Search results: Found 7

Listing 1 - 7 of 7
Sort by
Mind the gap! Gap junction channels and their importance in pathogenesis

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889192380 Year: Pages: 252 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-238-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Medicine (General) --- Therapeutics --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-16 15:44:59
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

"Cells live together, but die singly", this sentence wrote the German physiologist Theodor Engelmann in 1875 and although he had no particular knowledge of gap junction channels (their structure was discovered around 100 years later) he described their functions very well: gap junction channels are essential for intercellular communication and crucial for the development of tissue and organs. But besides providing an opportunity for cells to communicate gap junction channels might also prevent intercellular communication by channel closure thereby preserving the surrounding healthy tissue in case of cellular necrosis. According to today’s understanding gap junction channels play an important role during embryonic development, during growth, wound healing and cell differentiation and are also involved in the process of learning. In the past decades most intensive research was done not only to unravel the physiological role of gap junction channels but also to extend our knowledge of the contribution of these channels in pathogenesis. A new frontier emerges in the field "pharmacology of gap junctions" with the aim to control growth, differentiation, or electrical coupling via targeting gap junction channels pharmacologically. As we know today disturbances in gap junction synthesis, assembly and cellular distribution may account for various organic disorders from most different medical fields, such as the Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy, epilepsy, Chagas-disease, Naxos-syndrome, congenital cardiac malformations, arrhythmias, cancer and as a very common disease in industrial countries atherosclerosis. Point mutations in gap junction channels have been found to cause hereditary diseases like the congenital deafness or the Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy but the exact molecular mechanisms of gap junction malfunction from most of the mentioned illnesses are not fully understood. Moreover, in the last few years research has expanded on the role and function of connexin hemichannels and on a relatively new field the pannexins. The purpose of this volume is to give a comprehensive overview of the involvement of gap junction channels, hemichannels and pannexins on pathogenesis of inborn and acquired diseases and on emerging pharmacological strategies to target these channels. We welcome our colleagues to contribute their findings on the influence of gap junctions on pathogenesis and to unravel the secrets of intercellular communication. Take the lid off!

Molecular Biology of the Transfer RNA Revisited

Author:
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193660 Year: Pages: 164 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-366-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Genetics --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-19 16:29:12
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Transfer RNAs (tRNAs) are one of the classical non-coding RNAs whose lengths are approximately 70–100 bases. The secondary structure of tRNAs can be represented as the cloverleaf with 4 stems, and the three dimensional structure as an “L” shape. Historically, the basic function of tRNA as an essential component of translation was established in 1960s, i.e., each tRNA is charged with a target amino acid and these are delivered to the ribosome during protein synthesis. However, recent data suggests that the role of tRNA in cellular regulation goes beyond this paradigm. In most Archaea and Eukarya, precursor tRNAs are often interrupted by a short intron inserted strictly between the first and second nucleotide downstream of the anticodon, known as canonical nucleotide position (37/38). Recently, a number of reports describe novel aspects of tRNAs in terms of gene diversity, for example, several types of disrupted tRNA genes have been reported in the Archaea and primitive Eukarya, including multiple-intron-containing tRNA genes, split tRNA genes, and permuted tRNA genes. Our understanding of the enzymes involved in tRNA functions (e.g., aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase, tRNA splicing endonuclease, tRNA ligase) has deepened. Moreover, it is well known that tRNA possesses many types of base modifications whose enzymatic regulations remain to be fully elucidated. It was reported that impaired tRNA nuclear-cytoplasmic export links DNA damage and cell-cycle checkpoint. Furthermore, a variety of additional functions of tRNA, beyond its translation of the genetic code, have emerged rapidly. For instance, tRNA cleavage is a conserved part of the responses to a variety of stresses in eukaryotic cells. Age-associated or tissue-specific tRNA fragmentation has also been observed. Several papers suggested that some of these tRNA fragments might be involve in the cellular RNA interference (RNAi) system. These exciting data, have lead to this call for a Research Topic, that plans to revisit and summarize the molecular biology of tRNA. Beyond the topics outlined above, we have highlighted recent developments in bioinformatics tools and databases for tRNA analyses.

Galectins in Cancer and Translational Medicine

Author:
ISBN: 9783038974086 9783038974093 Year: Pages: 350 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-409-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology --- Medicine (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2018-12-12 12:21:34
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

In the post-genomic era, many efforts have been devoted to better understanding the biological information encoded by the cell “glycome” in normal and pathologic conditions. The glycan signature of human cells plays a pivotal role in regulating fundamental biological processes, which are critical for cell physiology and for cancer as well.Galectins (also worded S-type lectins) are an evolutionarily conserved family of endogenous lectins, which bind carbohydrates with high specificity. These molecules, which can be found both intracellularly and in the extracellular milieu, are functionally active in converting glycan-containing information into cell biological programs. This fashionable mechanism of signal transduction plays a relevant role in regulating several biological functions, including RNA splicing, gene transcription, cell migration and differentiation, apoptosis, immune response, and tumor growth and progression.It is not surprising, indeed, that a large number of studies on galectin–glycan interactions and galectins expression and function in human diseases have been published in the recent literature, spanning from immunology to cardiovascular medicine, from diagnostic Pathology to nuclear medicine.The aim of this Special Issue of IJMS is to collect selected contributions in the field reporting data, concepts, and new ideas, which have the potential to be translated in a clinical setting in the near future, in order to improve the diagnosis and treatment of cancer and other relevant human diseases.

Antioxidants and Second Messengers of Free Radicals

Author:
ISBN: 9783038975335 9783038975342 Year: Pages: 194 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-534-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology --- Medicine (General) --- Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-17 09:35:49
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

The history of science can teach modern men that our understanding of life is to a great extent based on the accuracy of the analytical methods that we use and, on our readiness to oppose dogmatic opinions, which are based on outdated methods and black/white approaches to the major questions raised by mankind in the past. The recent decades have brought a lot of new insights into the fundamentals of the active principles of reactive oxygen species that are necessary for living cells, but which also cause dangerous pathophysiological processes. Accordingly, although they were previously considered to be the most undesired toxic compounds generated as the final products of the oxidative degradation of lipids, reactive aldehydes are now considered to play important roles both in health and in major diseases. Represented mostly by 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), a substance discovered only fifty years ago, reactive aldehydes are the focus of research not only because of their toxicity but also because of their positive effects regulating the most important metabolic processes such as growth of living cells or the death of cells. Better understanding the interactions between reactive aldehydes and natural or synthetic antioxidant substances might eventually help us to better monitor, prevent and control modern diseases, thus building pillars for the development of the modern, multidisciplinary life sciences and integrative medicine of the 21st century.

Grand Celebration: 10th Anniversary of the Human Genome Project

ISBN: 9783038421245 9783038421702 Year: Volume: 1 Pages: 276 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2016-05-24 15:19:15
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

In 1990, scientists began working together on one of the largest biological research projects ever proposed. The project proposed to sequence the three billion nucleotides in the human genome. The Human Genome Project took 13 years and was completed in April 2003, at a cost of approximately three billion dollars. It was a major scientific achievement that forever changed the understanding of our own nature. The sequencing of the human genome was in many ways a triumph for technology as much as it was for science. From the Human Genome Project, powerful technologies have been developed (e.g., microarrays and next generation sequencing) and new branches of science have emerged (e.g., functional genomics and pharmacogenomics), paving new ways for advancing genomic research and medical applications of genomics in the 21st century. The investigations have provided new tests and drug targets, as well as insights into the basis of human development and diagnosis/treatment of cancer and several mysterious humans diseases. This genomic revolution is prompting a new era in medicine, which brings both challenges and opportunities. Parallel to the promising advances over the last decade, the study of the human genome has also revealed how complicated human biology is, and how much remains to be understood. The legacy of the understanding of our genome has just begun. To celebrate the 10th anniversary of the essential completion of the Human Genome Project, in April 2013 Genes launched this Special Issue, which highlights the recent scientific breakthroughs in human genomics, with a collection of papers written by authors who are leading experts in the field.

Grand Celebration: 10th Anniversary of the Human Genome Project

ISBN: 9783038421252 9783038421719 Year: Volume: 2 Pages: 268
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2016-05-24 15:21:05
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

In 1990, scientists began working together on one of the largest biological research projects ever proposed. The project proposed to sequence the three billion nucleotides in the human genome. The Human Genome Project took 13 years and was completed in April 2003, at a cost of approximately three billion dollars. It was a major scientific achievement that forever changed the understanding of our own nature. The sequencing of the human genome was in many ways a triumph for technology as much as it was for science. From the Human Genome Project, powerful technologies have been developed (e.g., microarrays and next generation sequencing) and new branches of science have emerged (e.g., functional genomics and pharmacogenomics), paving new ways for advancing genomic research and medical applications of genomics in the 21st century. The investigations have provided new tests and drug targets, as well as insights into the basis of human development and diagnosis/treatment of cancer and several mysterious humans diseases. This genomic revolution is prompting a new era in medicine, which brings both challenges and opportunities. Parallel to the promising advances over the last decade, the study of the human genome has also revealed how complicated human biology is, and how much remains to be understood. The legacy of the understanding of our genome has just begun. To celebrate the 10th anniversary of the essential completion of the Human Genome Project, in April 2013 Genes launched this Special Issue, which highlights the recent scientific breakthroughs in human genomics, with a collection of papers written by authors who are leading experts in the field.

Grand Celebration: 10th Anniversary of the Human Genome Project

ISBN: 9783038421269 9783038421726 Year: Volume: 3 Pages: 274 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2016-05-24 15:22:31
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

In 1990, scientists began working together on one of the largest biological research projects ever proposed. The project proposed to sequence the three billion nucleotides in the human genome. The Human Genome Project took 13 years and was completed in April 2003, at a cost of approximately three billion dollars. It was a major scientific achievement that forever changed the understanding of our own nature. The sequencing of the human genome was in many ways a triumph for technology as much as it was for science. From the Human Genome Project, powerful technologies have been developed (e.g., microarrays and next generation sequencing) and new branches of science have emerged (e.g., functional genomics and pharmacogenomics), paving new ways for advancing genomic research and medical applications of genomics in the 21st century. The investigations have provided new tests and drug targets, as well as insights into the basis of human development and diagnosis/treatment of cancer and several mysterious humans diseases. This genomic revolution is prompting a new era in medicine, which brings both challenges and opportunities. Parallel to the promising advances over the last decade, the study of the human genome has also revealed how complicated human biology is, and how much remains to be understood. The legacy of the understanding of our genome has just begun. To celebrate the 10th anniversary of the essential completion of the Human Genome Project, in April 2013 Genes launched this Special Issue, which highlights the recent scientific breakthroughs in human genomics, with a collection of papers written by authors who are leading experts in the field.

Listing 1 - 7 of 7
Sort by
Narrow your search