowdedness --- well-being experience --- long-distance walking --- collective leisure activity --- walking event --- urban leisure --- missing data --- spatial data --- imputation --- geographic imputation --- activity space --- ecological momentary assessment --- EMA --- walking --- active travel --- ageing --- physical environment --- personal projects --- activity space --- Public Participatory GIS (PPGIS) --- spatial accessibility --- multimodal network --- primary healthcare --- China --- 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic --- transport modes --- rail travel --- spatial spread --- quantile regression --- green space --- road traffic accidents --- cognitive aging --- activity space --- life-course perspectives --- environmental exposures

Virus Bioinformatics

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ISBN: 9783039218820 / 9783039218837 Year: Pages: 330 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-883-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:08
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Virus bioinformatics is evolving and succeeding as an area of research in its own right, representing the interface of virology and computer science. Bioinformatic approaches to investigate viral infections and outbreaks have become central to virology research, and have been successfully used to detect, control, and treat infections of humans and animals. As part of the Third Annual Meeting of the European Virus Bioinformatics Center (EVBC), we have published this Special Issue on Virus Bioinformatics.

Keywords

bioinformatics --- virus --- comparative genomics --- software --- Base-By-Base --- BBB --- poxvirus --- ASFV --- MSA --- foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) --- bovine soft palate --- nasopharynx --- transcriptomics --- proteomics --- bioinformatics --- virus-host interaction --- innate immune system --- interferon-stimulated genes (ISG) --- cellular immunity --- codon frequency distribution --- HPV58 --- minor capsid protein --- TLR agonist --- prophylaxis --- virus --- infection --- fluorescent reporter protein --- image quantification --- Hepatitis C virus --- Yellow Fever Virus --- polyomavirus --- Coxsackievirus B4 --- bivalve --- virome --- RNA-seq --- RNA viruses --- sncRNA --- ADAR --- RNAi --- Marek’s disease virus (MDV) --- RNA-seq --- transcriptome --- splicing --- polycistronic viral transcripts --- primary B cells --- RB1B --- CVI988/Rispens --- ICP0 --- DNA replication --- ori --- mitochondria --- Rickettsia --- gram-positive bacteria --- APMV --- Mimivirus --- giant virus --- eukaryogenesis --- flavivirus --- non-coding RNA --- secondary structure --- endogenous viral elements --- bioinformatics --- horizontal gene transfer --- virus-to-host gene transfer --- HMM --- tobacco mosaic virus --- Drosophila --- capsid protein --- deep sequencing --- virus genomics --- hepatitis C virus --- variant calling --- sequence interpretation --- drug resistance --- bioinformatics --- alignment --- assembly --- taxonomic classification --- time series --- data transformation --- DWT --- DFT --- PAA --- data compression --- compressive genomics --- RNAseq --- honey bees --- deformed wing virus --- quasispecies --- apiary pests --- recombination --- mRNA structure --- structure database --- secondary structure --- viral mRNA --- subVOG --- structurally related --- RNA structure --- structurally homogenous --- structurally related --- mRNA families --- Amebae viruses --- viral evolution --- protein domains --- mimivirus --- dsdna viruses --- translation machinery --- pandoravirus --- NCLDV --- virology --- virus bioinformatics --- software --- systems virology --- metagenomics --- virome --- viral taxonomy --- virus classification --- genome evolution --- bacteriophage --- virosphere --- chemical organization theory --- influenza A --- virus dynamics modeling --- complex networks analysis --- viral metagenome --- groundwater --- aquifer --- AquaDiva --- sequencing library preparation --- virus proteomics --- mass spectrometry --- virus diagnostics --- data analysis --- targeted proteomics --- peptide selection --- parallel reaction monitoring

Advances in Peptide and Peptidomimetic Design Inspiring Basic Science and Drug Discovery: A Themed Issue Honoring Professor Victor J. Hruby on the Occasion of His 80th Birthday

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ISBN: 9783039282883 / 9783039282890 Year: Pages: 406 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-289-0 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Therapeutics --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
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Advances in Peptide and Peptidomimetic Design Inspiring Basic Science and Drug Discovery is a book dedicated to Prof. Victor J. Hruby on the occasion of his 80th birthday. This book includes twenty contributions from authors representing diverse multidisciplinary fields of scientific expertise, and is focused on the extraordinary potential of peptides and peptidomimetics as a surging therapeutic modality and as tools for basic research and technology development.

Keywords

MC3R --- MC4R --- mixed pharmacology --- tetrapeptides --- melanocortins --- Plk1 --- selectivity --- polo-box domain --- peptide --- triazole --- PKA --- stapled peptide --- PKI --- pseudosubstrate --- kinase inhibitor --- IP20 --- polycationic -amino acids --- small antimicrobial peptides --- sepsis --- peptidomimetics --- VEGF165 --- neuropilin-1 --- molecular dynamics --- structure–activity relationship --- OBOC --- combinatorial chemistry --- opioid --- drug screen --- molecular rotor dye --- high throughput screening --- sensor chip --- peptide --- peptide-drug conjugate --- mixed-mode pharmacology --- GLP-1 --- GnRH --- LHRH --- chemical linker --- cancer --- diabetes --- obesity --- drug discovery --- melanocortin-4 receptor --- obesity --- peptide agonist --- cardiovascular profile --- G?S signaling --- receptor desensitization --- receptor internalization --- peptidomimetics --- azapeptides --- aza-amino acids --- ?-hairpin --- ?-sheet --- programmed cell death ligand protein 1 --- pharmacophore --- peptide --- small molecule --- anticancer peptide --- therapeutic peptides --- support vector machine --- random forest --- machine learning --- classification --- peptides --- endosomolytic --- amphiphilic --- fusogenic --- influenza hemagglutinin --- RBC lysis --- peptide permeability --- stapled peptide --- macrocyclic peptide --- D-amino acid --- helix-breaker --- adaptogenic --- autophagy --- ?-ginkgotide --- cytoprotective --- cysteine-rich peptides --- disulfide-rich scaffold --- hyperdisulfide --- hypoxia --- LIR motif --- ginkgo nuts --- ?-helix mimetics --- bis-benzamide scaffold --- protein–protein interaction --- prostate cancer --- androgen receptor --- coactivator PELP1 --- Ranalexin --- peptide therapeutics --- antibiotics --- configuration --- antimicrobial activity --- cancer vaccine --- synthetic vaccine --- adjuvant --- Toll-like receptor --- Pam2Cys --- N-acetylated Pam2Cys --- bioconjugation --- lipidation --- prostaglandin F2? --- preterm labor --- myometrium contractions --- peptidomimetic --- structure-activity --- opioids --- multifunctional ligands --- peptide design --- free energy calculation --- d-amino acid scan --- alanine scan

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