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Nutrition in Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD)

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ISBN: 9783039214396 / 9783039214402 Year: Pages: 370 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-440-2 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Abstract

The purpose of this Special Issue “Nutrition in Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD)” is to increase knowledge regarding the role of dietary composition and effects in IBD, describing the prevalence of malnutrition in IBD and the effect on clinical outcomes, discussing methods of nutrition risk screening and assessment in IBD, and reviewing mechanisms through which diet and dietary components may affect disease severity. The articles focus on the following areas: Dietary Composition/Therapy Interventions in Ulcerative Colitis and effects on outcomes; Dietary Composition/Therapy Interventions in Crohn’s Disease and effects on outcomes; Nutrition Risk Screening and Assessment in IBD; Mechanisms of Diet in the pathogenesis of IBD.

Keywords

body composition --- obesity --- visceral adipose tissue --- fat --- osteoporosis --- osteopenia --- sarcopenia --- inflammatory bowel disease --- Crohn’s disease --- dietary intake --- malnutrition --- Mediterranean diet --- exclusive enteral nutrition --- children --- IBD --- remission --- mucosal cytokines --- dietary protein level --- colitis --- epithelial repair --- mucosa-adherent microbiota --- intestinal inflammation --- inflammatory bowel disease --- epithelial adherens junctions --- bioactive peptides --- synbiotic --- prebiotic --- probiotic --- IBD --- Bacillus spores --- dietary fibre --- sugar cane fibre --- ulcerative colitis --- colon --- high-sulfur foods --- inflammation --- metagenomics --- microbiota --- sulfur reducing --- inflammatory bowel disease --- Crohn --- ulcerative colitis --- diet --- nutrition --- exclusive enteral nutrition --- intestinal epithelial cells --- inflammation --- probiotics --- Lactobacillus acidophilus --- Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis --- vitamin D --- IBD --- Crohn’s disease --- ulcerative colitis --- supplementation --- deficiency --- Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) --- Mediterranean Diet --- Western-style Diet (WSD) --- Nutritional Approach --- vitamin D --- Crohn’s disease --- ulcerative colitis --- faecal calprotectin --- C-reactive protein --- diet --- inflammatory bowel disease --- microbiota --- intestinal barrier --- nutrients --- immunity --- colitis --- food additive --- diet --- emulsifiers --- high salt diet --- inflammatory bowel diseases --- inflammatory bowel disease --- dietary modification --- exclusive enteral nutrition --- lifestyle modification --- Mediterranean diet --- colorectal cancer --- inflammatory bowel disease --- colorectal cancer --- dysplasia --- berries --- chemoprevention --- Inflammatory Bowel Disease --- micronutrients --- vitamin --- mineral --- deficiency --- inflammatory bowel disease --- dietary habits --- food components --- gut microbiota --- immune homeostasis --- epigenetic changes --- inflammatory bowel disease --- malnutrition --- Mediterranean diet --- older age --- diet --- inflammatory bowel disease --- ulcerative colitis --- inflammatory bowel disease --- Westernisation --- genotypes --- nutrient deficiency --- food intolerance --- FODMAPs --- gluten --- fructose --- lactose --- brassica --- mushrooms --- n/a

TRP Channels in Health and Disease

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ISBN: 9783039210824 / 9783039210831 Year: Pages: 266 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-083-1 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:07
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Almost 25 years ago, the first mammalian transient receptor potential (TRP) channel was cloned and published. TRP channels now represent an extended family of 28 members fulfilling multiple roles in the living organism. Identified functions include control of body temperature, transmitter release, mineral homeostasis, chemical sensing, and survival mechanisms in a challenging environment. The TRP channel superfamily covers six families: TRPC with C for “canonical”, TRPA with A for “ankyrin”, TRPM with M for “melastatin”, TRPML with ML for “mucolipidin”, TRPP with P for “polycystin”, and TRPV with V for “vanilloid”. Over the last few years, new findings on TRP channels have confirmed their exceptional function as cellular sensors and effectors. This Special Book features a collection of 8 reviews and 7 original articles published in “Cells” summarizing the current state-of-the-art on TRP channel research, with a main focus on TRP channel activation, their physiological and pathophysiological function, and their roles as pharmacological targets for future therapeutic options.

Keywords

ion channel --- TRPC --- small molecules --- calcium --- chemical probes --- TRPV1 --- TRPV2 --- TRPV3 --- TRPV4 --- mucosal epithelium --- ulcerative colitis --- inflammatory bowel disease --- TRPM4 channel --- cardiovascular system --- physiology --- pathophysiology --- TRPC6 --- elementary immunology --- inflammation --- calcium --- sodium --- neutrophils --- lymphocytes --- endothelium --- platelets --- human medulla oblongata --- cuneate nucleus --- dorsal column nuclei --- TRPV1 --- calcitonin gene-related peptide --- substance P --- TRP channels --- calcium signaling --- salivary glands --- xerostomia --- radiation --- inflammation --- transient receptor potential channels --- TRPC3 pharmacology --- channel structure --- lipid mediators --- photochromic ligands --- transient receptor potential --- TRPC3 --- mGluR1 --- GABAB --- EPSC --- Purkinje cell --- cerebellum --- toxicology --- TRP channels --- organ toxicity --- chemicals --- pollutants --- chemosensor --- TRPM7 --- kinase --- inflammation --- lymphocytes --- calcium signalling --- SMAD --- TH17 --- hypersensitivity --- regulatory T cells --- thrombosis --- graft versus host disease --- 2D gel electrophoresis --- AP18 --- HEK293 --- HSP70 --- MALDI-TOF MS(/MS) --- nanoHPLC-ESI MS/MS --- proteomics --- sulfur mustard --- TRPA1 --- TRPC channels --- diacylglycerol --- TRPC4 --- TRPC5 --- NHERF --- TRP channel --- TRPY1 --- Saccharomyces cerevisiae --- calcium --- manganese --- oxidative stress --- ion channels --- overproduction --- production platform --- protein purification --- Saccharomyces cerevisiae --- sensors --- transient receptor potential (TRP) channels --- yeast --- adipose tissue --- bioavailable --- menthol --- topical --- TRPM8 --- n/a

Curcumin in Health and Disease

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ISBN: 9783039214495 / 9783039214501 Year: Pages: 274 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-450-1 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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The plant-derived polyphenol curcumin has been used in promoting health and combating disease for thousands of years. Its therapeutic effects have been successfully utilized in Ayurvedic and Traditional Chinese Medicine in order to treat inflammatory diseases. Current results from modern biomolecular research reveal the modulatory effects of curcumin on a variety of signal transduction pathways associated with inflammation and cancer. In this context, curcumin’s antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumorigenic, and even anti-metastatic activities are discussed. On the cellular level, the reduced activity of several transcription factors (such as NFkB or AP-1) and the suppression of inflammatory cytokines, matrix degrading enzymes, metastasis related genes and even microRNAs are reported. On functional levels, these molecular effects translate into reduced proliferative, invasive, and metastatic capacity, as well as induced tumor cell apoptosis. All these effects have been observed not only in vitro but also in animal models. In combination with anti-neoplastic drugs like Taxol, kinase inhibitors, and radiation therapy, curcumin potentiates the drugs’ therapeutic power and can protect against undesired side effects. Natural plant-derived compounds like curcumin have one significant advantage: They do not usually cause side effects. This feature qualifies curcumin for primary prevention in healthy persons with a predisposition to cancer, arteriosclerosis, or chronic inflammatory diseases. Nonetheless, curcumin is considered safe, although potential toxic effects stemming from high dosages, long-term intake, and pharmacological interactions with other compounds have yet to be assessed. This Special Issue examines in detail and updates current research on the molecular targets, protective effects, and modes of action of natural plant-derived compounds and their roles in the prevention and treatment of human diseases.

Keywords

brain ischemia --- curcumin --- Alzheimer’s disease --- neurodegeneration --- amyloid --- tau protein --- autophagy --- mitophagy --- apoptosis --- genes --- glioblastoma multiforme --- autophagy --- mitophagy --- curcumin --- chaperone-mediated autophagy --- Akt/mTOR signaling --- transmission electron microscopy --- Curcuma longa --- turmeric tuber --- Zingiberaceae --- TLC bioautography --- antimicrobial agents --- ImageJ --- TLC-MS --- hydrostatic counter-current chromatography --- centrifugal partition chromatography --- curcumin --- death receptor --- apoptosis --- curcumin --- anticancer --- structure activity relationship --- cellular pathway --- mechanism of action --- delivery system --- wound --- wound healing --- diet --- nutrition --- micronutrients --- macronutrients --- curcumin --- amino-acids --- vitamins --- minerals --- curcumin --- oxidative metabolites --- inflamm-aging --- cancer --- metabolic reprogramming --- direct protein binding --- IL-17 --- STAT3 --- SHMT2 --- ageing --- anti-cancer --- autophagy --- microbiota --- senescence --- senolytics --- curcumin --- transthyretin --- amyloidosis --- protein aggregation --- protein misfolding --- drug discovery --- curcumin --- renal cell cancer --- tumor growth --- tumor proliferation --- cell cycling --- curcumin --- reflux esophagitis --- gastroprotection --- gastric ulcer --- Helicobacter pylori --- gastric cancer --- curcumin --- complementary medicine --- cancer treatment --- supportive care --- antioxidants --- anti-inflamation --- ulcerative colitis --- Crohn’s disease --- necrotizing enterocolitis --- curcumin --- inflammatory bowel disease --- curcumin --- silica --- chitosan --- nanoparticles --- anti-tumor --- antioxidant activity --- n/a

Cell-Free Nucleic Acids

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ISBN: 9783039280742 / 9783039280759 Year: Pages: 248 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-075-9 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-30 16:39:46
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Abstract

The deficits of mammography and the potential of noninvasive diagnostic testing using circulating miRNA profiles are presented in our first review article. Exosomes are important in the transfer of genetic information. The current knowledge on exosome-associated DNAs and on vesicle-associated DNAs and their role in pregnancy-related complications is presented in the next article. The major obstacle is the lack of a standardized technique for the isolation and measurement of exosomes. One review has summarized the latest results on cell-free nucleic acids in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Despite the extensive research, the etiology and exact pathogenesis are still unclear, although similarity to the cell-free ribonucleic acids (cfRNAs) observed in other autoimmune diseases seems to be relevant in IBD. Liquid biopsy is a useful tool for the differentiation of leiomyomas and sarcomas in the corpus uteri. One manuscript has collected the most important knowledge of mesenchymal uterine tumors and shows the benefits of noninvasive sampling. Microchimerism has also recently become a hot topic. It is discussed in the context of various forms of transplantation and transplantation-related advanced therapies, the available cell-free nucleic acid (cfNA) markers, and the detection platforms that have been introduced. Ovarian cancer is one of the leading serious malignancies among women, with a high incidence of mortality; the introduction of new noninvasive diagnostic markers could help in its early detection and treatment monitoring. Epigenetic regulation is very important during the development of diseases and drug resistance. Methylation changes are important signs during ovarian cancer development, and it seems that the CDH1 gene is a potential candidate for being a noninvasive biomarker in the diagnosis of ovarian cancer. Preeclampsia is a mysterious disease—despite intensive research, the exact details of its development are unknown. It seems that cell-free nucleic acids could serve as biomarkers for the early detection of this disease. Three research papers deal with the prenatal application of cfDNA. Copy number variants (CNVs) are important subjects for the study of human genome variations, as CNVs can contribute to population diversity and human genetic diseases. These are useful in NIPT as a source of population specific data. The reliability of NIPT depends on the accurate estimation of fetal fraction. Improvement in the success rate of in vitro fertilization (IVF) and embryo transfer (ET) is an important goal. The measurement of embryo-specific small noncoding RNAs in culture media could improve the efficiency of ET.

Keywords

breast cancer --- screening --- liquid biopsy --- omics --- multi-level diagnostics --- individualized patient profile --- miRNA --- mammography --- predictive and preventive approach --- personalized medicine --- cell-free DNA --- exosomes --- extracellular vesicles --- fetal DNA --- preeclampsia --- growth retardation --- gestational diabetes mellitus --- miRNA --- piRNA --- NGS --- RT-PCR --- embryo culture medium --- C19MC microRNA --- expression --- exosomes --- fetal growth restriction --- gestational hypertension --- plasma --- prediction --- preeclampsia --- pregnancy-related complications --- screening --- non-invasive prenatal testing --- statistical models --- z-score --- cell-free nucleic acids --- circulating nucleic acids --- cell-free DNAs --- cell-free RNAs --- exosomes --- inflammatory bowel disease --- neutrophil extracellular traps --- NETosis --- liquid biopsy --- cell-free nucleic acids --- circulating tumor cells --- leiomyomas --- sarcomas --- leiomyosarcomas --- exosomes --- NIPT --- fetal fraction --- statistical methods --- DNA --- maternal serum screening --- fetal cells --- liquid biopsy --- pyrosequencing --- ovarian cancer --- CDH1 --- PTEN --- PAX1 --- RASSF1 --- cfDNA --- cell-free DNA --- nuclease activity --- aging --- obesity --- gender differences --- copy number variants --- next generation sequencing --- non-invasive prenatal testing --- population study --- microchimerism --- solid organ transplantation --- hematopoietic stem cell transplantation --- genetic marker --- single nucleotide polymorphism --- deletion/insertion polymorphism --- ovarian cancer --- circulating miRNA --- blood plasma --- NanoString --- network analysis --- biomarker --- n/a

Plant Natural Products for Human Health

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038977124 Year: Pages: 514 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-713-1 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Therapeutics --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-05 10:34:31
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Abstract

Plants have served mankind as an important source of foods and medicines. While we all consume plants and their products for nutritional support, a majority of the world population also rely on botanical remedies to meet their health needs, either as their own “traditional medicine” or as “complementary and alternative medicine”. From a pharmaceutical point of view, many compounds obtained from plant sources have long been known to possess bio/pharmacological activities, and historically, plants have yielded many important drugs for human use, from morphine discovered in the early nineteenth century to the more recent paclitaxel and artemisinin. Today, we are witnessing a global resurgence in interest and use of plant-based therapies and botanical products, and natural products remain an important and viable source of lead compounds in many drug discovery programs.This Special Issue on “Plant Natural Products for Human Health” compiles a series of scientific reports to demonstrate the medicinal potentials of plant natural products. It covers a range of disease targets, such as diabetes, inflammation, cancer, neurological disease, cardiovascular disease, liver damage, bacterial, and fungus infection and malarial. These papers provide important insights into the current state of research on drug discovery and new techniques. It is hoped that this Special Issue will serve as a timely reference for researchers and scholars who are interested in the discovery of potentially useful molecules from plant sources for health-related applications.

Keywords

heat-process --- onion --- calorie restriction --- Amadori rearrangement compounds --- hyperglycemia --- A549 cells --- hinokitiol --- MMPs --- p53/Bax --- antioxidant enzymes --- caspases --- migration --- cannabinoid type 1 receptor --- endoplasmic reticulum stress --- gluconeogenesis --- gomisin N --- lipogenesis --- insulin resistance --- garlic --- ischemia --- heme oxygenase --- reperfusion --- heart --- Keap1 --- Nrf2 --- Neuroprotective --- PC12 cells --- PhGs --- anti-malaria activity --- plants --- natural products --- ethnopharmacology --- Plasmodium parasites --- copaiba --- oleoresin --- essential oil --- sesquiterpenoids --- diterpenoids --- biological activity --- molecular targets --- Astragali Radix --- astragaloside IV --- genistein --- mitochondrial bioenergetics --- oxygen consumption rate --- natural products --- drug design and development --- innovation --- automation --- computational softwares --- bioinformatics --- precision medicine --- omics --- global health --- sweet orange --- bitter orange --- neroli --- orange petitgrain --- mandarin --- lemon --- lime --- grapefruit --- bergamot --- yuzu --- kumquat --- cannabigerol --- Cannabis sativa --- neuroinflammation --- oxidative stress --- phytocannabinoid --- iridoids --- nuclear factor-kappaB --- mitogen-activated protein kinase --- anti-inflammation --- Ziziphus jujuba --- triterpenic acids --- pharmacokinetic study --- acute liver injury --- A? --- AD --- lychee seed --- neuroinflammation --- catechin --- procyanidin A2 --- apoptosis --- cinnamamides --- antistaphylococcal activity --- time-kill assay --- biofilm --- antitubercular activity --- MTT assay --- antifungal activity --- PET inhibition --- toxicity --- structure–activity relationship --- bleeding time --- flavonoid --- morin hydrate --- OH· free radical --- platelet activation --- protein kinase --- thromboembolism --- Glycyrrhiza uralensis --- prenylated flavonoids --- antiproliferation --- differentiation --- melanoma cell --- adjuvant-induced arthritis --- arthritis --- celastrol --- curcumin --- dietary supplements --- EGCG --- green tea --- inflammation --- liposomes --- microbiome --- nanoparticles --- natural products --- resveratrol --- rheumatoid arthritis --- targeted delivery --- traditional medicine --- Tripterygium wilfordii --- triptolide --- Penthorum chinense Pursh --- NAFLD --- hepatic steatosis --- flavonoids --- SIRT1 --- AMPK --- dihydromyricetin --- myocardial hypertrophy --- oxidative stress --- sirtuin 3 --- ginseng --- human-hair-follicle dermal papilla cells --- WNT/?-catenin --- Shh/Gli --- TGF-? --- BMP/Smad --- mouse-hair growth --- Panax notoginseng saponins --- aspirin --- HepaRG cells --- herb–drug interactions --- P. eryngii --- glucans --- inflammation --- inflammatory bowel disease --- medicinal plants --- phytochemicals --- scoulerine --- bergapten --- immunomodulator --- adjuvant --- cytoxicity --- dendritic cells --- immune modulation --- APAP --- acetaminophen --- hepatotoxicity --- hpatoprotection --- paracetamol --- animals --- preclinical studies --- natural products --- small molecules --- phytochemicals --- plants --- fucoidan --- acetaminophen --- Nrf2 --- oxidative stress --- hepatotoxicity --- plant natural product --- drug discovery --- human health

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