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Recent insights into perceptual and motor skill learning (The computational and neural substrates of skill learning)

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194469 Year: Pages: 132 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-446-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-02-05 17:24:33
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Improvements in task performance following practice can occur as a result of changes in distinct cognitive and neural processes. In some cases, we can improve our performance by selecting a more successful behavior that is already part of our available repertoire. Skill learning, on the other hand, refers to a slower process that results in improving the ability to perform a behavior, i.e., it involves the acquisition of a behavior that was not available to the controller before training. Skill learning can take place both in the sensory and in the motor domains. Sensory skill acquisition in perceptual learning tasks is measured by improvements in sensory acuity through practice-induced changes in the sensitivity of relevant neural networks. Motor skill is harder to define as the term is used whenever a motor learning behavior improves along some dimension. Nevertheless, we have recently argued that as in perceptual learning, acuity is an integral component in motor skill learning. In this special topic we set out to integrate experimental and theoretical work on perceptual and motor skill learning and to stimulate a discussion regarding the similarities and differences between these two kinds of learning.

Habits: Plasticity, learning and freedom

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196739 Year: Pages: 148 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-673-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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In present times, certain fields of science are becoming aware of the necessity to go beyond a restrictive specialization, and establish an open dialogue with other disciplines. Such is the case of the approach that neuroscience and philosophy are performing in the last decade. However, this increasing interest in a multidisciplinary perspective should not be understood, in our opinion, as a new phenomenon, but rather as a return to a classical standpoint: a proper understanding of human features –organic, cognitive, volitional, motor or behavioral, for example– requires a context that includes the global dimension of the human being. We believe that grand neuroscientific conclusions about the mind should take into account what philosophical reflection has said about it; likewise, philosophers should consider the organic constitution of the brain to draw inferences about the mind. Thus, both neuroscience and philosophy would benefit from each other’s achievements through a fruitful dialogue. One of the main problems a multidisciplinary group encounters is terminology: the same term has a different scope in various fields, sometimes even contradictory. Such is the case of habits: from a neuroscientific perspective, a habit is a mere automation of an action. It is, therefore, linked to rigidity and limitation. However, from a classical philosophical account, a habit is an enabling capacity acquired through practice, which facilitates, improves and reinforces the performance of certain kind of actions. From neuroscience, habit acquisition restricts a subject’s action to the learnt habit; from philosophy, habit acquisition allows the subject to set a distance from the simple motor performance to cognitively enrich the action. For example, playing piano is a technical habit; considering the neuroscientific account, a pianist would just play those sequences of keystrokes that had been repeatedly practiced in the past. However, according to the philosophical perspective, it would allow the pianist to improvise and, moreover, go beyond the movements of their hands to concentrate in other features of musical interpretation. In other words, a holistic view of habits focuses on the subject’s disposition when facing both known and novel situations. We believe neuroscience could contribute to achieve a deeper understanding of the neural bases of habits, whose complexity could be deciphered by a philosophical reflection. Thus, we propose this Research Topic to increase our understanding on habits from a wide point of view. This collection of new experimental research, empirical and theoretical reviews, general commentaries and opinion articles covers the following subjects: habit learning; implicit memory; computational and complex dynamical accounts of habit formation; practical, cognitive, perceptual and motor habits; early learning; intentionality; consciousness in habits performance; neurological and psychiatric disorders related to habits, such as obsessive-compulsive disorder, stereotypies or addiction; habits as enabling or limiting capacities for the agent.

How Do Emotions and Feelings Regulate Physical Activity?

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452712 Year: Pages: 149 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-271-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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Up to date the scientific discussion about how frequency and regularity of physical activity can be increased is dominated by social-cognitive models. However, increasing evidence suggests that emotions and feelings have greater influence on physical activity than originally assumed (Rhodes, Fiala, & Conner, 2009). Generally speaking, humans possess an evaluative system with a basic action tendency to approach pleasurable events and to avoid aversive ones (Cacioppo & Berntson, 1999). Evaluative responses to a behavior and associated emotional states may influence a decision regarding whether or not to repeat being physically active. Generally, behavior associated with positive evaluations has a higher probability of being repeated than behaviors without such an association. On the contrary, an association with negative evaluations tends to decrease the probability of repeating to be physically active. Hence, evaluative responses to physical activity or the related situation can be an important aspect in the process of physical activity maintenance (McAuley et al., 2007). Several social-cognitive models of behavior change and maintenance were recently extended to take the influence of affective responses into account, in a way that variables already included in the models (e.g. outcome expectancies or attitudes) were more clearly articulated into their cognitive and affective components. For example, with regard to Social Cognitive Theory, Gellert, Ziegelmann and Schwarzer (2012) proposed to distinguish between affective and health-related outcome expectancies, and in the Theory of Planned Behavior, researchers suggested to differentiate between cognitive and affective attitudes (Lawton, Conner, & McEachan, 2009). The results of these and other studies suggest that affective components make a unique contribution to the explanation of the physical activity behavior (Brand, 2006). Other examples come from social cognition research, where it was shown that automatic evaluative responses are part of our everyday life and that they decisively influence health behavior (Hofmann, Friese, & Wiers, 2008). Accordingly, there is evidence that people who exercise regulary hold more positive automatic evaluations with exercise than non-exercisers (Bluemke, Brand, Schweizer, & Kahlert, 2010). Although significant progress has been made in showing that evaluative responses to physical activity and associated emotional states are important predictors of physical activity underlying psychological processes are far from being fully understood. Some important issues still remain to be resolved. Which role play affective states compared to concrete emotions when influencing physical activity? How do affective states and emotions interact with cognitive variables such as intentions? Are evaluative processes before, during or after physical activity important to predict future physical activity? Do negative and positive evaluations interact antagonistically or rather synergistically when physical activity as a new behavior shall be adopted? Future research will help us to resolve these and a lot of other so far unresolved issues.

Computer Algebra in Scientific Computing

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ISBN: 9783039217304 9783039217311 Year: Pages: 160 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-731-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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Although scientific computing is very often associated with numeric computations, the use of computer algebra methods in scientific computing has obtained considerable attention in the last two decades. Computer algebra methods are especially suitable for parametric analysis of the key properties of systems arising in scientific computing. The expression-based computational answers generally provided by these methods are very appealing as they directly relate properties to parameters and speed up testing and tuning of mathematical models through all their possible behaviors. This book contains 8 original research articles dealing with a broad range of topics, ranging from algorithms, data structures, and implementation techniques for high-performance sparse multivariate polynomial arithmetic over the integers and rational numbers over methods for certifying the isolated zeros of polynomial systems to computer algebra problems in quantum computing.

Multiscale Turbulent Transport

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ISBN: 9783039282128 9783039282135 Year: Pages: 210 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-213-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:08
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Turbulent transport is currently a prominent and ongoing investigation subject at the interface of methodologies from theory to numerical simulations and experiments, and it covers several spatiotemporal scales. Mathematical analysis, physical modelling, and engineering applications represent different facets of a classical, long-standing problem that is still far from being thoroughly comprehended. The goal of this Special Issue is to outline recent advances of such subjects as multiscale analysis in turbulent transport processes, Lagrangian and Eulerian descriptions of turbulence, advection of particles and fields in turbulent flows, ideal or nonideal turbulence (unstationary/inhomogeneous/anisotropic/compressible), turbulent flows in biofluid mechanics and magnetohydrodynamics, and the control and optimization of turbulent transport. The SI is open to regular articles, review papers focused on the state of the art and the progress made over the last few years, and new research trends.

Swarm Robotics

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ISBN: 9783038979227 9783038979234 Year: Pages: 310 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-923-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Collectively working robot teams can solve a problem more efficiently than a single robot, while also providing robustness and flexibility to the group. Swarm robotics model is a key component of a cooperative algorithm that controls the behaviors and interactions of all individuals. The robots in the swarm should have some basic functions, such as sensing, communicating, and monitoring, and satisfy the following properties:

Keywords

3D model identification --- shape normalization --- weighted implicit shape representation --- panoramic view --- scale-invariant feature transform --- optimization --- meta-heuristic --- parallel technique --- Swarm intelligence algorithm --- artificial flora (AF) algorithm --- bionic intelligent algorithm --- particle swarm optimization --- artificial bee colony algorithm --- swarm robotics --- search --- surveillance --- behaviors --- patterns --- comparison --- swarm behavior --- Swarm Chemistry --- self-organization --- asymmetrical interaction --- genetic algorithm --- cooperative target hunting --- multi-AUV --- improved potential field --- surface-water environment --- signal source localization --- multi-robot system --- event-triggered communication --- consensus control --- time-difference-of-arrival (TDOA) --- Cramer–Rao low bound (CRLB) --- optimal configuration --- UAV swarms --- path optimization --- multiple robots --- formation --- sliding mode controller --- nonlinear disturbance observer --- system stability --- formation control --- virtual structure --- formation reconfiguration --- multi-agents --- robotics --- unmanned aerial vehicle --- swarm intelligence --- particle swarm optimization --- search algorithm --- underwater environment --- sensor deployment --- event-driven coverage --- fish swarm optimization --- congestion control --- modular robots --- self-assembly robots --- environmental perception --- target recognition --- autonomous docking --- formation control --- virtual linkage --- virtual structure --- formation reconfiguration --- mobile robots --- robotics --- swarm robotics --- formation control --- coordinate motion --- obstacle avoidance --- n/a

Computational Methods for Fracture

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ISBN: 9783039216864 9783039216871 Year: Pages: 404 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-687-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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This book offers a collection of 17 scientific papers about the computational modeling of fracture. Some of the manuscripts propose new computational methods and/or how to improve existing cutting edge methods for fracture. These contributions can be classified into two categories: 1. Methods which treat the crack as strong discontinuity such as peridynamics, scaled boundary elements or specific versions of the smoothed finite element methods applied to fracture and 2. Continuous approaches to fracture based on, for instance, phase field models or continuum damage mechanics. On the other hand, the book also offers a wide range of applications where state-of-the-art techniques are employed to solve challenging engineering problems such as fractures in rock, glass, concrete. Also, larger systems such as fracture in subway stations due to fire, arch dams, or concrete decks are studied.

Keywords

plate --- FSDT --- HSDT --- Mindlin --- incompatible approximation --- fracture --- screened-Poisson model --- gradient-enhanced model --- damage-plasticity model --- implicit gradient-enhancement --- rock --- shear failure --- elastoplastic behavior --- extended scaled boundary finite element method (X-SBFEM) --- stress intensity factors --- fracture process zone (FPZ) --- thermomechanical analysis --- moderate fire --- finite element simulations --- metallic glass matrix composite --- finite element analysis --- shear band --- microstructure --- ductility --- peridynamics --- fatigue --- rolling contact --- damage --- rail squats --- cracks --- steel reinforced concrete frame --- reinforced concrete core tube --- progressive collapse analysis --- loss of key components --- self-healing --- damage-healing mechanics --- super healing --- anisotropic --- brittle material --- Brittle Fracture --- cell-based smoothed-finite element method (CS-FEM) --- Phase-field model --- ABAQUS UEL --- the Xulong arch dam --- yielding region --- cracking risk --- overall stability --- dam stress zones --- concrete creep --- prestressing stress --- compressive stress --- FE analysis --- force transfer --- grouting --- fracture network modeling --- numerical simulation --- fluid–structure interaction --- bulk damage --- brittle fracture --- rock fracture --- random fracture --- Mohr-Coulomb --- Discontinuous Galerkin --- EPB shield machine --- conditioned sandy pebble --- particle element model --- parameters calibration --- geometric phase --- photonic orbital angular momentum --- topological insulator --- topological photonic crystal --- fatigue crack growth --- surface crack --- crack shape change --- three-parameter model --- LEFM --- XFEM/GFEM --- SBFEM --- phase field --- n/a

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