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Energy Performance and Indoor Climate Analysis in Buildings

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ISBN: 9783039213795 9783039213801 Year: Pages: 374 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-380-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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Abstract

HVAC systems, load shifting, indoor climate, and energy and ventilation performance analyses are the key topics when improving energy performance in new and renovated buildings. This development has been boosted by the recently established nearly zero energy building requirements that will soon be in use in all EU Member States, as well as similar long-term zero energy building targets in Japan, the US, and other countries. The research covered in this Special Issue provides evidence of how new technical solutions have worked, in practice, in new or renovated buildings, and also discusses problems and how solutions should be further developed. Another focus is on the more detailed calculation methods needed for the correct design and sizing of dedicated systems, and for accurate quantification of energy savings. Occupant behavior and building operation is also examined, in order to avoid common performance gaps between calculated and measured performance. These topics demonstrate the challenge of high performance buildings as, in the end, comfortable buildings with good indoor climate which are easy and cheap to operate and maintain are expected by end customers. Ventilation performance, heating and cooling, sizing, energy predictions and optimization, load shifting, and field studies are some of the key topics in this Special Issue, contributing to the future of high performance buildings with reliable operation.

Keywords

Jaya algorithm --- smart grid --- optimal energy management --- demand response --- demand side management --- indoor temperature after renovation --- electricity use --- DHW energy use --- user behavior --- standard use --- energy performance modeling --- gray box --- satellite-based solar radiation data --- meteorological reanalysis data --- ISO 52016-1 --- energy efficiency --- HVAC systems --- chiller plants --- chiller performance --- COP --- data-driven analysis --- energy --- building --- ventilation --- cooling --- outdoor air --- air jet --- personalized ventilation --- skin temperature --- CFD --- thermal analysis --- corner impinging jet --- mixing ventilation --- displacement ventilation --- tracer gas --- air exchange effectiveness --- local air change effectiveness --- draught rate --- Monte Carlo method --- ISO 7730 --- TRNSYS --- greenhouse --- indoor temperature uniformity --- multiple sensor nodes --- qualitative control --- corner impinging jet --- corner mixing ventilation --- hybrid displacement device --- heating mode --- thermal comfort --- air exchange effectiveness --- local air change effectiveness --- draught rate, --- downdraught --- smart buildings --- smart readiness indicator --- energy efficiency --- energy performance of buildings directive --- energy flexibility --- load shifting --- demand response --- building energy simulation --- occupant behavior --- energy performance --- indoor climate --- retirement home --- user input data --- condenser evaporative precooling --- rooftop air conditioners --- building energy modelling --- control strategy --- ground source heat pump --- heating power --- sizing --- DHW heating --- space heating --- alternate operation --- daylight --- existing buildings --- daylight factor --- daylight simulations --- daylight survey --- energy efficiency --- student dormitories --- Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ), Pro-GET-onE H2020 --- in situ measurements --- monitoring measurements --- energy signature --- indoor air quality --- stratification --- basketball hall --- CFD --- field measurement --- single room ventilation unit --- building pressure condition --- stack effect --- wind pressure --- ventilation renovation --- decentralized ventilation unit

Heat and Mass Transfer in Energy Systems

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ISBN: 9783039219827 9783039219834 Year: Pages: 234 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-983-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-30 16:39:46
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In recent years, the interest of the scientific community towards efficient energy systems has significantly increased. One of the reasons is certainly related to the change in the temperature of the planet, which has increased by 0.76 °C with respect to preindustrial levels, according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), and is still increasing. The European Union considers it vital to prevent global warming from exceeding 2 °C with respect to pre-industrial levels, as it has been proven that this will result in irreversible and potentially catastrophic changes. These changes in climate are mainly caused by greenhouse gas emissions related to human activities, and can be drastically reduced by employing energy systems for the heating and cooling of buildings, as well as for power production, characterized by high efficiency levels and/or based on renewable energy sources. This Special Issue, published in the Energies journal, includes 13 contributions from across the world, including a wide range of applications such as hybrid residential renewable energy systems, desiccant-based air handling units, heat exchanges for engine WHR, solar chimney systems, and other interesting topics.

Keywords

bubble absorber --- absorption cooling --- ammonia-lithium nitrate --- plate heat exchanger --- bentonite buffer material --- Ca-type bentonite --- thermal conductivity --- predictive models --- thermosyphon --- two-phase flow --- startup --- phase change --- operating state --- visualization --- fast thermal simulation --- crude oil pipeline --- batch transportation --- body-fitted coordinate-based proper orthogonal decomposition reduced-order model (BFC-POD-ROM) --- transport scheme determination --- waste heat recovery --- exhaust steam --- heat exchanger --- protracted fin --- turbo-electric generator --- exhaust emissions --- R744 --- two-phase ejector --- refrigeration --- dynamic simulation --- low-order model --- object-oriented modelling --- desiccant wheel --- solar heating and cooling --- hygroscopic materials --- dynamic simulations --- energy and environmental analysis --- solar chimney --- air flow --- analytical and experimental solutions --- method of calculation --- steelmaking --- electric arc furnace --- consumption --- electric energy --- melting --- refining --- tapping --- modeling --- linear regression --- genetic programming --- renewables --- ancillary services --- hybrid systems --- thermal storage --- energy storage --- microgrids --- heat pump --- model predictive control --- optimization --- Biot number --- genetic algorithms --- drying --- air-cooled steam turbine generator --- single-channel ventilation --- backflow --- radial ventilation duct --- fluid field --- ground source heat pump --- numerical and experimental studies --- ground-air heat exchanger --- geothermal energy --- computational fluid dynamics --- spirally corrugated pipe

Mathematical Modeling of Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in Petroleum Industries and Geothermal Applications

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ISBN: 9783039287208 / 9783039287215 Year: Pages: 470 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-721-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Geothermal energy is the thermal energy generated and stored in the Earth's core, mantle, and crust. Geothermal technologies are used to generate electricity and to heat and cool buildings. To develop accurate models for heat and mass transfer applications involving fluid flow in geothermal applications or reservoir engineering and petroleum industries, a basic knowledge of the rheological and transport properties of the materials involved (drilling fluid, rock properties, etc.)—especially in high-temperature and high-pressure environments—are needed. This Special Issue considers all aspects of fluid flow and heat transfer in geothermal applications, including the ground heat exchanger, conduction and convection in porous media. The emphasis here is on mathematical and computational aspects of fluid flow in conventional and unconventional reservoirs, geothermal engineering, fluid flow, and heat transfer in drilling engineering and enhanced oil recovery (hydraulic fracturing, CO2 injection, etc.) applications.

Keywords

dynamic hydraulic-fracturing experiments --- dynamic crack tip --- fluid front kinetics --- energy conservation analysis --- cost-effective --- frequency conversion technology (FCT) --- ventilation --- methane removal --- computational fluid dynamic (CFD) --- spatiotemporal characteristics --- capacitance-resistance model --- aquifer support --- inter-well connectivity --- production optimization --- karst carbonate reservoir --- tight reservoir --- huff-‘n-puff --- fracture simulation --- enhanced oil recovery --- CO2 diffusion --- percolation model --- fractal theory --- microstructure --- critical porosity --- conductivity --- permeability --- tight oil reservoirs --- fracture compressibility --- numerical simulation --- flowback --- fracture uncertainty --- enhanced geothermal systems --- multiple parallel fractures --- semi-analytical solution --- main gas pipeline --- pressure fluctuations --- unsteady process --- multifractal theory --- fractal theory --- pore structure --- mercury intrusion porosimetry --- pore size distribution --- natural gas --- pipeline network --- continuity/momentum and energy equations coupled --- efficient simulation --- enhanced gas recovery --- longitudinal dispersion coefficient --- injection orientation --- supercritical CO2 --- CO2 permeability --- Coal excavation --- coal and rock fracture --- multiple structural units (MSU) --- energy dissipation --- AE energy --- cement --- non-Newtonian fluids --- rheology --- variable viscosity --- diffusion --- underground coal gasification (UCG) --- economics --- cost of electricity (COE) --- techno-economic model --- methanol --- ammonia --- carbon capture and storage (CCS) --- carbon capture and utilization (CCU) --- electricity generation --- process simulation --- fractal --- slippage effect --- Knudsen diffusion --- surface diffusion --- apparent permeability --- wellbore temperature --- bottom-hole pressure --- multi-pressure system --- comprehensive heat transfer model --- leakage and overflow --- GSHP (ground source heat pump) --- heat transfer --- coupled heat conduction and advection --- nest of tubes --- three-dimensional numerical simulation --- sloshing --- real-scale --- highly viscous fluids --- Navier-Stokes equations --- impact pressure --- flowback --- complex fracture network --- shale oil --- porous media --- fractal theory --- particles model --- permeability --- tube bundle model --- cement slurries --- non-Newtonian fluids --- rheology --- constitutive relations --- viscosity --- yield stress --- thixotropy --- mathematical modeling --- computational fluid dynamics (CFD) --- drilling --- porous media --- multiphase flow --- hydraulic fracturing --- geothermal --- enhanced oil recovery

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