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Gas Hydrate: Environmental and Climate Impacts

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ISBN: 9783039218448 9783039218455 Year: Pages: 182 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-845-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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This Special Issue reports research spanning from the analysis of indirect data, modeling, and laboratory and geological data confirming the intrinsic multidisciplinarity of gas hydrate studies. The study areas are (1) Arctic, (2) Brazil, (3) Chile, and (4) the Mediterranean region. The results furnished an important tessera of the knowledge about the relationship of a gas hydrate system with other complex natural phenomena such as climate change, slope stability and earthquakes, and human activities.

Ice Crystals

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ISBN: 9783039218905 9783039218912 Year: Pages: 104 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-891-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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Ice crystals are the most ubiquitous material found in the cryosphere environment of the Earth, in the planetary system, and also in our daily lives. In recent years, ice crystals have increased in importance as one of the key materials for finding solutions to settle various environmental concerns at a global scale. Furthermore, ice crystals are unique materials which are potentially extremely useful in various applications, for example, within the food sciences, medical sciences, and other fields. In dealing with these interesting subjects, research on ice crystals has been more actively pursued in recent years. The Special Issue “Ice Crystals” presents a wide varieties of topics related to ice crystals. It can be considered as a status report reviewing the recent research on ice crystals and serves to provide readers with information on the latest developments concerning ice crystals.

Cleaner Combustion

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ISBN: 9783039214778 9783039214785 Year: Pages: 196 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-478-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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This volume provides unique views of combustion from many technical and international research perspectives.

Geomechanics for Energy and a Sustainable Environment

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ISBN: 9783039281503 9783039281510 Year: Pages: 102 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-151-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-30 16:39:46
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This book describes recent advances in geomechanics for energy and the sustainable environment. Four research articles, related to high-level radioactive nuclear waste disposal stability, geological effect and wellbore stability considerations for methane gas hydrate production, and artificial soil freezing, are presented in this book. In addition, a comprehensive state-of-the-art review verifies the strong correlation between global climate change and the occurrence of geotechnical engineering hazards. The review also summarizes recent attempts to reduce CO2 emissions from civil and geotechnical engineering practices. Readers will gain ideas as to how we can deal with conventional and renewable energy sources and environment-related geotechnical engineering issues.

Emerging Advances in Petrophysics. Porous Media Characterization and Modeling of Multiphase Flow

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9783038977940 9783038977957 Year: Pages: 258 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-795-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Physics (General) --- Geophysics and Geomagnetism
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-25 16:37:17
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Due to the influence of pore-throat size distribution, pore connectivity, and microscale fractures, the transport, distribution, and residual saturation of fluids in porous media are difficult to characterize. Petrophysical methods in natural porous media have attracted great attention in a variety of fields, especially in the oil and gas industry. A wide range of research studies have been conducted on the characterization of porous media covers and multiphase flow therein. Reliable approaches for characterizing microstructure and multiphase flow in porous media are crucial in many fields, including the characterization of residual water or oil in hydrocarbon reservoirs and the long-term storage of supercritical CO2 in geological formations. This book gathers together 15 recent works to emphasize fundamental innovations in the field and novel applications of petrophysics in unconventional reservoirs, including experimental studies, numerical modeling (fractal approach), and multiphase flow modeling/simulations. The relevant stakeholders of this book are authorities and service companies working in the petroleum, subsurface water resources, air and water pollution, environmental, and biomaterial sectors.

Keywords

Wilkins equation --- non-laminar flow --- turbulence modelling --- porous media --- oil tanker --- temperature drop --- oscillating motion --- numerical simulation --- soil-water characteristic curve --- initial void ratio --- air-entry value --- fractal dimension --- fractal model --- oil properties --- diffusion coefficient --- supercritical CO2 --- Peng-Robinson equation of state (PR EOS) --- CT --- digital rock --- microfractures --- Lattice Boltzmann method --- pore-scale simulations --- tight sandstone --- pore structure --- multifractal --- classification --- Ordos Basin --- loose media --- coal --- porosity --- true density --- bulk density --- overburden pressure --- particle size --- tight conglomerate --- fracture characterization and prediction --- fractal method --- salt rock --- creep --- damage --- fractional derivative --- acoustic emission --- marine gas hydrate --- submarine landslide --- greenhouse gas emission --- lifecycle management --- hazard prevention --- multilayer reservoir --- interlayer interference --- producing degree --- seepage resistance --- wellbore multiphase flow --- inclined angle --- liquid rate --- gas rate --- pressure drawdown model with new coefficients --- base-level cycle --- pore structure --- mouth bar sand body --- Huanghua Depression --- isotopic composition --- methane --- gas hydrate --- South China Sea --- Bakken Formation --- pore structure --- controlling factors --- low-temperature nitrogen adsorption --- petrophysics --- fractal porous media --- unconventional reservoirs --- multiphase flow

Carbon Capture and Storage

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ISBN: 9783039213993 9783039214006 Year: Pages: 178 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-400-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Climate change is one of the main threats to modern society. This phenomenon is associated with an increase in greenhouse gas (GHGs, mainly carbon dioxide—CO2) emissions due to anthropogenic activities. The main causes are the burning of fossil fuels and land use change (deforestation). Climate change impacts are associated with risks to basic needs (health, food security, and clean water), as well as risks to development (jobs, economic growth, and the cost of living). The processes involving CO2 capture and storage are gaining attention in the scientific community as an alternative for decreasing CO2 emissions, reducing its concentration in ambient air. The carbon capture and storage (CCS) methodologies comprise three steps: CO2 capture, CO2 transportation, and CO2 storage. Despite the high research activity within this topic, several technological, economic, and environmental issues as well as safety problems remain to be solved, such as the following needs: increase of CO2 capture efficiency, reduction of process costs, and verification of the environmental sustainability of CO2 storage.

Sustainability of Fossil Fuels

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ISBN: 9783039212194 9783039212200 Year: Pages: 284 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-220-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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The energy and fuel industries represent an extensive field for the development and implementation of solutions aimed at improving the technological, environmental, and economic performance of technological cycles. In recent years, the issues of ecology and energy security have become especially important. Energy is firmly connected with all spheres of human economic life but, unfortunately, it also has an extremely negative (often fatal) effect on the environment and public health. Depletion of energy resources, the complexity of their extraction, and transportation are also problems of a global scale. Therefore, it is especially important nowadays to try to take care of nature and think about the resources that are necessary for future generations. For scientific teams in different countries, the development of sustainable and safe technologies for the use of fuels in the energy sector will be a challenge in the coming decades

Keywords

coal --- slurry fuel --- combustion --- forest fuels --- biomass --- anthropogenic emission concentration --- municipal solid waste --- coal processing waste --- oil refining waste --- waste management --- composite fuel --- energy production --- fuel activation --- waste-derived fuel --- coal-water slurry --- laser pulse --- syngas --- aerosol --- two-component droplet --- heating --- evaporation --- explosive breakup --- disintegration --- droplet holder material --- hydraulic fracturing --- water retention in shale --- anionic surfactant --- shale gas --- supercritical CO2 --- tectonic coal --- pore structure --- methane desorption --- embedded discrete fracture model --- fractured reservoir simulation --- matrix-fracture transmissibility --- combustion --- methane hydrate --- hydrate dissociation --- PTV method --- transport of tracers --- linear drift effect --- convection–diffusion equation --- enhanced oil recovery --- closed-form analytical solution --- methane --- combustion mechanism --- mechanism reduction --- skeletal mechanism --- Bunsen burner --- covert fault zone --- genetic mechanism --- Qikou Sag --- structure evolution --- oil-controlling mode --- Riedel shear --- Mohr–Coulomb theory --- slurry fuel --- ignition --- combustion --- combustion chamber --- soaring of fuel droplets --- trajectories of fuel droplets --- decorated polyacrylamide --- physical properties --- displacement mechanism --- flow behavior --- enhanced recovery --- injection mode --- coal consumption forecasting --- support vector machine --- improved gravitational search algorithm --- grey relational analysis --- dual string completion --- gas lift --- gas lift rate --- split factor --- gas robbing --- gas lift optimization

Pharmaceutical Crystals

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039287123 / 9783039287130 Year: Pages: 148 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-713-0 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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The crystalline state is the most commonly used essential solid active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). The characterization of pharmaceutical crystals encompasses many scientific disciplines, but the core is crystal structure analysis, which reveals the molecular structure of essential pharmaceutical compounds. Crystal structure analysis provides important structural information related to the API's wide range of physicochemical properties, such as solubility, stability, tablet performance, color, and hygroscopicity. This book entitled “Pharmaceutical Crystals"" focuses on the relationship between crystal structure and physicochemical properties. In particular, the new crystal structure of pharmaceutical compounds involving multi-component crystals, such as co-crystals, salts, and hydrates, and polymorph crystals are reported. Such crystal structures were investigated in the latest studies that combined morphology, spectroscopic, theoretical calculation, and thermal analysis with crystallographic study. This book highlights the importance of crystal structure information in many areas of pharmaceutical science and presents current trends in the structure–property study of pharmaceutical crystals. The Guest Editors of this book hope the readers enjoy a wide variety of recent studies on Pharmaceutical Crystals.

mTOR in Human Diseases

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ISBN: 9783039210602 9783039210619 Year: Pages: 480 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-061-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a major signaling intermediary that coordinates favorable environmental conditions with cell growth. Indeed, as part of two functionally distinct protein complexes, named mTORC1 and mTORC2, mTOR regulates a variety of cellular processes, including protein, lipid, and nucleotide synthesis, as well as autophagy. Over the last two decades, major molecular advances have been made in mTOR signaling and have revealed the complexity of the events implicated in mTOR function and regulation. In parallel, the role of mTOR in diverse pathological conditions has also been identified, including in cancer, hamartoma, neurological, and metabolic diseases. Through a series of articles, this book focuses on the role played by mTOR in cellular processes, metabolism in particular, and highlights a panel of human diseases for which mTOR inhibition provides or might provide benefits. It also addresses future studies needed to further characterize the role of mTOR in selected disorders, which will help design novel therapeutic approaches. It is therefore intended for everyone who has an interest in mTOR biology and its application in human pathologies.

Keywords

acute myeloid leukemia --- metabolism --- mTOR --- PI3K --- phosphorylation --- epithelial to mesenchymal transition --- mTOR inhibitor --- pulmonary fibrosis --- transcriptomics --- miRNome --- everolimus --- mTOR --- thyroid cancer --- sodium iodide symporter (NIS)/SLC5A5 --- dopamine receptor --- autophagy --- AKT --- mTOR --- AMPK --- mTOR --- Medulloblastoma --- MBSCs --- mTOR --- T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia --- targeted therapy --- combination therapy --- mTOR --- metabolic diseases --- glucose and lipid metabolism --- anesthesia --- neurotoxicity --- synapse --- mTOR --- neurodevelopment --- mTOR --- rapamycin --- autophagy --- protein aggregation --- methamphetamine --- schizophrenia --- tumour cachexia --- mTOR --- signalling --- metabolism --- proteolysis --- lipolysis --- mTOR --- mTORC1 --- mTORC2 --- rapamycin --- rapalogues --- rapalogs --- mTOR inhibitors --- senescence --- ageing --- aging --- cancer --- neurodegeneration --- immunosenescence --- senolytics --- biomarkers --- leukemia --- cell signaling --- metabolism --- apoptosis --- miRNA --- mTOR inhibitors --- mTOR --- tumor microenvironment --- angiogenesis --- immunotherapy --- fluid shear stress --- melatonin --- chloral hydrate --- nocodazole --- MC3T3-E1 cells --- primary cilia --- mTOR complex --- metabolic reprogramming --- cancer --- microenvironment --- nutrient sensor --- oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) --- NVP-BEZ235 --- mTOR --- p70S6K --- mTOR --- advanced biliary tract cancers --- mTOR --- NGS --- illumina --- IonTorrent --- eIFs --- mTOR --- autophagy --- Parkinson’s disease --- mTOR --- PI3K --- cancer --- inhibitor --- therapy --- mTOR --- laminopathies --- lamin A/C --- Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD) --- Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) --- autophagy --- cellular signaling --- metabolism --- bone remodeling --- ageing --- mTOR --- fructose --- glucose --- liver --- lipid metabolism --- gluconeogenesis --- Alzheimer’s disease --- autophagy --- mTOR signal pathway --- physical activity --- microRNA --- mTOR --- spermatogenesis --- male fertility --- Sertoli cells --- n/a

State-of-the-art Laser Gas Sensing Technologies

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039283989 9783039283996 Year: Pages: 278 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-399-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:08
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Trace gas sensing technologies are widely used in many applications, such as environmental monitoring, life science, medical diagnostics, and planetary exploration. On the one hand, laser sources have developed greatly due to the rapid development of laser media and laser techniques in recent years. Some novel lasers such as solid-state, diode, and quantum cascade lasers have experienced significant progress. At present, laser wavelengths can cover the range from ultraviolet to terahertz, which could promote the development of laser gas sensing technologies significantly. On the other hand, some new gas sensing methods have appeared, such as photothermal spectroscopy and photoacoustic spectroscopy. Laser spectroscopy-based gas sensing techniques have the advantages of high sensitivity, non-invasiveness, and allowing in situ, real-time observation. Due to the rapid and recent developments in laser source as well as the great merits of laser spectroscopy-based gas sensing techniques, this book aims to provide an updated overview of the state-of-the-art laser gas sensing technologies.

Keywords

tunable mid-infrared solid-state laser --- thermal control --- all-fiber laser --- thermoelectric cooling --- finite-element analysis --- optical parametric oscillator --- Tm,Ho:LuVO4 laser --- PQS --- graphene saturable absorber --- mid-infrared --- single-frequency --- optical parametric oscillator (OPO) --- MgO:PPLN crystal --- continuous-wave (CW) --- diffuse integrating cavity --- TDLAS --- gas detection --- non-linearity --- quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy --- quartz tuning fork --- gas sensing --- detection limit --- laser spectroscopy --- practical applications --- real-time observation --- optical sensing --- stokes vectors --- information processing technology --- tunable laser absorption spectroscopy --- mid-infrared fingerprint spectrum --- broadband spectrum --- trace gas detection --- wavelength modulation spectroscopy --- quantum cascade lasers --- interband cascade lasers --- carbon dioxide monitoring --- absorption spectroscopy --- temperature compensation --- wavelength modulation --- methane detection --- support vector machine --- chicken swarm optimization --- algorithm --- concentration prediction --- combustion diagnostic --- femtosecond laser --- two-photon femtosecond laser-induced fluorescence --- femtosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy --- femtosecond laser electronic excitation tagging --- filament-induced nonlinear spectroscopy --- femtosecond laser-induced plasma spectroscopy --- hollow-core photonic crystal fiber --- GRIN fiber probe --- coupling efficiency --- gas sensing --- near-infrared --- C2H2 detection --- TDLAS --- time division multiplexing differential modulation --- a multi-reflection chamber --- laser absorption spectroscopy (LAS) --- combustion sensing --- direct absorption spectroscopy (DAS) --- wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS) --- design optimization --- noise reduction algorithms --- methane --- tunable diode laser --- wavelength modulation spectroscopy --- frequency modulation spectroscopy --- two-tone frequency modulation spectroscopy --- photothermal spectroscopy --- gas sensing --- detection limit --- laser spectroscopy --- practical applications --- intracavity gas detection --- interferometric gas detection --- deep-sea natural gas hydrate exploration --- 13CO2/12CO2 isotope ratio detection --- TDLAS technique --- mid-infrared ICL --- n/a

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