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Evolution of Reproductive Organs in Land Plants

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454402 Year: Pages: 184 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-440-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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Abstract

The great diversity of land plants (especially angiosperms) is mainly reflected in the diversity of various reproductive organs of plants. However, despite long time intensive investigations, there are still uncertainties and sometimes misunderstandings over the nature and evolution of reproductive organs in land plants. With the new advances made in various fields of botany (especially at molecular level), there is increasing light shed on some aspects of flowers (reproductive organs of angiosperms). In this ebook, we collect 15 papers reporting new understanding on plant reproductive organs. These works range from morphology and anatomy to molecular regulatory networks underlying traditional observations. We understand this single book cannot reach our goal, but we do hope that this book can contribute to or initiate some efforts leading to the final solution of some problems concerning the homology and evolution of reproductive organs in plants.

Keywords

angiosperm --- flower --- seed --- carpel --- homology --- gene --- incompatibility --- evolution --- insect --- fossil

Aegis or Achilles Heel: The Dilemma of Homology in Biopatents in the Wake of Novozymes

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Book Series: Munich Intellectual Property Law Center – MIPLC ISBN: 9783845292717 Year: Volume: 32 Pages: 72 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5771/9783845292717 Language: English
Publisher: Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft mbH & Co. KG
Subject: Law
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-05 12:58:39
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Biopatents frequently disclose sequences of polypeptides and nucleic acids in the written description. The claims often cover a homology range surrounding the disclosed sequence to get a broader protection. However, homology claims face a hurdle that they may lack support by the written description. The Supreme Court of China ruled that homology claims lack support, but a further limitation by species of origin satisfies this requirement. This study explains that homology per se should have formed the essence of such disputes. Homology dictates the skilled person’s confidence on the functionality of unknown sequences, and is involved in multiple patentability requirements. Thus, the assessment of support is not an isolated matter. Disparity of different requirements creates an unclaimable gap, and constitutes a discrimination to biotechnology. An appropriate test for the support requirement is thus furnished to confer a scope of protection commensurating to the technical contribution.

From Ecology to Brain Development: Bridging Separate Evolutionary Paradigms

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455577 Year: Pages: 133 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-557-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
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The nervous system is the product of biological evolution and is shaped by the interplay between extrinsic factors determining the ecology of animals, and by intrinsic processes that dictate the developmental rules that give rise to adult functional structures. This special topic is oriented to develop an integrative view from behavior and ecology to neurodevelopmental processes. We address questions such as how do sensory systems evolve according to ecological conditions? How do neural networks organize to generate adaptive behavior? How does cognition and brain connectivity evolve? What are the developmental mechanisms that give rise to functional adaptation? Accordingly, the book is divided in three sections, (i) Evolution of sensorimotor systems; (ii) Cognitive computations and neural circuits, and (iii) Development and brain evolution. We hope that this initiative will support an interdisciplinary program that addresses the nervous system as a unified organ, subject to both functional and developmental constraints, where the final outcome results of a compromise between different parameters rather than being the result of several single variables acting independently of each other.

Arthropod Venom Components and Their Potential Usage

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ISBN: 9783039285402 9783039285419 Year: Pages: 404 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-541-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Public Health --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
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Thousands of arthropod species, ranging from arachnids (spiders and scorpions) to hymenopterans (ants, bees, and wasps) and myriapods (centipedes), are venomous and use their venoms for both defense and predation. These venoms are invariably harmful to humans, and some may cause serious injuries, e.g., those from scorpions, spiders, and wasps. Arthropods’ venoms are also known as rich sources of biologically active compounds and have attracted the attention of toxin researchers for years. In this century, venom component analysis has progressed considerable due to the advances in analytical techniques, in particular, mass spectrometry and next-generation deep (DNA and RNA) sequencing. As such, proteomic and peptidomic analyses using LC–MS have enabled the full analysis of venom components, revealing a variety of novel peptide and protein toxins sequences and scaffolds, potentially useful as pharmacological research tools and for the development of highly selective peptide ligands and therapeutic leads, like chlorotoxin. Due to their specificity for numerous ion-channel subtypes, including voltage- and ligand-gated ion channels, arthropod neurotoxins have been investigated to dissect and treat neurodegenerative diseases and control epileptic syndromes. This Special Issue collects information on such progress, encouraging contributions on the chemical and biological characterization of venom components, not only peptides and proteins, but also small molecules, their mechanisms of action, and the development of venom-derived peptide leads.

Keywords

ant --- venom --- mass spectrometry analysis --- pilosulin-like peptide --- phospholipases D --- metalloproteases --- Loxosceles spp. --- recombinant toxins --- hybrid immunogen --- neutralizing antibodies --- antivenoms --- LyeTxI-b --- Staphylococcus aureus --- keratitis --- AMP --- mastoparan --- Acinetobacter baumannii --- stent --- cantharidin --- blister beetle --- Berberomeloe majalis --- nematicide --- ixodicide --- antifeedant --- scorpion venom --- insecticidal peptide --- mass spectrometric analysis --- de novo sequencing --- Centruroides limpidus Karch --- proteome --- scorpion --- transcriptome --- venom toxicity --- brown spider --- venom --- Loxosceles --- toxins --- biotools --- drug targets --- novel therapeutics --- spider toxin --- directed disulfide bond formation --- Nav channel activity --- Nav1.7 --- pain target --- automated patch-clamp --- bee venom --- alternative treatment --- skin --- cutaneous disease --- mechanism --- chemotherapy --- cold allodynia --- mechanical allodynia --- melittin --- neuropathic pain --- oxaliplatin --- natural antibiotics --- piperidine heterocyclic amines --- industrial biotechnology --- LTQ Orbitrap Hybrid Mass Spectrometer --- myrmecology --- venom --- pain --- ants --- wasps --- bees --- Hymenoptera --- envenomation --- toxins --- peptides --- pharmacology --- Dinoponera quadriceps --- Formicidae --- Hymenoptera venom --- proteomics --- venom allergens --- ICK-like toxins --- melittin --- insect immune system --- apoptosis --- heart contractility --- Tenebrio molitor --- bee venom --- bioinformatics --- computational docking --- homology modelling --- ion channel structure --- protein–peptide interactions --- tertiapin --- venom peptides --- virtual screening --- small hive beetle --- solitary wasp --- venom --- antimicrobial peptide --- linear cationic ?-helical peptide --- amphipathic ?-helix structure --- channel-like pore-forming activity --- antimicrobial peptide --- venom --- arthropod --- malaria --- Chagas disease --- human African trypanosomiasis --- leishmaniasis --- toxoplasmosis --- venom peptides --- FMRF-amide --- insect neurotoxin --- protons --- pH regulation --- acid-sensing ion channels --- acid-gated currents --- chronic pain --- ICK peptide --- knottins --- NaV --- spider venom --- voltage-gated sodium channel --- n/a

New Insights into Parvovirus Research

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ISBN: 9783039283101 / 9783039283118 Year: Pages: 342 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-311-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Viruses in the Parvoviridae family constitute one of the most diverse and intriguing fields of research. While they all share an ssDNA genome and a small capsid, they can differ widely in structure, genome organization and expression, virus–cell interaction, and impact on the host. Exploring such diversity and unraveling the inherent complexity in these apparently simple viruses is an ongoing endeavor and commitment for the scientific community. The translational implications of research on parvoviruses are relevant. Within the family, some viruses are important human and veterinary pathogens, in need of diagnostic methods and antiviral strategies; other viruses have long been studied and engineered as tools for oncolytic therapy, or as sophisticated gene delivery vectors, and can now display their wide and expanding applicative potential. This Special Issue of Viruses collects recent contributions in the field of parvovirus research, with a focus on new insights and research on unresolved issues, as well as new approaches exploiting systemic methodologies. Evolution, structural biology, viral replication, virus–host interaction, pathogenesis and immunity, and viral oncotherapy are a selection of the topics addressed in the issue that can be of relevance to the community involved in parvovirus research and of interest to a wider audience.

Keywords

human bocavirus --- children --- acute gastroenteritis --- parvovirus --- human bocavirus 1 --- RNA-seq --- transcription profile --- human airway epithelia --- AAV2 --- adeno-associated virus --- bisulfite PCR --- CpG methylation --- DNA virus --- Parvoviridae --- telbivudine --- B19V --- circulating angiogenic cells --- apoptosis --- caspase-3 --- BIRC3 (cIAP-2) --- parvovirus --- viral metagenomics --- virus diversity --- virus phylogeny --- agricultural pests --- arthropod --- mite --- viral communities --- viral ecology --- Carnivore protoparvovirus 1 --- canine parvovirus --- feline panleukopenia virus --- NS1 --- NS2 --- sequence analysis --- evolution --- Bombyx mori bidensovirus --- RACE --- RT-qPCR --- transcription mapping --- overlapping promoters --- parvovirus --- densovirus --- single stranded DNA virus --- X-ray crystallography --- Cryo-EM --- antibody interactions --- receptor interactions --- parvovirus --- viral metagenomics --- canine chapparvovirus --- Adeno-associated virus --- AAV --- protease --- phospholipase-A2 --- PLA2 --- rodent protoparvoviruses --- oncolytic activity --- tumor microenvironment --- immunomodulation --- preclinical --- clinical trials --- B19V --- parvovirus --- uncoating --- divalent cations --- capsid stability --- genome externalization --- trafficking --- nuclear targeting --- equine parvovirus-hepatitis --- horses --- commercial horse serum --- phylogeny --- chapparvovirus --- parvovirus evolution --- endogenous viral elements --- Parvoviridae --- densovirus --- homology modeling --- new viruses --- oncolytic virus immune therapy --- rodent protoparvoviruses --- H-1PV --- combination therapies --- second generation parvovirus treatments --- parvovirus B19 --- B19V --- erythrovirus --- diagnosis --- dilated cardiomyopathy --- inflammatory cardiomyopathy --- myocarditis --- prognosis --- parvovirus B19 --- erythroid progenitor cells --- antiviral compounds --- intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) --- hydroxyurea --- cidofovir --- brincidofovir --- coumarin derivatives --- flavonoids --- alpaca --- virus --- Bocaparvovirus --- genome --- next-generation sequencing --- metagenomics --- parvovirus B19 --- adenoviral vector --- cell cycle arrest --- apoptosis --- anti-cancer --- insect --- Lepidoptera --- insect parvovirus --- chitin --- peritrophins --- glycans --- biocontrol --- parvovirus --- structural biology --- genetics --- oncolytic viruses --- antivirals

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