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Britain's Imperial Cornerstone in China

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Book Series: Routledge Studies in the Modern History of Asia ISBN: 9780203315125 9780415326193 9780415545518 9781134340941 9781134340934 9781134340897 Year: DOI: 10.4324/9780203315125 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Sociology --- History --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-11-08 11:21:30
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This is an in-depth account of the Chinese Imperial Maritime Customs Service, a uniquely cosmopolitan institution established in the wake of China's defeat in the Opium Wars (1842 to 43), and a central feature of the Treaty Port system. The British-dominated service was headed by the famous Robert Hart who founded a far-reaching customs administration that also encompassed other responsibilities such as marine and harbour maintenance, quarantine, anti-piracy patrols and postal services. This institution sat at a crucial juncture between Chinese and foreign interests, and was intimately linked to British interests and fortunes in the Far East. Following the establishment of the Republic in 1911 there were grave misgivings as to whether the foreign element of the Service would survive. Yet the Service grew in influence and strength, ensuring the foreign inspectorate a continued role in China's affairs. Delivering an overview of the Service, its bureaucracy, fiscal responsibilities and life for foreigners in its employ, focusing especially on the later years of the Service, Donna Brunero draws on the experiences of the foreign administration of the Service as it attempted to negotiate between Chinese and foreign expectations and interests.

Keywords

chinese --- maritime --- customs --- service --- indoor --- staff --- foreign --- sino --- western --- relations

Human Factors in Green Building

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ISBN: 9783038975663 9783038975670 Year: Pages: 200 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-567-0
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Construction --- Architecture
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 09:42:11
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World Green Building Council suggests that health, well-being and productivity should be the next chapter for green building. There is an obvious shift of green building movement from technology-centric towards human-centric, which culminates in recent WELL Building Standard, focusing exclusively on human health and wellness. This special issue aims to push forward the research, discourse and practice of green building towards more human-oriented design solutions. Particularly, this special issue collects papers on: Post-occupancy evaluation of green buildingsIndoor Environmental Quality (IEQ)Thermal Comfort and Adaptive BehaviorsQuality of Life and HousingHealthcare Design

Assessing the Performance of Passive Houses in Mediterranean Climate Regions

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ISBN: 9783039289493 / 9783039289509 Year: Pages: 138 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-950-9 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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This book results from a Special Issue related to the latest progress in the thermodynamics of machines systems and processes since the premonitory work of Carnot. Carnot invented his famous cycle and generalized the efficiency concept for thermo-mechanical engines. Since that time, research progressed from the equilibrium approach to the irreversible situation that represents the general case. This book illustrates the present state-of-the-art advances after one or two centuries of consideration regarding applications and fundamental aspects. The research is moving fast in the direction of economic and environmental aspects. This will probably continue during the coming years. This book mainly highlights the recent focus on the maximum power of engines, as well as the corresponding first law efficiency upper bounds.

Mobile Mapping Technologies

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9783039280186 9783039280193 Year: Pages: 334 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-019-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-07 09:08:26
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Mobile Mapping technologies have seen a rapid growth of research activity and interest in the last years, due to the increased demand of accurate, dense and geo-referenced 3D data. Their main characteristic is the ability of acquiring 3D information of large areas dynamically. This versatility has expanded their application fields from the civil engineering to a broader range (industry, emergency response, cultural heritage...), which is constantly widening. This increased number of needs, some of them specially challenging, is pushing the Scientific Community, as well as companies, towards the development of innovative solutions, ranging from new hardware / open source software approaches and integration with other devices, up to the adoption of artificial intelligence methods for the automatic extraction of salient features and quality assessment for performance verification The aim of the present book is to cover the most relevant topics and trends in Mobile Mapping Technology, and also to introduce the new tendencies of this new paradigm of geospatial science.

Keywords

cultural heritage --- restoration --- indoor mapping --- laser scanning --- wearable mobile laser system --- 3D digitalization --- SLAM --- visual landmark sequence --- indoor topological localization --- convolutional neural network (CNN) --- second order hidden Markov model --- ORB-SLAM2 --- binary vocabulary --- small-scale vocabulary --- rapid relocation --- terrestrial laser scanning --- tunnel central axis --- tunnel cross section --- enhanced RANSAC --- quadric fitting --- constrained nonlinear least-squares problem --- visual simultaneous localization and mapping --- dynamic environment --- RGB-D camera --- encoder --- OctoMap --- IMMS --- indoor mapping --- MLS --- mobile laser scanning --- SLAM --- point clouds --- 2D laser scanner --- 2D laser range-finder --- LiDAR --- LRF --- sensors configurations --- Lidar localization system --- unmanned vehicle --- segmentation-based feature extraction --- category matching --- multi-group-step L-M optimization --- map management --- indoor mapping --- room type tagging --- semantic enrichment --- grammar --- Bayesian inference --- indoor localization --- crowdsourcing trajectory --- fingerprinting --- smartphone --- mobile mapping --- laser scanning --- self-calibration --- 3D point clouds --- geometric features --- motion estimation --- trajectory fusion --- mobile mapping --- sensor fusion --- optical sensors --- robust statistical analysis --- portable mobile mapping system --- handheld --- 3D processing --- point cloud --- Vitis vinifera --- terrestrial laser scanning --- plant vigor --- mobile mapping --- precision agriculture --- vine size --- visual positioning --- indoor scenes --- automated database construction --- image retrieval

Energy Performance and Indoor Climate Analysis in Buildings

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039213795 9783039213801 Year: Pages: 374 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-380-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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HVAC systems, load shifting, indoor climate, and energy and ventilation performance analyses are the key topics when improving energy performance in new and renovated buildings. This development has been boosted by the recently established nearly zero energy building requirements that will soon be in use in all EU Member States, as well as similar long-term zero energy building targets in Japan, the US, and other countries. The research covered in this Special Issue provides evidence of how new technical solutions have worked, in practice, in new or renovated buildings, and also discusses problems and how solutions should be further developed. Another focus is on the more detailed calculation methods needed for the correct design and sizing of dedicated systems, and for accurate quantification of energy savings. Occupant behavior and building operation is also examined, in order to avoid common performance gaps between calculated and measured performance. These topics demonstrate the challenge of high performance buildings as, in the end, comfortable buildings with good indoor climate which are easy and cheap to operate and maintain are expected by end customers. Ventilation performance, heating and cooling, sizing, energy predictions and optimization, load shifting, and field studies are some of the key topics in this Special Issue, contributing to the future of high performance buildings with reliable operation.

Keywords

Jaya algorithm --- smart grid --- optimal energy management --- demand response --- demand side management --- indoor temperature after renovation --- electricity use --- DHW energy use --- user behavior --- standard use --- energy performance modeling --- gray box --- satellite-based solar radiation data --- meteorological reanalysis data --- ISO 52016-1 --- energy efficiency --- HVAC systems --- chiller plants --- chiller performance --- COP --- data-driven analysis --- energy --- building --- ventilation --- cooling --- outdoor air --- air jet --- personalized ventilation --- skin temperature --- CFD --- thermal analysis --- corner impinging jet --- mixing ventilation --- displacement ventilation --- tracer gas --- air exchange effectiveness --- local air change effectiveness --- draught rate --- Monte Carlo method --- ISO 7730 --- TRNSYS --- greenhouse --- indoor temperature uniformity --- multiple sensor nodes --- qualitative control --- corner impinging jet --- corner mixing ventilation --- hybrid displacement device --- heating mode --- thermal comfort --- air exchange effectiveness --- local air change effectiveness --- draught rate, --- downdraught --- smart buildings --- smart readiness indicator --- energy efficiency --- energy performance of buildings directive --- energy flexibility --- load shifting --- demand response --- building energy simulation --- occupant behavior --- energy performance --- indoor climate --- retirement home --- user input data --- condenser evaporative precooling --- rooftop air conditioners --- building energy modelling --- control strategy --- ground source heat pump --- heating power --- sizing --- DHW heating --- space heating --- alternate operation --- daylight --- existing buildings --- daylight factor --- daylight simulations --- daylight survey --- energy efficiency --- student dormitories --- Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ), Pro-GET-onE H2020 --- in situ measurements --- monitoring measurements --- energy signature --- indoor air quality --- stratification --- basketball hall --- CFD --- field measurement --- single room ventilation unit --- building pressure condition --- stack effect --- wind pressure --- ventilation renovation --- decentralized ventilation unit

Preservation of Cultural Heritage and Resources Threatened by Climate Change

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ISBN: 9783039211241 9783039211258 Year: Pages: 186 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-125-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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With its wide spectrum of data, case studies, monitoring, and experimental and numerical simulation techniques, the multidisciplinary approach of material, environmental, and computer science applied to the conservation of cultural heritage offers several opportunities for the heritage science and conservation community to map and monitor state-of-the-art knowledge on natural and human-induced climate change impacts on cultural heritage—mainly constituted by the built environment—in Europe and Latin America. Geosciences’ Special Issue titled “Preservation of Cultural Heritage and Resources Threatened by Climate Change” was launched to take stock of the existing but still fragmentary knowledge on this challenge, and to enable the community to respond to the implementation of the Paris agreement. These 10 papers exploit a broad range of data derived from preventive conservation monitoring conducted indoors in museums, churches, historical buildings, or outdoors in archeological sites and city centers. Case studies presented in the papers focus on a well-assorted sample of decay phenomena occurring on heritage materials (e.g., surface recession and biomass accumulation on limestone, depositions of pollutant on marble, salt weathering on inorganic building materials, and weathering processes on mortars in many local- to regional-scale study areas in the Scandinavian Peninsula, the United Kingdom, Belgium, France, Italy, Greece, and Panama). Besides monitoring, the methodological approaches showcased include, but are not limited to, original material characterization, decay product characterization, and climate and numerical modelling on material components for assessing environmental impact and climate change effects.

Energy and Technical Building Systems - Scientific and Technological Advances

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039281787 9783039281794 Year: Pages: 220 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-179-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
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Future buildings require not only energy efficiency but also proper building automation and control system functionalities in order to respond to the needs of occupants and energy grids. These development paths require a focus on occupant needs such as good indoor climate, easy operability, and monitoring. Another area to be tackled is energy flexibility, which is needed to make buildings responsive to the price signals of electricity grids with increasing amounts of fluctuating renewable energy generation installed both in central grids and at building sites. This Special Issue is dedicated to HVAC systems, load shifting, indoor climate, and energy and ventilation performance analyses in buildings. All these topics are important for improving the energy performance of new and renovated buildings within the roadmap of low energy and nearly zero energy buildings. To improve energy performance and, at the same time, occupant comfort and wellbeing, new technical solutions are required. Occupancy patterns and recognition, intelligent building management, demand response and performance of heating, cooling and ventilation systems are some common keywords in the articles of this Special Issue contributing to future highly performing buildings with reliable operation.

Keywords

ice rinks --- air distribution solutions --- indoor air temperature gradient --- air handling unit configuration --- building energy efficiency --- building performance simulation --- energy and HVAC-systems in buildings --- energy piles --- validation --- floor slab heat loss --- energy --- computer simulations --- predictive rule-based control --- hourly CO2eq. intensity --- demand response --- energy flexibility --- n/a --- indoor environment quality --- thermal comfort --- personalized ventilation --- fuzzy logic --- environmental impact --- device efficiency --- air pollutant --- multi-households --- solid oxide fuel cell cogeneration system --- end-use energy consumption --- heating --- ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) --- intelligent system management --- lighting electrical energy --- national electricity grid --- office building --- Photovoltaic system --- simulation --- Simulink® --- deep renovation --- energy retrofit --- detached house --- multi-objective optimization --- greenhouse gas emissions --- heat pump --- genetic algorithm --- occupancy density --- moisture conditions --- energy use --- indoor air quality --- ventilation rate --- KNX --- Neural Network (NN) --- Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) --- Random Tree (RT) --- Linear Regression (LR) --- Cloud Computing (CC) --- Internet of Things (IoT) --- LMS (Least Mean Squares) Adaptive filter (AF) --- gateway --- monitoring --- occupancy --- prediction --- IBM SPSS --- Intelligent Buildings (IB) --- energy savings

Brain-Computer Interfaces for Human Augmentation

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039219063 9783039219070 Year: Pages: 128 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-907-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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The field of Brain–Computer Interfaces (BCIs) has grown rapidly in the last few decades, allowing the development of faster and more reliable assistive technologies based on direct links between the brain and an external device. Novel applications of BCIs have also been proposed, especially in the area of human augmentation, i.e., enabling people to go beyond human limitations in sensory, cognitive and motor tasks. Brain-imaging techniques, such as electroencephalography, have been used to extract neural correlates of various brain processes and transform them, via machine learning, into commands for external devices. Brain stimulation technology has allowed to trigger the activation of specific brain areas to enhance the cognitive processes associated to the task at hand, hence improving performance. BCIs have therefore extended their scope from assistive technologies for people with disabilities to neuro-tools for human enhancement. This Special Issue aims at showing the recent advances in BCIs for human augmentation, highlighting new results on both traditional and novel applications. These include, but are not limited to, control of external devices, communication, cognitive enhancement, decision making and entertainment.

Visible Light Communication and Positioning

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ISBN: 9783039214358 9783039214365 Year: Pages: 144 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-436-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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In recent years, wireless communications have significantly evolved due to the advanced technology of smartphones;, portable devices; and the rapid growth of Internet of Things, e-Health, and intelligent transportation systems . Moreover, there is anare increasing need fors of emerging intelligent services like positioning and sensing in athe future intelligence society. Recent years have witnessed the growing research interests and activities in the communication and intelligencet services in the optical wireless spectrum, as a complementary technology to more

Environmental Impact Assessment of Buildings

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ISBN: 9783039282432 9783039282449 Year: Pages: 168 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-244-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:08
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This Special Issue covers a wide range of areas—including building orientation, service life, use of photocatalytically active structures and PV facades, implications of transportation system, building types (i.e., high rise, multilevel, commercial, residential), life cycle assessment, and structural engineering—that need to be considered in the environmental impact assessment of buildings, and the chapters include case studies across the globe. Consideration of these strategies would help reduce energy and material consumption, environmental emissions, and waste generation associated with all phases of a building’s life cycle. Chapter 1 demonstrates that green star concrete exhibits the same structural properties as conventional concrete in Australia. Chapter 2 showed that the use of TiO2 as a photocatalyst on the surface of construction materials with a suitable stable binding agent, such as aggregates, would enable building walls to absorb NOx from air. This study found that TiO2 has the potential to reduce ambient concentrations of NOx from areas where this pollutant becomes concentrated under solar irradiation. Chapter 3 presents the life cycle assessment of architecturally integrated glass–glass photovoltaics in building facades to find the appropriate material composition for a multicolored PV façade offering improved environmental performance. Chapter 4 shows that urban office buildings lacking appropriate orientation experienced indoor overheating. Chapter 5 details four modeling approaches that were implemented to estimate buildings’ response towards load shedding. Chapter 6 covers the life cycle GHG emissions of high-rise residential housing block to discover opportunities for environmental improvement. Chapter 7 discusses an LCA framework that took into account variation in the service life of buildings associated with the use of different types of materials. Chapter 8 presents a useful data mining algorithm to conduct life cycle asset management in residential developments built on transport systems.

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