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Entwicklung von Analysetechniken zur Optimierung der Morphologie organischer Solarzellen

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ISBN: 9783731500605 Year: Pages: XIII, 191 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000035697 Language: GERMAN
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:02:02
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The power conversion efficiency of an organic solar cell is strongly influenced by the morphology of its bulk heterojunction absorber layer. In this thesis new analytical methods are developed and utilized in combination with established methods to characterize various material systems. The common aim of these analyses is to derive a profound understanding of the process-structure relationships and to correlate the findings with the solar cell properties.

Application of Photoactive Nanomaterials in Degradation of Pollutants

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ISBN: 9783039213818 9783039213825 Year: Pages: 134 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-382-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Photoactive nanomaterials have been receiving increasing attention due to their potential application in the light-driven degradation of water and gas-phase pollutants. However, to exploit the great potential of photoactive materials and access their properties requires fine-tuning of their size/shape-dependent chemical–physical properties, and on the ability to integrate them in photoreactors or to deposit them onto large surfaces. Therefore, the synthetic approach as well as post-synthesis manipulation could strongly affect the final photocatalytic properties of the nanomaterial. The aim of the present Special Issue is to report on the most recent progress towards the application of photoactive nanomaterials and nanomaterial-based coatings in pollutant degradation, paying particular attention to cases close to real application: scalable synthetic approaches to nanocatalysts, preparation of nanocatalyst-based coatings, degradation of real pollutants and bacterial inactivation, and application in building materials.

Titanium Dioxide Photocatalysis

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ISBN: 9783038976943 9783038976950 Year: Pages: 208 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-695-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Although the seminal work of Fujishima et al. dates back to 1971, TiO2 still remains the most diffused and studied semiconductor, employed in photo-oxidation processes for cleantech (i.e., polluted water and air treatment), in solar fuel production (mainly hydrogen production by water photo splitting), and in Carbon Capture and Utilization (CCU) processes by CO2 photoreduction. The eleven articles, among them three reviews, in this book cover recent results and research trends of various aspects of titanium dioxide photocatalysis, with the chief aim of improving the final efficiency of TiO2-based materials. Strategies include doping, metal co-catalyst deposition, and the realization of composites with plasmonic materials, other semiconductors, and graphene. Photocatalysts with high efficiency and selectivity can be also obtained by controlling the precise crystal shape (and homogeneous size) and the organization in superstructures from ultrathin films to hierarchical nanostructures. Finally, the theoretical modeling of TiO2 nanoparticles is discussed and highlighted. The range of topics addressed in this book will stimulate the reader’s interest as well as provide a valuable source of information for researchers in academia and industry.

Thin Films for Energy Harvesting, Conversion, and Storage

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ISBN: 9783039217243 9783039217250 Year: Pages: 174 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-725-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- Chemical Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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Efficient clean energy harvesting, conversion, and storage technologies are of immense importance for the sustainable development of human society. To this end, scientists have made significant advances in recent years regarding new materials and devices for improving the energy conversion efficiency for photovoltaics, thermoelectric generation, photoelectrochemical/electrolytic hydrogen generation, and rechargeable metal ion batteries. The aim of this Special Issue is to provide a platform for research scientists and engineers in these areas to demonstrate and exchange their latest research findings. This thematic topic undoubtedly represents an extremely important technological direction, covering materials processing, characterization, simulation, and performance evaluation of thin films used in energy harvesting, conversion, and storage.

Nanomaterials for Environmental Purification and Energy Conversion

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ISBN: 9783039218141 9783039218158 Year: Pages: 264 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-815-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Environmental Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:08
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The Special Issue, “Nanomaterials for Environmental Purification and Energy Conversion”, describes the significant and increasing role of nanomaterials in catalysis. It is believed that the most important factor for future human development could be to use nanomaterials (nanotechnology) to solve such critical issues facing humanity such as environment, water and energy. It should be also pointed out that properties of nanomaterials differ substantially from that of bulk materials of the same composition, resulting in high reactivity. Therefore, it creates new perspectives for the catalytic processes in the broad sense. This issue was mainly dedicated as a platform for the contributions from The Symposium on Nanomaterials for Environmental Purification and Energy Conversion (SNEPEC), which was held in Sapporo, Japan in winter 2018. Accordingly, this book compiles the current state-of-the-art of research in the area of novel photocatalysts and highlights current research directions in the fields of advanced oxidation technologies, material science and nanotechnology. Written by leading experts in the field of photochemistry and chemical engineering, a collection of 17 papers, including 16 research papers and one review, covers a broad range of topics focusing on the exceptional role of catalytic nanomaterials in solving environmental and energy problems of modern societies. The majority of papers present the importance of photocatalytic nanomaterials, especially for degradation of organic pollutants and inactivation of microorganisms, but there is also a strong representation of conventional catalysis, based on nanomaterials for important processes such as catalytic hydrogen production and organic synthesis.

Keywords

TiOF2 --- NaOH-modified TiOF2 --- network shape --- photocatalysis --- RhB --- chemical looping reforming of methane --- yttrium promoted oxygen carrier --- SBA-16 --- hydrogen production --- conductive cotton filter --- carbon nanotubes --- low-cost --- water purification --- gravity feed --- alcohols --- salicylic acid --- multiwalled carbon nanotubes --- synthesis gas --- titanium dioxide --- graphene --- photocatalysis --- visible light --- dyes --- Cu nanoparticles --- Cu/FTO nanocomposites --- H2 evolution --- visible light --- transfer efficiency --- chemical looping --- oxygen carrier --- hydrogen production --- narrow pore size distribution --- Fe2O3 dispersion --- texture modification --- photocatalytic reduction --- TiO2 --- anatase --- CO2 --- flue gas --- adsorption --- magnetic ZnO --- methylene blue --- photodegradation --- rectorite --- dimethyl carbonate --- carbon dioxide --- ceria nanowires --- oxygen vacancy --- Pt-Au --- XAFS --- BCLA --- zinc chromite --- photocatalysis activity --- oxalate --- humic acid --- photocatalysis --- CO2 reduction --- anatase --- polydopamine --- sensitization --- heterogeneous photocatalysis --- TiO2/Cu2O nanotubes --- anodization --- nanomaterials fabrication --- removal of microbiological pollutants --- photocatalysis --- nanocomposites --- heterojunction --- Cu2O --- urea --- polytriazine --- Z-scheme --- ionic liquids --- ionic liquid-assisted solvothermal reaction --- reaction time --- titanium dioxide --- heterogeneous photocatalysis --- visible light --- C/TiO2 --- photocatalysis --- solar radiation --- disinfection --- immobilized catalyst --- n/a

Optoelectronic Nanodevices

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ISBN: 9783039286966 / 9783039286973 Year: Pages: 338 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-697-3 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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During the last decade, novel graphene related materials (GRMs), perovskites, as well as metal oxides and other metal nanostructures have received the interest of the scientific community. Due to their extraordinary physical, optical, thermal, and electrical properties, which are correlated with their 2D ultrathin atomic layer structure, large interlayer distance, ease of functionalization, and bandgap tunability, these nanomaterials have been applied in the development or the improvement of innovative optoelectronic applications, as well as the expansion of theoretical studies and simulations in the fast-growing fields of energy (photovoltaics, energy storage, fuel cells, hydrogen storage, catalysis, etc.), electronics, photonics, spintronics, and sensing devices. The continuous nanostructure-based applications development has provided the ability to significantly improve existing products and to explore the design of materials and devices with novel functionalities. This book demonstrates some of the most recent trends and advances in the interdisciplinary field of optoelectronics. Most articles focus on light emitting diodes (LEDs) and solar cells (SCs), including organic, inorganic, and hybrid configurations, whereas the rest address photodetectors, transistors, and other well-known dynamic optoelectronic devices. In this context, this exceptional collection of articles is directed at a broad scientific audience of chemists, materials scientists, physicists, and engineers, with the goals of highlighting the potential of innovative optoelectronic applications incorporating nanostructures and inspiring their realization.

Keywords

localized surface plasmon --- green LED --- cathodoluminescence --- FDTD --- NiCo2S4 nanotubes --- Ti porous film --- quantum dot --- solar cells --- counter electrode --- metasurfaces --- orthogonal polarization --- high-efficiency --- polarization analyzer --- green LEDs --- InGaN/GaN superlattice --- V-pits --- external quantum efficiency --- PeLEDs --- OAB --- perovskite --- quantum confinement effect --- transparent electrode --- Ag film --- nucleation layer --- organic solar cell --- graphene oxide --- oxidation --- photodetector --- light-emitting diodes --- quantum dots --- stability --- color-conversion efficiency --- photoluminescence --- p-type InGaN --- graded indium composition --- hole injection --- quantum efficiency --- green LED --- 2D perovskite --- controllable synthesis --- flexible substrate --- photodetector --- photoelectric performance --- photodetector --- organic --- photomultiplication --- tunneling --- external quantum efficiency --- liquid crystals --- metasurfaces --- plasmonics --- actively tunable nanodevices --- solvent --- compact --- smooth --- perovskite solar cells --- indium nanoparticles (In NPs) --- textured silicon solar cells --- antireflective coating (ARC) --- plasmonic forward scattering --- InN/p-GaN heterojunction --- interface --- photovoltaics --- GaN --- LED --- nano-grating --- metamaterials --- mid infrared --- graphene split-ring --- gold split-ring --- electromagnetically induced transparency effect --- transparent conductive electrode --- Ga2O3 --- AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diode --- transmittance --- sheet resistance --- electrowetting --- tunable absorbers --- subwavelength metal grating --- plasmon resonance --- field emission --- graphene --- reduced graphene oxide --- polymer composites --- graphene ink --- cold cathode --- Fowler–Nordheim --- CdTe microdots --- Schottky barrier --- photodetector --- piezo-phototronic effect --- UV LEDs --- double-layer ITO --- pinhole pattern --- current spreading --- light output power --- flip-chip mini-LED --- prism-structured sidewall --- waveguide photons --- light extraction --- erbium --- silicon transistor --- photocurrent --- colorimetry --- excitation wavelength --- light-emitting diode --- quantum dots --- ternary organic solar cells --- graphene ink --- functionalization --- air-processed --- cascade effect --- charge transfer --- n/a

Nanoelectronic Materials, Devices and Modeling

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ISBN: 9783039212255 9783039212262 Year: Pages: 242 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-226-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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As CMOS scaling is approaching the fundamental physical limits, a wide range of new nanoelectronic materials and devices have been proposed and explored to extend and/or replace the current electronic devices and circuits so as to maintain progress with respect to speed and integration density. The major limitations, including low carrier mobility, degraded subthreshold slope, and heat dissipation, have become more challenging to address as the size of silicon-based metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) has decreased to nanometers, while device integration density has increased. This book aims to present technical approaches that address the need for new nanoelectronic materials and devices. The focus is on new concepts and knowledge in nanoscience and nanotechnology for applications in logic, memory, sensors, photonics, and renewable energy. This research on nanoelectronic materials and devices will be instructive in finding solutions to address the challenges of current electronics in switching speed, power consumption, and heat dissipation and will be of great interest to academic society and the industry.

Keywords

UAV --- vision localization --- hierarchical --- landing --- information integration --- memristor --- synaptic device --- spike-timing-dependent plasticity --- neuromorphic computation --- memristive device --- ZnO films --- conditioned reflex --- quantum dot --- sample grating --- cross-gain modulation --- bistability --- distributed Bragg --- semiconductor optical amplifier --- topological insulator --- field-effect transistor --- nanostructure synthesis --- optoelectronic devices --- topological magnetoelectric effect --- drain-induced barrier lowering (DIBL) --- gate-induced drain leakage (GIDL) --- silicon on insulator (SOI) --- graphene --- supercapacitor --- energy storage --- ionic liquid --- UV irradiation --- luminescent centres --- bismuth ions --- two-photon process --- oscillatory neural networks --- pattern recognition --- higher order synchronization --- thermal coupling --- vanadium dioxide --- band-to-band tunneling --- L-shaped tunnel field-effect-transistor --- double-gate tunnel field-effect-transistor --- corner-effect --- AlGaN/GaN --- high-electron mobility transistor (HEMTs) --- p-GaN --- enhancement-mode --- 2DEG density --- InAlN/GaN heterostructure --- polarization effect --- quantum mechanical --- gallium nitride --- MISHEMT --- dielectric layer --- interface traps --- current collapse --- PECVD --- gate-induced drain leakage (GIDL) --- drain-induced barrier lowering (DIBL) --- recessed channel array transistor (RCAT) --- on-current (Ion) --- off-current (Ioff) --- subthreshold slope (SS) --- threshold voltage (VTH) --- saddle FinFET (S-FinFET) --- potential drop width (PDW) --- shallow trench isolation (STI) --- source/drain (S/D) --- conductivity --- 2D material --- Green’s function --- reflection transmision method --- variational form --- dual-switching transistor --- third harmonic tuning --- low voltage --- high efficiency --- CMOS power amplifier IC --- insulator–metal transition (IMT) --- charge injection --- Mott transition --- conductive atomic force microscopy (cAFM) --- gate field effect --- atomic layer deposition (ALD) --- zinc oxide --- silicon --- ZnO/Si --- electron affinity --- bandgap tuning --- conduction band offset --- heterojunction --- solar cells --- PC1D --- vertical field-effect transistor (VFET) --- back current blocking layer (BCBL) --- gallium nitride (GaN) --- normally off power devices --- n/a

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