Search results: Found 18

Listing 1 - 10 of 18 << page
of 2
>>
Sort by
Hydrothermal microbial ecosystems

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196821 Year: Pages: 284 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-682-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Recent Advances in Geomicrobiology of the Ocean Crust

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452835 Year: Pages: 328 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-283-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Igneous oceanic crust is one of the largest potential habitats for life on earth, and microbial activity supported by rock-water-microbe reactions in this environment can impact global biogeochemical cycles. However, our understanding of the microbiology of this system, especially the subsurface “deep biosphere” component of it, has traditionally been limited by sample availability and quality. Over the past decade, several major international programs (such as the Center for Dark Energy Biosphere Investigations, the current International Ocean Discovery Program and its predecessor Integrated Ocean Drilling Program, and the Deep Carbon Observatory) have focused on advancing our understanding of life in this cryptic, yet globally relevant, biosphere. Additionally, many field and laboratory research programs are examining hydrothermal vent systems –a seafloor expression of seawater that has been thermally and chemically altered in subseafloor crust – and the microbial communities supported by these mineral-rich fluids. The Frontiers in Microbiology 3 September 2017 | Recent Advances in Geomicrobiology of the Ocean Crust papers in this special issue bring together recent discoveries of microbial presence, diversity and activity in these dynamic ocean environments. Cumulatively, the articles in this special issue serve as a tribute to the late Dr. Katrina J. Edwards, who was a pioneer and profound champion of studying microbes that “rust the crust”. This special issue volume serves as a foundation for the continued exploration of the subsurface ocean crust deep biosphere.

Hydrothermal Technology in Biomass Utilization & Conversion

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039286768 / 9783039286775 Year: Pages: 166 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-677-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

This book addresses a key innovative technology for decarbonization of the energy system: hydrothermal processing. It basically consists of treating biomass and wastes in a wet form, under pressure and temperature condition. This approach is becoming more and more attractive, as new feedstock and applications are appearing on the scene of bioeconomy and bioenergy. The hydrothermal processing of various type of biomass, waste, and residues, thus, raised the interest of many researchers and companies around the world, together with downstream upgrading processes and technologies: solid products as biochar, for instance, or liquid ones as crude bioliquids, are finding new market opportunities in circular economy schemes. The Special Issue collects recent innovative research works in the field, from basic to applied research, as well as pilot industrial applications/demo. It is a valuable set of references for those investing time and effort in research in the field.

Mineralogy of Quartz and Silica Minerals

Author:
ISBN: 9783038973485 9783038973492 Year: Pages: 274 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-349-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemistry (General) --- Geology --- Earth Sciences --- Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-20 11:34:22
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

The present book reports recent contributions from research in the field of quartz and other silica minerals. The various forms of silica (SiO2) represent important constituents of the Earth crust and play a central role in the composition of geological materials. In particular, quartz is widely used as a raw material in numerous industrial sectors. The knowledge of the formation and specific properties of SiO2 rocks and minerals is indispensable for the understanding and reconstruction of geological processes, as well as for specific technical applications.The works presented in this book are contributed by leading scientists and deal with aspects of the formation and processing of SiO2 raw materials, the analysis of high-purity quartz, and the specifics and varieties (e.g., quartz, amethyst, opal, agate) of SiO2 modifications. The presentations cover the main interrelations between theoretical, analytical, and industrial studies and provide information concerning recent developments in the research on SiO2 materials.

Novel Photoactive Materials

Author:
ISBN: 9783038976509 Year: Pages: 166 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-651-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Physics (General) --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-03-05 14:29:32
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Photoactivity represents the ability of a material, generally speaking a semiconductor, to become active when interacting with light. It can be declined in many ways, and several functionalities arising from this behavior of materials can be exploited, all leading to positive repercussions on our environment. There are several classes of effects of photoactivity, all of which have been deeply investigated in the last few decades, allowing to develop more and more efficient materials and devices. All of them share a common point, that is, the interaction of a material with light, although many different materials are taken into account depending on the effect desired—from elemental semiconductors like silicon, to more complex compounds like CdTe or GaAs, to metal oxides like TiO2 and ZnO. Given the broadness of the field, a huge number of works fall within this topic, and new areas of discovery are constantly explored. The special issue “Novel Photoactive Materials” has been proposed as a means to present recent developments in the field, and for this reason the articles included touch different aspects of photoactivity, from photocatalysis to photovoltaics to light emitting materials.

Mineral Surface Reactions at the Nanoscale

Author:
ISBN: 9783038978961 9783038978978 Year: Pages: 220 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-897-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Geology --- Earth Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Reactions at mineral surfaces are central to all geochemical processes. As minerals comprise the rocks of the Earth, the processes occurring at the mineral–aqueous fluid interface control the evolution of the rocks and hence the structure of the crust of the Earth during processes such as metamorphism, metasomatism, and weathering. In recent years focus has been concentrated on mineral surface reactions made possible through the development of advanced analytical methods such as atomic force microscopy (AFM), advanced electron microscopies (SEM and TEM), phase shift interferometry, confocal Raman spectroscopy, and advanced synchrotron-based applications, to enable mineral surfaces to be imaged and analyzed at the nanoscale. Experiments are increasingly complemented by molecular simulations to confirm or predict the results of these studies. This has enabled new and exciting possibilities to elucidate the mechanisms that govern mineral–fluid reactions. In this Special Issue, “Mineral Surface Reactions at the Nanoscale”, we present 12 contributions that highlight the role and importance of mineral surfaces in varying fields of research.

Thermophiles and Thermozymes

Author:
ISBN: 9783038978169 9783038978176 Year: Pages: 198 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-817-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-25 16:37:17
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Interest in the study of life in hot environments, both with respect to the inhabiting microorganisms and the enzymes they produce, is currently very high. The biological mechanisms responsible for the resistance to high temperatures are not yet fully understood, whereas thermostability is a highly required feature for industrial applications. In this e-book, the invited authors provide diverse evidence contributing to the understanding of such mechanisms and the unlocking of the biotechnological potential of thermophiles and thermozymes.

Arctic Mineral Resources. Science and Technology

Author:
ISBN: 9783038978244 9783038978251 Year: Pages: 432 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-825-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-25 16:37:17
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

The Arctic zone of the Earth is a major source of mineral and other natural resources for the future development of science and technology. It contains a large supply of strategic mineral deposits, including rare earths, copper, phosphorus, niobium, platinum-group elements, and other critical metals. The continued melting of the sea ice due to climate change makes these resources more accessible than ever before. However, the mineral exploration in the Arctic has always been a challenge due to the climatic restrictions, remote location, and vulnerability of Arctic ecosystems. This book covers a broad range of topics related to the problem of Arctic mineral resources, including geological, geochemical, and mineralogical aspects of their occurrence and formation; chemical technologies; and environmental and economic problems related to mineral exploration. The contributions can be tentatively classified into four major types: geodynamics and metallogeny, mineralogy and petrology, mineralogy and crystallography, and mining and chemical technologies associated with the exploration of mineral deposits and the use of raw materials for manufacturing new products. The book can be of interest for all those interested in Arctic issues and especially in Arctic mineral resources and associated problems of mineralogy, geology, geochemistry, and technology.

Keywords

forsterite --- typochemistry --- crystal structure --- Kovdor phoscorite–carbonatite complex --- pyrochlore supergroup minerals --- typochemistry --- crystal structure --- Kovdor phoscorite-carbonatite complex --- pyrrhotite --- chalcopyrite --- pentlandite --- cobaltpentlandite --- typochemistry --- crystal structure --- Kovdor phoscorite-carbonatite complex --- shkatulkalite --- titanosilicate --- crystal structure --- Kola Peninsula --- Lovozero alkaline massif --- transformation mineral species --- vuonnemite --- titanium --- niobium --- heap leaching --- bacterial leaching --- cryomineralogenesis --- low-grade copper-nickel ore --- raw materials --- apatite-nepheline-titanite ore --- sulfuric-acidic decomposition --- titanyl sulfate --- hydrothermal synthesis --- ivanyukite --- batievaite-(Y) --- hainite-(Y) --- titanosilicate --- rinkite group minerals --- Kola Peninsula --- Sakharjok massif --- Keivy alkaline province --- transformation mineral species --- vanadium mineralization --- mineralogy --- Paleoproterozoic --- Kola region --- Arctic zone --- Fennoscandian Shield --- zircon --- macrocrysts --- kimberlite --- trace elements --- geochronology --- cathodoluminescence --- Ti-in-zircon geothermometry --- antigorite --- ore dressing tailings --- mechanical activation --- alkali-activated binder --- Yenisei-Khatanga basin --- Siberian craton --- Arctic --- oil --- gas --- petroleum potential --- geodynamics --- apatite --- Khibiny --- apatite-nepheline deposit --- phase diagram apatite-nepheline-diopside --- silicocarbonatite --- melteigite --- calcite --- nepheline --- zeolite group minerals --- garnet --- crystal fractionation --- Breivikbotn --- Northern Norway --- saponite-containing waters --- diamond processing plants --- cryogenic treatment --- electrochemical separation --- saponite product applications --- U mineralization --- hydrothermal deposits --- U-Pb --- Rb-Sr --- Kola region --- evolution of the composition --- basic rocks --- Precambrian --- search of trend differences --- geodynamic evolution --- metallogeny --- beryllium minerals --- chemical composition --- mineral data --- alkaline rocks --- granite --- pegmatites --- hydrothermal veins --- Kola Peninsula --- Plume --- LIP --- PGE --- Palaeoproterozoic --- mafic intrusion --- U-Pb --- isotopes --- PGE --- South Reef --- West-Pana intrusion --- Fedorova-Pana Complex --- zircon dating --- U-Pb --- Khibiny promising structures --- conductive layers --- MHD-source “Khibiny”, Pechenga structure --- Kola Peninsula --- greenstone belt --- gold --- Kola Peninsula --- Northern Karelia --- rock alteration --- n/a

Biomass Chars: Elaboration, Characterization and Applications ?

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039216628 9783039216635 Year: Pages: 342 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-663-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Agriculture (General) --- Biology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Biomass can be converted to energy, biofuels, and bioproducts via thermochemical conversion processes, such as combustion, pyrolysis, and gasification. Combustion technology is most widely applied on an industrial scale. However, biomass gasification and pyrolysis processes are still in the research and development stage. The major products from these processes are syngas, bio-oil, and char (called also biochar for agronomic application). Among these products, biomass chars have received increasing attention for different applications, such as gasification, co-combustion, catalysts or adsorbents precursors, soil amendment, carbon fuel cells, and supercapacitors. This Special Issue provides an overview of biomass char production methods (pyrolysis, hydrothermal carbonization, etc.), characterization techniques (e.g., scanning electronic microscopy, X-ray fluorescence, nitrogen adsorption, Raman spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and temperature programmed desorption and mass spectrometry), their properties, and their suitable recovery processes.

Keywords

biomass production --- multicriteria model --- ELECTRE III --- combustion --- oxygen enrichment --- low-rank coal char --- char oxidation --- reaction kinetics --- salty food waste --- FT-IR --- pyrolysis --- biochar --- NaCl --- hydrothermal carbonization --- anaerobic digestion --- poultry slaughterhouse --- sludge cake --- energy recovery efficiency --- gasification --- kinetic model --- active site --- chemisorption --- hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) --- Chinese reed --- biocrude --- biochar --- high heating value (HHV) --- biochar --- steam --- gasification --- chemical speciation --- AAEMs --- underground coal gasification --- ash layer --- effective diffusion coefficient --- internal diffusion resistance --- pyrolysis --- hydrothermal carbonization --- biochar engineering --- porosity --- nutrients --- polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) --- nitrogen --- biomass --- amino acid --- pyrrole --- NOx --- pyrolysis --- grape marc --- kinetic models --- characterization --- pyrolysis --- Texaco pilot plant --- reactor modelling --- ash fusion temperature (AFT) --- melting phenomenon --- food waste compost --- sawdust --- pyrolysis --- biochar --- thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) --- calorific value --- biogas purification --- coconut shells --- biomass valorization --- textural characterization --- adsorption isotherms --- breakthrough curves --- olive mill solid wastes (OMSWs) --- fixed bed combustor --- pellets --- combustion parameters --- gaseous emissions --- waste wood --- interactions --- interferences --- partial combustion reaction in gasification --- Boudouard reaction in gasification --- MTDATA --- biomass --- steam gasification --- kinetics --- pyrolysis conditions --- thermogravimetric analysis --- characteristic time analysis --- biomass --- combustion --- thermogravimetric analysis --- kinetic parameters --- thermal characteristics --- food waste --- food-waste biochar --- pyrolysis --- NaCl template --- desalination --- biochar --- ash from biomass --- giant miscanthus --- fertilisation --- CO2 adsorption --- CH4 adsorption --- biomass --- activated carbon --- n/a

Solid Catalysts for the Upgrading of Renewable Sources

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038975724 Year: Pages: 226 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-573-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemistry (General) --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-05 11:07:22
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

The use of solid catalysts for the upgrade of renewable sources gives the opportunity to combine the two main cores of green chemistry, that is, on the one hand, the set-up of sustainable processes and, on the other, the use of biomass-derived materials. Solid catalysts have taken on a leading role in traditional petrochemical processes and could represent a key tool in new biorefinery-driven technologies.

Listing 1 - 10 of 18 << page
of 2
>>
Sort by
Narrow your search

Publisher

MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (16)

Frontiers Media SA (2)


License

CC by-nc-nd (16)

CC by (2)


Language

english (14)

eng (4)


Year
From To Submit

2020 (5)

2019 (10)

2018 (1)

2017 (1)

2015 (1)