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The Proceedings from Halophiles 2013, the International Congress on Halophilic Microorganisms

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195701 Year: Pages: 264 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-570-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Oncology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-02-05 17:24:33
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The Halophiles 2013 meeting is a multidisciplinary international congress, with a strong history of regular triennial meetings since 1978. Our mission is to bring researchers from a wide diversity of investigation interests (e.g., protein and species evolution; niche adaptation, ecology, taxonomy, genomics, metagenomics, horizontal gene transfer, gene regulation; DNA replication, repair and recombination; signal transduction; community assembly and species distribution; astrobiology; biotechnological applications; adaptation to radiation, desiccation, osmotic stress) into a single forum for the integration and synthesis of ideas and data from all three domains of life, and their viruses, yet from a single environment; salt concentrations greater than seawater. This cross-section of research informs our understanding of the microbiological world in many ways. The halophilic environment is extreme, especially above 10% NaCl, restricting life solely to microbes. The microorganisms that live there are adapted to extreme conditions, and are notable for their ability to survive high doses of radiation and desiccation. Therefore, the hypersaline environment is a model system (both the abiotic, and biologic factors) for insightful understanding regarding conditions and life in the absence of plant and animals (e.g., life on the early earth, and other solar system bodies like Mars and Europa). Lower salinity conditions (e.g., 6-10% NaCl) form luxuriant microbial mats considered modern analogues of fossilized stromatolites, which are enormous microbially produced structures fashioned during the Precambrian (and still seen today in places like Shark’s Bay, Australia). Hypersaline systems are island-like habitats spread patchily across the earth’s surface, and similar to the Galapagos Islands represent unique systems excellent for studying the evolutionary pressures that shape microbial community assembly, adaptation, and speciation. The unique adaptations to this extreme environment produce valuable proteins, enzymes and other molecules capable of remediating harsh human instigated environments, and are useful for the production of biofuels, vitamins, and retinal implants, for example. This research topic is intended to capture the breadth and depth of these topics.

Screening and description of novel hydantoinases from distinct environmental sources

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ISBN: 9783866441736 Year: Pages: XVI, 148 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000007011 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Chemical Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:02:01
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Various bacteria with hydantoinase activity were recovered from terrestrial soil samples of different geographic origins (Antarctica, South Africa, China). Based on these findings it is shown that microorganisms with hydantoinase activity are (i) distributed in various geographically distinct environmental habitats (ii) distributed worldwide (iii) found in certain bacterial genera.

Enzymes from Extreme Environments

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198306 Year: Pages: 103 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-830-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Biotechnology --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Enzymes are nature’s biocatalysts empowered with high catalytic power and remarkable substrate specificity. Enzymes perform a wide range of functions throughout nature, and guide the biochemistry of life with great precision. The majority of enzymes perform under conditions considered normal for mesophilic, neutrophilic, terrestrial microorganisms. However, the Earth’s biosphere contains several regions that are extreme in comparison, such as hypersaline lakes and pools, hydrothermal vents, cold oceans, dry deserts and areas exposed to intensive radiation. These areas are inhabited by a large number of extremophilic microorganisms which produce enzymes capable of functioning in unusual conditions. There is an increasing biotechnological and industrial demand for enzymes stable and functioning in harsh conditions, and over the past decade screening for, isolation and production of enzymes with unique and extreme properties has become one of the foremost areas of biotechnology research. The development of advanced molecular biology tools has facilitated the quest for production of enzymes with optimized and extreme features. These tools include large-scale screening for potential genes using metagenomics, engineering of enzymes using computational techniques and site-directed mutagenesis and molecular evolution techniques. The goal of this Research Topic is to present reports on latest advances in enzymes from all types of extreme environments. Contributions dealing with isolation of enzymes from extremophilic microorganisms or directly from natural environments, screening for and expression of enzymes with extreme properties using metagenomic approaches are welcome. In addition, contributions dealing with all forms of biocatalyst production and improvement are welcome, such as fermentation technology, protein engineering, directed evolution, rational design, and immobilization techniques.

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