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Molecular Mechanisms and Genetics of Plant Resistance to Abiotic Stress

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ISBN: 9783039281220 9783039281237 Year: Pages: 152 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-123-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Plant Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:08
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We are currently experiencing a climate crisis that is associated with extreme weather events worldwide. Some of its most noticeable effects are increases in temperatures, droughts, and desertification. These effects are already making whole regions unsuitable for agriculture. Therefore, we urgently need global measures to mitigate the effects of climate breakdown as well as crop alternatives that are more stress-resilient. These crop alternatives can come from breeding new varieties of well-established crops, such as wheat and barley. They can also come from promoting underutilized crop species that are naturally tolerant to some stresses, such as quinoa. Either way, we need to gather more knowledge on how plants respond to stresses related to climate breakdown, such as heat, water-deficit, flooding high salinity, nitrogen, and heavy metal stress. This Special Issue provides a timely collection of recent advances in the understanding of plant responses to these stresses. This information will definitely be useful to the design of new strategies to prevent the loss of more cultivable land and to reclaim the land that has already been declared unsuitable.

Bioactive Components in Fermented Foods and Food By-Products

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ISBN: 9783039288519 / 9783039288526 Year: Pages: 140 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-852-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Food fermentation is one of the most ancient processes of food production that has historically been used to extend food shelf life and to enhance its organoleptic properties. However, several studies have demonstrated that fermentation is also able to increase the nutritional value and/or digestibility of food. Firstly, microorganisms are able to produce huge amounts of secondary metabolites with excellent health benefits and preservative properties (i.e., antimicrobial activity). Secondarily, fermented foods contain living organisms that contribute to the modulation of the host physiological balance, which constitutes an opportunity to enrich the diet with new bioactive molecules. Indeed, some microorganisms can increase the levels of numerous bioactive compounds (e.g., vitamins, antioxidant compounds, peptides, etc.). Moreover, recent advances in fermentation have focused on food by-products; in fact, they are a source of potentially bioactive compounds that, after fermentation, could be used as ingredients for nutraceuticals and functional food formulations. Because of that, understanding the benefits of food fermentation is a growing field of research in nutrition and food science. This book aims to present the current knowledge and research trends concerning the use of fermentation technologies as sustainable and GRAS processes for food and nutraceutical production.

Iron as Therapeutic Targets in Human Diseases Volume 1

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039280827 9783039280834 Year: Pages: 472 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-083-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Biochemistry
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:08
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Abstract

Iron is an essential element for almost all organisms, a cofactor playing a crucial role in a number of vital functions, including oxygen transport, DNA synthesis, and respiration. However, its ability to exchange electrons renders excess iron potentially toxic, since it is capable of catalyzing the formation of highly poisonous free radicals. As a consequence, iron homeostasis is tightly controlled by sophisticated mechanisms that have been partially elucidated. Because of its biological importance, numerous disorders have been recently linked to the deregulation of iron homeostasis, which include not only the typical disorders of iron overload and deficiency but also cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. This leads iron metabolism to become an interesting therapeutic target for novel pharmacological treatments against these diseases. Several therapies are currently under development for hematological disorders, while other are being considered for different pathologies. The therapeutic targeting under study includes the hepcidin/ferroportin axis for the regulation of systemic iron homeostasis, complex cytosolic machineries for the regulation of the intracellular iron status and its association with oxidative damage, and reagents exploiting proteins of iron metabolism such as ferritin and transferrin receptor. A promising potential target is a recently described form of programmed cell death named ferroptosis, in which the role of iron is essential but not completely clarified. This Special Issue has the aim to summarize the state-of-the-art, and the latest findings published in the iron field, as well as to elucidate future directions.

Keywords

cinnamic acid derivatives --- soybean seed ferritin --- iron release --- binding ability --- Fe2+-chelating activity --- reducibility --- adverse event profile --- anaemia --- bioengineering --- labile iron --- intravenous iron --- iron-carbohydrate complex --- iron processing --- iron metabolism --- infection --- innate immunity --- hepcidin --- ferritin --- anemia of inflammation --- pharmaceutical targets --- iron deficiency anemia --- nutrient iron --- oral iron therapy --- FeSO4 --- NaFeEDTA --- non-transferrin-bound iron (NTBI) --- developing countries --- Indonesia --- neurodegeneration --- mitochondria --- therapy --- heme --- haem --- Iron-sulfur --- Friedreich Ataxia --- Oxidative stress --- Iron chelators --- iron deficiency --- anemia --- cancer --- hepcidin --- patient blood management --- malaria --- iron deficiency --- hepcidin --- TNF --- children --- Africa --- Anemia --- iron deficiency --- oral iron salts --- intravenous iron --- Sucrosomial® iron --- M cells --- bioavailability --- tolerability --- efficacy --- iron --- gut microbiota --- iron supplementation --- iron transporters --- mucosal immunity --- SCFA --- intestinal inflammation --- inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) --- colorectal cancer --- oxidative stress --- anaemia --- cardiovascular disease --- chronic kidney disease --- IV iron therapy --- bone homeostasis --- iron overload --- iron deficiency --- osteoclast --- osteoblast --- osteoporosis --- neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation --- iron chelation therapy --- multifunctional iron chelators --- fluorescent iron chelator --- 3-hydroxy-4-pyridinone --- fluorophore --- rhodamine --- membrane interactions --- bacteria --- antibacterial activity --- histidine --- iron --- anemia --- oxidative stress --- kidney --- chelation --- iron --- retina --- age-related macular degeneration (AMD) --- iron --- lipid --- obesity --- cancer --- neurodegeneration --- iron chelation --- phlebotomy --- NCOA4 --- ferritinophagy --- iron homeostasis --- erythropoiesis --- ferroptosis --- cancer --- Tfr2 --- iron metabolism --- hepcidin --- erythropoiesis --- SNC --- ferritin --- iron mobilization --- chaotropes --- flavin nucleotide --- electron transfer --- kinetics --- ferritin --- iron --- iron delivery --- nanotechnology --- nanocage --- drug delivery --- inflammation --- serum biomarker --- iron metabolism --- hepcidin --- ferroportin --- hemochromatosis --- anemia --- hepcidin --- iron deficiency anemia --- iron dextran --- neonatal period --- pig --- supplementation --- Alzheimer’s disease --- neuroinflammation --- neurodegeneration --- cytokines --- neuroimmune responses --- iron --- genetic hemochromatosis --- non transferrin bound iron --- hepcidin --- ferroportin --- venesections --- Anemia of chronic disease --- anemia of inflammation --- hepcidin --- anti-hepcidin therapy --- iron supplementation --- macrophage --- central nurse macrophage --- red pulp macrophage --- Kupffer cell --- iron metabolism --- erythropoiesis --- erythroblastic islands --- erythrophagocytosis --- inflammation --- iron homeostasis --- lung diseases --- oxygen sensing --- hypoxia --- ferritin --- hereditary hyperferritinemia --- hereditary hypoferritinemia --- iron metabolism --- cataracts syndrome --- neurodegenerative disease --- n/a --- iron --- neurodegeneration --- NBIA --- hepcidin --- iron --- lung --- acute lung injury --- COPD --- lung infection --- cystic fibrosis --- iron --- anaemia --- infection --- malaria --- immunity --- brain development --- growth --- microbiome --- hepcidin --- ferritin --- iron supplementation --- infants --- children --- low and middle income countries --- liver --- iron --- hepcidin --- Mek/Erk --- Hfe --- Bmp/Smad --- iron --- mycobacteria --- immunity --- Alzheimer’s disease --- iron homeostasis --- ferroptosis --- senescence --- chelators --- macrophages --- iron --- metabolism --- inflammation --- iron --- ferritin --- acute kidney injury --- chronic kidney disease --- vascular calcification --- iron --- hepcidin --- ferroportin --- Interleukin-6 --- infection --- rheumatoid arthritis --- iron homeostasis --- iron absorption --- non-haem iron --- flavonoids --- developmental --- iron deficiency anemia --- neonatal --- transferrin receptor --- treatment --- hemochromatosis --- HFE --- natural history --- T lymphocytes --- MHC --- CD8+ T cells --- prevention --- iron homeostasis --- hepcidin --- protein binding --- peritoneal dialysis --- iron --- hepcidin --- iron regulatory proteins --- cardiomyocyte --- chronic heart failure --- pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells --- pulmonary arterial hypertension --- iron --- brain --- neurophysiology --- cognition --- social behavior --- didox --- iron chelators --- antitumor compound --- iron metabolism --- RRM2 --- SLC40A1 --- ferroportin --- iron overload --- non-HFE --- ferritin --- hemochromatosis --- iron --- chelation --- neurodegenerative diseases --- pituitary --- brain --- hemopexin --- heme homeostasis --- iron homeostasis --- hemolysis --- haptoglobin --- ferroptosis --- inflammation --- biomarker --- heme oxygenase --- liver --- microbiome --- trauma --- hemorrhage --- iron metabolism --- hepcidin --- iron homeostasis --- ferroportin --- n/a

Iron as Therapeutic Targets in Human Diseases Volume 2

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039281145 9783039281152 Year: Pages: 440 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-115-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Biochemistry
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:08
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Abstract

Iron is an essential element for almost all organisms, a cofactor playing a crucial role in a number of vital functions, including oxygen transport, DNA synthesis, and respiration. However, its ability to exchange electrons renders excess iron potentially toxic, since it is capable of catalyzing the formation of highly poisonous free radicals. As a consequence, iron homeostasis is tightly controlled by sophisticated mechanisms that have been partially elucidated. Because of its biological importance, numerous disorders have been recently linked to the deregulation of iron homeostasis, which include not only the typical disorders of iron overload and deficiency but also cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. This leads iron metabolism to become an interesting therapeutic target for novel pharmacological treatments against these diseases. Several therapies are currently under development for hematological disorders, while other are being considered for different pathologies. The therapeutic targeting under study includes the hepcidin/ferroportin axis for the regulation of systemic iron homeostasis, complex cytosolic machineries for the regulation of the intracellular iron status and its association with oxidative damage, and reagents exploiting proteins of iron metabolism such as ferritin and transferrin receptor. A promising potential target is a recently described form of programmed cell death named ferroptosis, in which the role of iron is essential but not completely clarified. This Special Issue has the aim to summarize the state-of-the-art, and the latest findings published in the iron field, as well as to elucidate future directions.

Keywords

cinnamic acid derivatives --- soybean seed ferritin --- iron release --- binding ability --- Fe2+-chelating activity --- reducibility --- adverse event profile --- anaemia --- bioengineering --- labile iron --- intravenous iron --- iron-carbohydrate complex --- iron processing --- iron metabolism --- infection --- innate immunity --- hepcidin --- ferritin --- anemia of inflammation --- pharmaceutical targets --- iron deficiency anemia --- nutrient iron --- oral iron therapy --- FeSO4 --- NaFeEDTA --- non-transferrin-bound iron (NTBI) --- developing countries --- Indonesia --- neurodegeneration --- mitochondria --- therapy --- heme --- haem --- Iron-sulfur --- Friedreich Ataxia --- Oxidative stress --- Iron chelators --- iron deficiency --- anemia --- cancer --- hepcidin --- patient blood management --- malaria --- iron deficiency --- hepcidin --- TNF --- children --- Africa --- Anemia --- iron deficiency --- oral iron salts --- intravenous iron --- Sucrosomial® iron --- M cells --- bioavailability --- tolerability --- efficacy --- iron --- gut microbiota --- iron supplementation --- iron transporters --- mucosal immunity --- SCFA --- intestinal inflammation --- inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) --- colorectal cancer --- oxidative stress --- anaemia --- cardiovascular disease --- chronic kidney disease --- IV iron therapy --- bone homeostasis --- iron overload --- iron deficiency --- osteoclast --- osteoblast --- osteoporosis --- neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation --- iron chelation therapy --- multifunctional iron chelators --- fluorescent iron chelator --- 3-hydroxy-4-pyridinone --- fluorophore --- rhodamine --- membrane interactions --- bacteria --- antibacterial activity --- histidine --- iron --- anemia --- oxidative stress --- kidney --- chelation --- iron --- retina --- age-related macular degeneration (AMD) --- iron --- lipid --- obesity --- cancer --- neurodegeneration --- iron chelation --- phlebotomy --- NCOA4 --- ferritinophagy --- iron homeostasis --- erythropoiesis --- ferroptosis --- cancer --- Tfr2 --- iron metabolism --- hepcidin --- erythropoiesis --- SNC --- ferritin --- iron mobilization --- chaotropes --- flavin nucleotide --- electron transfer --- kinetics --- ferritin --- iron --- iron delivery --- nanotechnology --- nanocage --- drug delivery --- inflammation --- serum biomarker --- iron metabolism --- hepcidin --- ferroportin --- hemochromatosis --- anemia --- hepcidin --- iron deficiency anemia --- iron dextran --- neonatal period --- pig --- supplementation --- Alzheimer’s disease --- neuroinflammation --- neurodegeneration --- cytokines --- neuroimmune responses --- iron --- genetic hemochromatosis --- non transferrin bound iron --- hepcidin --- ferroportin --- venesections --- Anemia of chronic disease --- anemia of inflammation --- hepcidin --- anti-hepcidin therapy --- iron supplementation --- macrophage --- central nurse macrophage --- red pulp macrophage --- Kupffer cell --- iron metabolism --- erythropoiesis --- erythroblastic islands --- erythrophagocytosis --- inflammation --- iron homeostasis --- lung diseases --- oxygen sensing --- hypoxia --- ferritin --- hereditary hyperferritinemia --- hereditary hypoferritinemia --- iron metabolism --- cataracts syndrome --- neurodegenerative disease --- n/a --- iron --- neurodegeneration --- NBIA --- hepcidin --- iron --- lung --- acute lung injury --- COPD --- lung infection --- cystic fibrosis --- iron --- anaemia --- infection --- malaria --- immunity --- brain development --- growth --- microbiome --- hepcidin --- ferritin --- iron supplementation --- infants --- children --- low and middle income countries --- liver --- iron --- hepcidin --- Mek/Erk --- Hfe --- Bmp/Smad --- iron --- mycobacteria --- immunity --- Alzheimer’s disease --- iron homeostasis --- ferroptosis --- senescence --- chelators --- macrophages --- iron --- metabolism --- inflammation --- iron --- ferritin --- acute kidney injury --- chronic kidney disease --- vascular calcification --- iron --- hepcidin --- ferroportin --- Interleukin-6 --- infection --- rheumatoid arthritis --- iron homeostasis --- iron absorption --- non-haem iron --- flavonoids --- developmental --- iron deficiency anemia --- neonatal --- transferrin receptor --- treatment --- hemochromatosis --- HFE --- natural history --- T lymphocytes --- MHC --- CD8+ T cells --- prevention --- iron homeostasis --- hepcidin --- protein binding --- peritoneal dialysis --- iron --- hepcidin --- iron regulatory proteins --- cardiomyocyte --- chronic heart failure --- pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells --- pulmonary arterial hypertension --- iron --- brain --- neurophysiology --- cognition --- social behavior --- didox --- iron chelators --- antitumor compound --- iron metabolism --- RRM2 --- SLC40A1 --- ferroportin --- iron overload --- non-HFE --- ferritin --- hemochromatosis --- iron --- chelation --- neurodegenerative diseases --- pituitary --- brain --- hemopexin --- heme homeostasis --- iron homeostasis --- hemolysis --- haptoglobin --- ferroptosis --- inflammation --- biomarker --- heme oxygenase --- liver --- microbiome --- trauma --- hemorrhage --- iron metabolism --- hepcidin --- iron homeostasis --- ferroportin --- n/a

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2020 (4)