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Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Healthy and Diseased Brain Networks

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194353 Year: Pages: 365 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-435-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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An important aspect of neuroscience is to characterize the underlying connectivity patterns of the human brain (i.e., human connectomics). Over the past few years, researchers have demonstrated that by combining a variety of different neuroimaging technologies (e.g., structural MRI, diffusion MRI and functional MRI) with sophisticated analytic strategies such as graph theory, it is possible to noninvasively map the patterns of structural and functional connectivity of human whole-brain networks. With these novel approaches, many studies have shown that human brain networks have nonrandom properties such as modularity, small-worldness and highly connected hubs. Importantly, these quantifiable network properties change with age, learning and disease. Moreover, there is growing evidence for behavioral and genetic correlates. Network analysis of neuroimaging data is opening up a new avenue of research into the understanding of the organizational principles of the brain that will be of interest for all basic scientists and clinical researchers. Such approaches are powerful but there are a number of challenging issues when extracting reliable brain networks from various imaging modalities and analyzing the topological properties, e.g., definitions of network nodes and edges and reproducibility of network analysis. We assembled contributions related to the state-of-the-art methodologies of brain connectivity and the applications involving development, aging and neuropsychiatric disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease, schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and mood and anxiety disorders. It is anticipated that the articles in this Research Topic will provide a greater range and depth of provision for the field of imaging connectomics.

Towards an Integrated Approach to Measurement, Analysis and Modeling of Cortical Networks

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197620 Year: Pages: 264 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-762-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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The amount of data being produced by neuroscientists is increasing rapidly, driven by advances in neuroimaging and recording techniques spanning multiple scales of resolution. The availability of such data poses significant challenges for their processing and interpretation. To gain a deeper understanding of the surrounding issues, the Editors of this e-Book reached out to an interdisciplinary community, and formed the Cortical Networks Working Group. The genesis of this e-Book thus began with this Working Group through support from the National Institute for Mathematical and Biological Synthesis in the USA. The Group consisted of scientists from neuroscience, physics, psychology and computer science, and meetings were held in person (a detailed list of the group members is presented in the Editorial that follows). At the time we started, in 2010, the term “big data” was hardly in existence, though the volume of data we were handling would certainly have qualified. Furthermore, there was significant interest in harnessing the power of supercomputers to perform large scale neuronal simulations, and in creating specialized hardware to mimic neural function. We realized that the various disciplines represented in our Group could and should work together to accelerate progress in Neuroscience. We searched for common threads that could define the foundation for an integrated approach to solve important problems in the field. We adopted a network-centric perspective to address these challenges, as the data are derived from structures that are themselves network-like. We proposed three inter-twined threads, consisting of measurement of neural activity, analysis of network structures deduced from this activity, and modeling of network function, leading to theoretical insights. This approach formed the foundation of our initial call for papers. When we issued the call for papers, we were not sure how many papers would fall into each of these threads. We were pleased that we found significant interest in each thread, and the number of submissions exceeded our expectations. This is an indication that the field of neuroscience is ripe for the type of integration and interchange that we had anticipated. We first published a special topics issue after we received a sufficient number of submissions. This is now being converted to an e-book to strengthen the coherence of its contributions. One of the strong themes emerging in this e-book is that network-based measures capture better the dynamics of brain processes, and provide features with greater discriminative power than point-based measures. Another theme is the importance of network oscillations and synchrony. Current research is shedding light on the principles that govern the establishment and maintenance of network oscillation states. These principles could explain why there is impaired synchronization between different brain areas in schizophrenics and Parkinson’s patients. Such research could ultimately provide the foundation for an understanding of other psychiatric and neurodegenerative conditions. The chapters in this book cover these three main threads related to cortical networks. Some authors have combined two or more threads within a single chapter. We expect the availability of related work appearing in a single e-book to help our readers see the connection between different research efforts, and spur further insights and research.

Graph Theory - Advanced Algorithms and Applications

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ISBN: 9789535137726 9789535137733 9789535139843 Year: Pages: 194 DOI: 10.5772/65595 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Mathematics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:50

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This book is prepared as a combination of the manuscripts submitted by respected mathematicians and scientists around the world. As an editor, I truly enjoyed reading each manuscript. Not only will the methods and explanations help you to understand more about graph theory, but I also hope you will find it joyful to discover ways that you can apply graph theory in your scientific field. I believe the book can be read from the beginning to the end at once. However, the book can also be used as a reference guide in order to turn back to it when it is needed. I have to mention that this book assumes the reader to have a basic knowledge about graph theory. The very basics of the theory and terms are not explained at the beginner level. I hope this book will support many applied and research scientists from different scientific fields.

Graph-Theoretic Problems and Their New Applications

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ISBN: 9783039287987 / 9783039287994 Year: Pages: 294 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-799-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Mathematics
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Graph theory is an important area of applied mathematics with a broad spectrum of applications in many fields. This book results from aSpecialIssue in the journal Mathematics entitled “Graph-Theoretic Problems and Their New Applications”. It contains 20 articles covering a broad spectrum of graph-theoretic works that were selected from 151 submitted papers after a thorough refereeing process. Among others, it includes a deep survey on mixed graphs and their use for solutions ti scheduling problems. Other subjects include topological indices, domination numbers of graphs, domination games, contraction mappings, and neutrosophic graphs. Several applications of graph theory are discussed, e.g., the use of graph theory in the context of molecular processes.

Keywords

graph coloring --- Kempe chain --- Kempe-locking --- Birkhoff diamond --- hypergraph --- generalized hypertree --- bound --- component --- adjacent matrix --- signless Laplacian --- spectral radius --- connectivity --- interval-valued fuzzy graph --- intuitionistic fuzzy graph --- interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy graph --- single-valued neutrosophic graph --- interval-valued neutrosophic graph --- complement --- k-rainbow dominating function --- k-rainbow domination number --- grids --- domination number --- Cartesian product --- directed cycle --- DD index --- Wiener index --- Edge Wiener --- degree of a vertex --- distance between two vertices --- normalized Laplacian --- resistance distance --- degree-Kirchhoff index --- spanning tree --- extremal values --- PI index --- k-trees --- distance --- Zagreb indices --- reformulated Zagreb indices --- degree of vertex --- degree of edge --- embedding --- edge congestion --- wirelength --- enhanced hypercube --- subtree --- generating function --- fan graph --- wheel graph --- “partitions” of wheel graph --- neutrosophic graph --- complete neutrosophic graph --- bipartite neutrosophic graph --- complement neutrosophic graph --- road transport network --- wireless multihop network and social network --- perfect matching --- k-extendable --- induced matching extendable --- bipartite matching extendable graph --- evolution theory --- evolution algebra --- mitotic cell cycle --- total-colored graph --- inverse degree index --- generalized first Zagreb index --- sum lordeg index --- corona product --- join of graphs --- line graph --- Mycielskian graph --- polynomials in graphs --- b-metric space --- b-metric-like space --- general contractive mappings --- graphic contraction mappings --- approximation methods --- chromatic number --- combinatorial optimization --- complexity analysis --- evolutionary approach --- genetic algorithm --- graph coloring --- NP-hard --- stochastic convergence --- domination game --- competition-independence game --- mixed graph --- vertex coloring --- chromatic number --- edge coloring --- chromatic index --- chromatic polynomial --- unit-time scheduling --- makespan criterion --- n/a

Ontologie-basierte Monosemierung

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ISBN: 9783866449589 Year: Pages: XVI, 331 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000031500 Language: GERMAN
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Business and Management
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:59
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According to the Semantic Web a formal representation of knowledge is described by an ontology. This formal representation enables a unique identification of elements within an ontology. By the use of natural language for element annotation, ambiguity occurs and a unique element identification based on natural language cannot be guaranteed. This book describes an approach to identify the most relevant element described by a natural language term by reducing the aspect of ambiguity to a minimum.

Information flow control for java : a comprehensive approach based on path conditions in dependence Graphs

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ISBN: 9783866443983 Year: Pages: 221 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000012049 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:59
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Information flow control (IFC) is a technique to assert the security of a given program with respect to a given security policy. The classical policy noninterference requires that public output of a program may not be influenced from secret input. This work leverages a technique called program slicing, which is closely connected to IFC and offers many dimensions for improving analysis precision, the most powerful are Path Conditions. Our evaluation shows scalability with a low annotation burden.

Evolution von Relationen in temporalen partiten Themen-Graphen

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ISBN: 9783731503408 Year: Pages: II, 136 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000045521 Language: GERMAN
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Business and Management
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:02:00
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In this work a model is engineered to depict topic relationships as graphs between detected topics of different time windows. By varying and shifting the time span of consideration the relationships between topics can be mapped with a variable complexity including the topic frequencies. Topic life cycles as well as changes in thematic relationships and their evolution become perceptible. Topics found can be matched in structure as well as their temporal progression to existing events.

Neuropsychology and Neuropsychiatry of Neurodegenerative Disorders

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197385 Year: Pages: 190 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-738-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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This book compiles all articles within the Research Topic "Neuropsychology and neuropsychiatry of neurodegenerative disorders" published in the journal Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience. The call was launched in 2014 and closed in 2015 with 21 articles published. Papers deal on several important topics of neuropsychology -such as language and visuospatial functions- and neuropsychiatry - such us the emotional or motivational spheres - , and the interphase between them. There are also articles on psychometry, brain morphometry, brain connectivity, diagnostic tests and interventional studies. All these articles are focused on neurodegenerative conditions, mostly Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. Interestingly, several articles addressed the early stages of these diseases. All together, this Research Topic provides a rich perspective of the research made today around neuropsychological and neuropsychiatric aspects of neurodegenerative diseases. We hope readers enjoy this collection of articles.

Register allocation for programs in SSA Form

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ISBN: 9783866441804 Year: Pages: XVI, 123 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000007166 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:58
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This book investigates register allocation for programs in static single-assignment form.Its main result is that the interference graphs of SSA-form programs are chordal.This gives the compiler precise knowledge over the register demand and allows for separating spilling, assignment and coalescing. For each of these phases, we present methods specially tailored to the SSA setting and provide a first evaluation.

Discrete Mathematics and Symmetry

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ISBN: 9783039281909 9783039281916 Year: Pages: 458 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-191-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Mathematics
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:08
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Some of the most beautiful studies in Mathematics are related to Symmetry and Geometry. For this reason, we select here some contributions about such aspects and Discrete Geometry. As we know, Symmetry in a system means invariance of its elements under conditions of transformations. When we consider network structures, symmetry means invariance of adjacency of nodes under the permutations of node set. The graph isomorphism is an equivalence relation on the set of graphs. Therefore, it partitions the class of all graphs into equivalence classes. The underlying idea of isomorphism is that some objects have the same structure if we omit the individual character of their components. A set of graphs isomorphic to each other is denominated as an isomorphism class of graphs. The automorphism of a graph will be an isomorphism from G onto itself. The family of all automorphisms of a graph G is a permutation group.

Keywords

strongly regular graph --- automorphism group --- orbit matrix --- binary polyhedral group --- icosahedron --- dodecahedron --- 600-cell --- Electric multiple unit trains --- high-level maintenance planning --- time window --- 0–1 programming model --- particle swarm algorithm --- fixed point --- split-quaternion --- quadratic polynomial --- split-octonion --- neutrosophic set --- neutrosophic rough set --- pessimistic (optimistic) multigranulation neutrosophic approximation operators --- complete lattice --- rough set --- matroid --- operator --- attribute reduction --- graded rough sets --- rough intuitionistic fuzzy sets --- dominance relation --- logical conjunction operation --- logical disjunction operation --- multi-granulation --- planar point set --- convex polygon --- disjoint holes --- fuzzy logic --- pseudo-BCI algebra --- quasi-maximal element --- KG-union --- quasi-alternating BCK-algebra --- quality function deployment --- engineering characteristics --- group decision making --- 2-tuple --- metro station --- emergency routes --- graph partitioning --- graph clustering --- invariant measures --- partition comparison --- finite automorphism groups --- graph automorphisms --- Fuzzy sets --- ring --- normed space --- fuzzy normed ring --- fuzzy normed ideal --- fuzzy implication --- quantum B-algebra --- q-filter --- quotient algebra --- basic implication algebra --- Detour–Harary index --- maximum --- unicyclic --- bicyclic --- cacti --- three-way decisions --- intuitionistic fuzzy sets --- multi-granulation rough intuitionistic fuzzy sets --- granularity importance degree --- complexity --- Chebyshev polynomials --- gear graph --- pyramid graphs --- edge detection --- Laplacian operation --- regularization --- parameter selection --- performance evaluation --- aggregation operator --- triangular norm --- ?-convex set --- atom-bond connectivity index --- geometric arithmetic index --- line graph --- generalized bridge molecular graph --- graceful labeling --- edge graceful labeling --- edge even graceful labeling --- polar grid graph --- graph --- good drawing --- crossing number --- join product --- cyclic permutation --- nonlinear --- synchronized --- linear discrete --- chaotic system --- algorithm --- generalized permanental polynomial --- coefficient --- co-permanental --- isoperimetric number --- random graph --- intersection graph --- social network --- Abel–Grassmann’s groupoid (AG-groupoid) --- Abel–Grassmann’s group (AG-group) --- involution AG-group --- commutative group --- filter --- graceful labeling --- edge even graceful labeling --- cylinder grid graph --- selective maintenance --- multi-state system --- human reliability --- optimization --- genetic algorithm --- hypernear-ring --- multitransformation --- embedding --- distance matrix (spectrum) --- distance signlees Laplacian matrix (spectrum) --- (generalized) distance matrix --- spectral radius --- transmission regular graph --- graph --- good drawing --- crossing number --- join product --- cyclic permutation --- cyclic associative groupoid (CA-groupoid) --- cancellative --- variant CA-groupoids --- decomposition theorem --- construction methods

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