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Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) and Public Health: Progress and Current Challenges

ISBN: 9783038421559 9783038421566 Year: Pages: 316
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-05-20 15:26:51
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Abstract

Over the past decade, coastal and freshwater systems in the U.S. and worldwide have experienced an apparent increase in the frequency and geographic distribution of harmful algal blooms (HABs). These blooms can adversely affect both public health and ecosystem health. Toxin-producing HABs can accumulate in drinking and recreational waters and in foods of aquatic origin such as fish and seafood. Human and animal health risks include exposure to the toxins through eating contaminated food or drinking or swimming in contaminated water. Because of these potential public health risks, several countries and U.S. states have developed monitoring programs and guidelines for drinking and recreational water quality to protect public health. This special issue will present research papers and reviews on various aspects of public health and environmental responses to harmful algal blooms. [...]

Marine Biotoxins and Seafood Poisoning

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039218189 9783039218196 Year: Pages: 114 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-819-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Public Health
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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Marine biotoxins may pose a threat to the human consumption of seafood and seafood products. The increasing global trade and higher demand for seafood products worldwide represents a challenge for food safety authorities, policy makers, food business operators, and the scientific community, in particular, researchers devoted to environmental sciences, toxicology, and analytical chemistry. In addition, due to changes in climate conditions and technological developments, new and emerging marine toxins are being detected in regions where they were previously unknown. This Special Issue highlight studies aiming to the develop detection methods for marine biotoxins for better understanding the dynamics of accumulation/elimination of marine biotoxins and their effects on marine organisms, as well as toxin exposure studies that aim to evaluate the risks associated with the consumption of contaminated seafood.

Cyanobacteria and Cyanotoxins: New Advances and Future Challenges

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039218387 / 9783039218394 Year: Pages: 246 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-839-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Public Health
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Cyanobacteria are a group of ubiquitous photosynthetic prokaryotes. Their occurrence has been increasing worldwide, due to anthropogenic activities and climate change. Several cyanobacterial species are able to synthesize a high number of bioactive molecules, among them, cyanotoxins (microcystins, cylindrospermopsin, nodularin, etc.), which are considered a health concern. For risk assessment of cyanotoxins, more scientific knowledge is required to perform adequate hazard characterization, exposure evaluation and, finally, risk characterization of these toxins. This Special Issue “Cyanobacteria and Cyanotoxins: New Advances and Future Challenges” presents new research or review articles related to different aspects of cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins, and contributes to providing new toxicological data and methods for a more realistic risk assessment.

Keywords

cylindrospermopsin --- in vitro --- cytotoxicity --- oxidative stress --- genotoxicity --- microcystins --- taste-and-odor compounds --- water source --- drinking water treatment plant --- cyanobacterial thresholds --- arctic --- benthic mats --- cyanotoxins --- ELISA --- 16S rRNA gene --- apoptosis --- microcystin-LR (MC-LR) --- reproductive toxicity --- resveratrol --- sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) --- Aphanizomenon flos-aquae --- blue-green algae supplements --- cyanotoxins --- microcystin --- cylindrospermopsin --- saxitoxin --- cylindrospermopsin --- monoclonal antibody --- time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay --- method validation --- detection --- cyanobacteria --- cyanotoxins --- nutrient enrichment --- akinetes --- harmful algal blooms --- PCR --- phylogenetic analyses --- microcystin-LR --- Procambarus clarkii --- energy budget --- astaxanthin --- cylindrospermopsin --- anatoxin-a --- PSP toxins --- microcystins --- cyanobacteria --- Nostocales --- drinking water --- marine cyanobacteria --- cyanotoxins --- marine sponges --- secondary metabolites --- marine natural compounds --- bioassays --- Artemia salina --- Paracentrotus lividus --- hemolytic essay --- reservoir --- Yangtze estuary --- 16S rRNA gene sequencing --- shotgun metagenomic sequencing --- bacterial community --- microbial metabolisms --- [d-Leu1]Microcystin-LR --- Lithobates catesbeianus --- tadpoles --- exposure --- Histopathological evaluation --- microcystins --- cylindrospermopsin --- method validation --- UPLC-MS/MS --- lettuce --- genotoxicity --- mutagenicity --- Cylindrospermopsin --- Microcystin-LR --- mixture

Dinophysis Toxins: Distribution, Fate in Shellfish and Impacts

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039213634 9783039213641 Year: Pages: 376 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-364-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Public Health
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Several species of Dinophysis produce one or two groups of lipophilic toxins: okadaic acid (OA) and its derivatives; or the dinophysistoxins (DTXs) (also known as diarrhetic shellfish poisons or DSP toxins) and pectenotoxins (PTXs). DSP toxins are potent inhibitors of protein phosphatases, causing gastrointestinal intoxication in consumers of contaminated seafood. Forty years after the identification of Dinophysis as the causative agent of DSP in Japan, contamination of filter feeding shellfish exposed to Dinophysis blooms is recognized as a problem worldwide. DSP events affect public health and cause considerable losses to the shellfish industry. Costly monitoring programs are implemented in regions with relevant shellfish production to prevent these socioeconomic impacts. Harvest closures are enforced whenever toxin levels exceed regulatory limits (RLs). Dinophysis species are kleptoplastidic dinoflagellates; they feed on ciliates (Mesodinium genus) that have previously acquired plastids from cryptophycean (genera Teleaulax, Plagioselmis, and Geminigera) nanoflagellates. The interactions of Dinophysis with different prey regulate their growth and toxin production. When Dinophysis cells are ingested by shellfish, their toxins are partially biotransformed and bioaccumulated, rendering the shellfish unsuitable for human consumption. DSP toxins may also affect shellfish metabolism. This book covers diverse aspects of the abovementioned topics—from the laboratory culture of Dinophysis and the kinetics of uptake, transformation, and depuration of DSP toxins in shellfish to Dinophysis population dynamics, the monitoring and regulation of DSP toxins, and their impact on the shellfish industry in some of the aquaculture regions that are traditionally most affected, namely, northeastern Japan, western Europe, southern Chile, and New Zealand.

Keywords

harmful algal bloom --- Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning --- okadaic acid --- toxin accumulation --- toxin vectors --- trophic transfer --- Brazil --- diarrhetic shellfish toxins (DST) --- Mytilus galloprovincialis --- DST accumulation --- DST esterification --- suspended particulate matter (SPM) --- harmful algal blooms --- okadaic acid --- Argopecten irradians --- transcriptomic response --- deep sequencing --- pectenotoxins --- surf clam --- accumulation --- biotransformation --- depuration --- diarrhetic shellfish toxins --- accumulation --- dinophysistoxin --- Japanese scallop --- dinophysis --- LC/MS/MS --- statistical analysis --- Dinophysis --- HAB monitoring --- DSP toxins --- aquaculture --- shellfish toxicity --- human health --- time-series --- seasonality --- Scotland --- DSP toxins --- bivalves --- mussel --- resistance --- RNA-Seq --- qPCR --- metabolism --- defense --- immunity --- DSP toxins --- pectenotoxins --- Dinophysis acuminata --- Mesodinium rubrum --- bacterial community --- high throughput sequencing --- diarrhetic shellfish toxins --- Dinophysis --- wild harvest --- bivalve shellfish --- pipis (Plebidonax deltoides) --- Sydney rock oyster (Saccostrea glomerata) --- okadaic acid --- pectenotoxins --- Dinophysis toxins --- accumulation --- digestion --- biotransformation --- compartmentalization --- depuration --- kinetics --- Dinophysis --- diarrhetic shellfish poisoning --- marine toxins --- pectenotoxin --- okadaic acid --- dinophysistoxin --- okadaic acid --- pectenotoxins --- Dinophysis --- D. acuminata-complex --- D. caudata --- Argopecten purpuratus --- Dinophysis --- Mesodinium --- cryptophytes --- predator-prey preferences --- Diarrhetic Shellfish Toxins (DST) --- pectenotoxins (PTXs) --- mixotrophic cultures --- mass culture conditions --- Dinophysis acuminata --- Protoceratium reticulatum --- Reloncaví Fjord --- OMI analysis --- WitOMI analysis --- Mesodinium cf. rubrum --- El Niño Southern Oscillation --- Southern Annual Mode --- Dinophysis acuta --- Dinophysis acuminata --- DSP --- physical–biological interactions --- niche partitioning --- climatic anomaly --- Dinophysis acuminata --- Mesodinium rubrum --- lysate --- organic matter --- diarrhetic shellfish poisoning --- okadaic acid --- dinophysistoxin --- pectenotoxins --- dinophysis --- DSP --- toxins --- OA --- DTX-2 --- PTXs --- Dinophysis acuminata --- dinophysistoxins --- pectenotoxins --- Port Underwood --- New Zealand --- Dinophysis --- Diarrhetic shellfish toxins --- marine biotoxins --- blooms --- n/a

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