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Soil Water Conservation. Dynamics and Impact

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ISBN: 9783038978527 9783038978534 Year: Pages: 258 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-853-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- Environmental Technology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-25 16:37:17
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Abstract

Human needs like food and clean water are directly related to good maintenance of healthy and productive soils. A good understanding of human impact on the natural environment is therefore necessary to preserve and manage soil and water resources. This knowledge is particularly important in semi-arid and arid regions, where the increasing demands on limited water supplies require urgent efforts to improve water quality and water use efficiency. It is important to keep in mind that both soil and water are limited resources. Thus, wise use of these natural resources is a fundamental prerequisite for the sustainability of human societies. This book collects 15 original scientific contributions addressing the state of the art of soil and water conservation research. Contributions cover a wide range of topics, including (1) recovery of soil hydraulic properties; (2) erosion risk; (3) novel modeling, monitoring and experimental approaches for soil hydraulic characterization; (4) improvement of crop yields; (5) water availability; and (6) soil salinity. This collection provides more insights into conservation strategies for effective and sustainable soil and water management.

Keywords

soil moisture storage --- van Genuchten model --- distributed model --- Xin’anjiang model --- TOPMODEL --- bimsoils --- critical hydraulic gradient (CHG) --- response surface methodology --- multi-parameter evaluation --- laboratory experiment --- soil block --- subsurface flow --- macropore network --- spatial scale --- polyurethane foam --- hillslope --- soil water content --- field observation --- three-dimensional model --- numerical model --- delta plain --- shallow groundwater --- unsaturated soil --- Richards equation --- the Trefftz method --- transient --- the meshless method --- vineyards --- infiltration rate --- age of planting --- saturated hydraulic conductivity --- Malawi --- conservation agriculture --- peer effects --- decision tree modeling --- olive grove --- sap flow --- relative transpiration --- FDR sensor --- EM38 --- fraction transpiration soil water --- transdisciplinary research --- Follow-the-Innovation --- innovation development --- electromagnetic induction meter (EM) --- The Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (APSIM) software --- AquaCrop --- cereals --- DSSAT --- field scattering --- food security --- microdose fertilization --- rainfall variability --- tied ridges --- upgrading strategies --- soil properties --- saturated soil hydraulic conductivity --- soil infiltration --- Beerkan method --- post-fire soil hydraulic characterization --- infiltration --- bottomless bucket method --- single-ring infiltrometer --- field-saturated soil hydraulic conductivity --- data analysis procedures --- environmental change --- local perception --- food security --- adaptation --- soil tillage --- tillage erosion --- seedbed preparation --- water infiltration --- nitrogen use efficiency --- specific leaf water content --- vegetable production --- soil --- yield --- water and soil conservation --- sustainable land management --- soil erosion --- soil water storage --- water infiltration --- water availability --- crop yields

Advances in Groundwater Flow and Solute Transport: Pushing the Hidden Boundary

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039210749 / 9783039210756 Year: Pages: 196 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-075-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- Environmental Technology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Abstract

In recent decades, the study of groundwater flow and solute transport has advanced into new territories that are beyond conventional theories, such as Darcy’s law and Fick’s law. The studied media have changed from permeable porous and fractured ones to much less permeable ones, such as clay and shale. The studied pore sizes have also changed from millimetres to micro-meters or even nano-meters. The objective of this Special Issue is to report recent advances in groundwater flow and solute transport that push the knowledge boundary into new territories which include, but are not limited to, flow and transport in sloping aquifer/hillslopes, coupled unsaturated and saturated flow, coupled aquifer-vertical/horizontal/slant well flow, interaction of aquifer with connected and disconnected rivers, non-Darcian flow, anomalous transport beyond the Fickian scheme, and flow and transport in extremely small pore spaces such as shale and tight sandstones. Contributions focusing on innovative experimental, numerical, and analytical methods for understanding unconventional problems, such as the above-listed ones, are encouraged, and contributions addressing flow and transport at interfaces of different media and crossing multiple temporal and spatial scales are of great value

Fluid Flow in Fractured Porous Media

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039214235 / 9783039214242 Year: Volume: 1 Pages: 578 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-424-2 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Abstract

The fluid flow in fracture porous media plays a significant role in the assessment of deep underground reservoirs, such as through CO2 sequestration, enhanced oil recovery, and geothermal energy development. Many methods have been employed—from laboratory experimentation to theoretical analysis and numerical simulations—and allowed for many useful conclusions. This Special Issue aims to report on the current advances related to this topic. This collection of 58 papers represents a wide variety of topics, including on granite permeability investigation, grouting, coal mining, roadway, and concrete, to name but a few. We sincerely hope that the papers published in this Special Issue will be an invaluable resource for our readers.

Keywords

scanning electron microscope (SEM) images --- permeability --- high temperature --- Darcy’s law --- confining pressures --- chemical grouts --- grain size of sand --- initial water contained in sand --- grouted sand --- macroscopic mechanical behaviors --- microstructure characteristics --- ductile failure --- gas concentration --- gob-side entry retaining (GER) --- limestone roof --- roof-cutting resistance --- roadside backfill body (RBB) --- solid backfill coal mining --- goaf --- water soaked height --- loose gangue backfill material --- deformation --- crushing ratio --- fracture grouting --- cement–silicate grout --- geophysical prospecting --- seepage --- Yellow River Embankment --- contiguous seams --- water-dripping roadway --- roadway deformation --- bolt support --- pervious concrete --- permeability coefficient --- porosity --- pore distribution characteristics --- strength --- soil–structure interface --- internal erosion --- critical hydraulic gradient --- orthogonal tests --- Pseudo Steady-State (PPS) constant --- finite-conductivity fracture --- conductivity-influence function --- normalized conductivity-influence function --- circular closed reservoir --- glutenite --- gravel --- hydraulic fracture --- numerical simulation --- propagation --- glauberite cavern for storing oil &amp --- gas --- thermal-hydrological-chemical interactions --- temperature --- brine concentration --- microstructure --- micro-CT --- damage --- cyclic heating and cooling --- physical and mechanical parameters --- failure mode --- acoustic emission --- anisotropy --- bedding plane orientation --- coal --- gas --- adsorption–desorption --- laboratory experiment --- pore pressure --- hydro-mechanical coupling --- fracture closure --- constitutive model --- effective stress --- debris flow --- dynamic characteristics --- numerical analysis --- debris-resisting barriers --- coal measures sandstone --- creep characteristics --- seepage pressure --- seepage-creep --- microscopic morphology --- Darcy flow --- heterogeneity --- numerical manifold method --- high-order --- refraction law --- hydraulic fracture network --- cohesive element method --- coal seams --- fracture propagation --- discontinuous natural fracture --- secondary fracture --- fault water inrush --- coupled THM model --- nonlinear flow in fractured porous media --- numerical model --- warning levels of fault water inrush --- bentonite-sand mixtures --- differential settlement --- deformation --- hydraulic conductivity --- crack --- geogrid --- enhanced permeability --- deviatoric stress --- mechanical behavior transition --- CH4 seepage --- volumetric strain --- strain-based percolation model --- rock-soil mechanics --- soft filling medium --- segmented grouting --- split grouting --- model experiment --- reinforcement mechanism --- longwall mining --- gob behaviors --- stress relief --- permeability --- gas drainage --- hard and thick magmatic rocks --- orthogonal ratio test --- similar simulation --- fracture --- bed separation --- disaster-causing mechanism --- artificial joint rock --- shear-flow coupled test --- hydraulic aperture --- roughness --- seepage pressure --- mixing --- conservative solute --- fractal --- roughness --- fracture --- transversely isotropic rocks --- failure mechanism --- particle flow modeling --- interface --- n/a --- fractured porous rock mass --- grouting experiment --- visualization system --- flow law --- layered progressive grouting --- sandstone and mudstone particles --- rheological deformation --- segmented rheological model --- rheological limit strain --- rheological test --- water-rock interaction --- dry-wet cycles --- slope stability --- laboratory experiment --- mechanical properties --- Xinjiang --- land reclamation --- management period --- soil particle size --- fluid flow in reclaimed soil --- effluents --- soil properties --- cohesive soils --- contamination --- time variation --- stabilization --- mixer --- viscoelastic fluid --- pore structure --- orthogonal test --- fluid–solid coupling theory --- similar-material --- regression equation --- optimum proportioning --- hydraulic fracturing --- gas fracturing --- oriented perforation --- fracture propagation --- damage mechanics --- fluid viscosity --- CO2 flooding --- supercritical CO2 --- CO2 geological storage --- tight sandstone gas reservoirs --- enhanced gas recovery --- flotation --- coal particle --- collision angle --- initial settlement position --- particle velocity --- adhesion efficiency --- green mining --- paste-like slurry --- XRD --- intelligent torque rheometer --- on-site monitoring --- cyclic wetting-drying --- deterioration --- sandstone --- mudstone --- elastic modulus --- uniaxial compressive strength --- permeability characteristics --- grading broken gangue --- compressive stress --- compression deformation --- mine shaft --- alternate strata --- surrounding rock --- shaft lining --- relief excavation --- consolidation process --- unsaturated soil --- semi-analytical solution --- impeded drainage boundary --- excess pore-pressures --- coalbed methane (CBM) --- soft coal masses --- pore structure --- fractal pore characteristics --- hydraulic fractures --- PPCZ --- multitude parameters --- propagation pattern --- stress interference --- naturally fracture --- filtration effects --- grout penetration --- unified pipe-network method --- two-phase flow --- fractured porous medium --- new cementitious material --- cement-based paste discharge --- XRD --- TG/DTG --- SEM --- MIP --- mechanical behaviors --- rock fracture --- shear-flow coupled test --- constant normal stiffness conditions --- transmissivity --- hydraulic aperture --- water inrush prevention --- backfill mining --- strata movement --- ground pressure --- floor failure depth --- water–rock interaction --- degradation mechanism --- mixed mode fracture resistance --- fracture criteria --- T-stress --- hydro-power --- high-steep slope --- fractured rock --- permeability --- seepage control --- gas-bearing coal --- electrical potential --- charge separation --- gas adsorption --- damage evolution --- Unsaturation --- chloride --- concrete --- coupling model --- numerical calculation --- debris flow --- forecasting --- rainfall-unstable soil coupling mechanism(R-USCM) --- scoops3D --- Jiaohe --- non-aqueous phase liquid --- finite element method --- two-phase flow --- mixed-form formulation --- FLAC --- pore structure --- movable fluid --- tight sandstones --- Ordos Basin --- tectonically deformed coal --- coal and gas outburst --- coal-like material --- mechanical properties --- deformation feature --- adsorption/desorption properties --- minerals --- mechanical properties --- uniaxial compressive strength --- crack distribution characteristics --- discrete element method --- lignite --- nitric acid modification --- pore structure --- surface characteristics --- adsorption performance --- n/a

Fluid Flow in Fractured Porous Media

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039214730 / 9783039214747 Year: Volume: 2 Pages: 492 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-474-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
License:

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Abstract

The fluid flow in fracture porous media plays a significant role in the assessment of deep underground reservoirs, such as through CO2 sequestration, enhanced oil recovery, and geothermal energy development. Many methods have been employed—from laboratory experimentation to theoretical analysis and numerical simulations—and allowed for many useful conclusions. This Special Issue aims to report on the current advances related to this topic. This collection of 58 papers represents a wide variety of topics, including on granite permeability investigation, grouting, coal mining, roadway, and concrete, to name but a few. We sincerely hope that the papers published in this Special Issue will be an invaluable resource for our readers.

Keywords

scanning electron microscope (SEM) images --- permeability --- high temperature --- Darcy’s law --- confining pressures --- chemical grouts --- grain size of sand --- initial water contained in sand --- grouted sand --- macroscopic mechanical behaviors --- microstructure characteristics --- ductile failure --- gas concentration --- gob-side entry retaining (GER) --- limestone roof --- roof-cutting resistance --- roadside backfill body (RBB) --- solid backfill coal mining --- goaf --- water soaked height --- loose gangue backfill material --- deformation --- crushing ratio --- fracture grouting --- cement–silicate grout --- geophysical prospecting --- seepage --- Yellow River Embankment --- contiguous seams --- water-dripping roadway --- roadway deformation --- bolt support --- pervious concrete --- permeability coefficient --- porosity --- pore distribution characteristics --- strength --- soil–structure interface --- internal erosion --- critical hydraulic gradient --- orthogonal tests --- Pseudo Steady-State (PPS) constant --- finite-conductivity fracture --- conductivity-influence function --- normalized conductivity-influence function --- circular closed reservoir --- glutenite --- gravel --- hydraulic fracture --- numerical simulation --- propagation --- glauberite cavern for storing oil &amp --- gas --- thermal-hydrological-chemical interactions --- temperature --- brine concentration --- microstructure --- micro-CT --- damage --- cyclic heating and cooling --- physical and mechanical parameters --- failure mode --- acoustic emission --- anisotropy --- bedding plane orientation --- coal --- gas --- adsorption–desorption --- laboratory experiment --- pore pressure --- hydro-mechanical coupling --- fracture closure --- constitutive model --- effective stress --- debris flow --- dynamic characteristics --- numerical analysis --- debris-resisting barriers --- coal measures sandstone --- creep characteristics --- seepage pressure --- seepage-creep --- microscopic morphology --- Darcy flow --- heterogeneity --- numerical manifold method --- high-order --- refraction law --- hydraulic fracture network --- cohesive element method --- coal seams --- fracture propagation --- discontinuous natural fracture --- secondary fracture --- fault water inrush --- coupled THM model --- nonlinear flow in fractured porous media --- numerical model --- warning levels of fault water inrush --- bentonite-sand mixtures --- differential settlement --- deformation --- hydraulic conductivity --- crack --- geogrid --- enhanced permeability --- deviatoric stress --- mechanical behavior transition --- CH4 seepage --- volumetric strain --- strain-based percolation model --- rock-soil mechanics --- soft filling medium --- segmented grouting --- split grouting --- model experiment --- reinforcement mechanism --- longwall mining --- gob behaviors --- stress relief --- permeability --- gas drainage --- hard and thick magmatic rocks --- orthogonal ratio test --- similar simulation --- fracture --- bed separation --- disaster-causing mechanism --- artificial joint rock --- shear-flow coupled test --- hydraulic aperture --- roughness --- seepage pressure --- mixing --- conservative solute --- fractal --- roughness --- fracture --- transversely isotropic rocks --- failure mechanism --- particle flow modeling --- interface --- n/a --- fractured porous rock mass --- grouting experiment --- visualization system --- flow law --- layered progressive grouting --- sandstone and mudstone particles --- rheological deformation --- segmented rheological model --- rheological limit strain --- rheological test --- water-rock interaction --- dry-wet cycles --- slope stability --- laboratory experiment --- mechanical properties --- Xinjiang --- land reclamation --- management period --- soil particle size --- fluid flow in reclaimed soil --- effluents --- soil properties --- cohesive soils --- contamination --- time variation --- stabilization --- mixer --- viscoelastic fluid --- pore structure --- orthogonal test --- fluid–solid coupling theory --- similar-material --- regression equation --- optimum proportioning --- hydraulic fracturing --- gas fracturing --- oriented perforation --- fracture propagation --- damage mechanics --- fluid viscosity --- CO2 flooding --- supercritical CO2 --- CO2 geological storage --- tight sandstone gas reservoirs --- enhanced gas recovery --- flotation --- coal particle --- collision angle --- initial settlement position --- particle velocity --- adhesion efficiency --- green mining --- paste-like slurry --- XRD --- intelligent torque rheometer --- on-site monitoring --- cyclic wetting-drying --- deterioration --- sandstone --- mudstone --- elastic modulus --- uniaxial compressive strength --- permeability characteristics --- grading broken gangue --- compressive stress --- compression deformation --- mine shaft --- alternate strata --- surrounding rock --- shaft lining --- relief excavation --- consolidation process --- unsaturated soil --- semi-analytical solution --- impeded drainage boundary --- excess pore-pressures --- coalbed methane (CBM) --- soft coal masses --- pore structure --- fractal pore characteristics --- hydraulic fractures --- PPCZ --- multitude parameters --- propagation pattern --- stress interference --- naturally fracture --- filtration effects --- grout penetration --- unified pipe-network method --- two-phase flow --- fractured porous medium --- new cementitious material --- cement-based paste discharge --- XRD --- TG/DTG --- SEM --- MIP --- mechanical behaviors --- rock fracture --- shear-flow coupled test --- constant normal stiffness conditions --- transmissivity --- hydraulic aperture --- water inrush prevention --- backfill mining --- strata movement --- ground pressure --- floor failure depth --- water–rock interaction --- degradation mechanism --- mixed mode fracture resistance --- fracture criteria --- T-stress --- hydro-power --- high-steep slope --- fractured rock --- permeability --- seepage control --- gas-bearing coal --- electrical potential --- charge separation --- gas adsorption --- damage evolution --- Unsaturation --- chloride --- concrete --- coupling model --- numerical calculation --- debris flow --- forecasting --- rainfall-unstable soil coupling mechanism(R-USCM) --- scoops3D --- Jiaohe --- non-aqueous phase liquid --- finite element method --- two-phase flow --- mixed-form formulation --- FLAC --- pore structure --- movable fluid --- tight sandstones --- Ordos Basin --- tectonically deformed coal --- coal and gas outburst --- coal-like material --- mechanical properties --- deformation feature --- adsorption/desorption properties --- minerals --- mechanical properties --- uniaxial compressive strength --- crack distribution characteristics --- discrete element method --- lignite --- nitric acid modification --- pore structure --- surface characteristics --- adsorption performance --- n/a

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