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Subseafloor Biosphere Linked to Hydrothermal Systems: TAIGA Concept

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ISBN: 9784431548645 9784431548652 Year: Pages: 666 DOI: 10.1007/978-4-431-54865-2 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Oceanography --- Environmental Sciences --- Geology --- Earth Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2015-08-27 16:41:06
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This book is the comprehensive volume of the TAIGA (“a great river ” in Japanese) project. Supported by the Japanese government, the project examined the hypothesis that the subseafloor fluid advection system (subseafloor TAIGA) can be categorized into four types, TAIGAs of sulfur, hydrogen, carbon (methane), and iron, according to the most dominant reducing substance, and the chemolithoautotrophic bacteria/archaea that are inextricably associated with respective types of TAIGAs which are strongly affected by their geological background such as surrounding host rocks and tectonic settings. Sub-seafloor ecosystems are sustained by hydrothermal circulation or TAIGA that carry chemical energy to the chemosynthetic microbes living in an extreme environment. The results of the project have been summarized comprehensively in 50 chapters, and this book provides an overall introduction and relevant topics on the mid-ocean ridge system of the Indian Ocean and on the arc-backarc systems of the Southern Mariana Trough and Okinawa Trough.

Mineral Matter and Trace Elements in Coal

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ISBN: 9783038426226 9783038426233 Year: Pages: 382 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Geography
Added to DOAB on : 2018-01-10 12:56:06
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Minerals are very significant components of coal from both academic and practical perspectives. Minerals may react when the coal is burned, either forming an ash residue, or, in many cases, releasing volatile components, or being needed to be removed as slag from the blast furnace during metallurgical processing. Minerals in coal can also be a source of unwanted abrasion, stickiness, corrosion, or pollution associated with coal handling and use. Minerals in coal, in some cases, are major carriers of valuable metals, such as Ga, Al, and rare earth elements, and these coals with highly-evaluated valuable metals have the potential to be raw sources for industry use. From the genetic point of view, the minerals in coal are products of the processes associated with peat accumulation and rank advance, as well as other aspects of epigenetic processes, and, thus, the minerals in coal can provide information on the depositional conditions and geologic history of individual coal beds, coal-bearing sequences, and regional tectonic evolution. This Special Issue, “Minerals in Coal”, focuses on providing an up-to-date series of papers, covering research and technological developments in the nature, origin, and significance of the minerals in coal, and productions derived from combustion and gasification.

Deep Carbon in Earth: Early Career Scientist Contributions to the Deep Carbon Observatory

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453634 Year: Pages: 221 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-363-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Geography --- Chemistry (General) --- Microbiology --- Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:45
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Since its inception, the Deep Carbon Observatory (DCO) has coalesced a multidisciplinary and international group of researchers focused on understanding and quantifying Earth’s deep carbon budget. Carbon is the fourth most abundant element in the universe, and understanding carbon chemistry under a variety of environmental conditions impacts all aspects of planetary sciences, including planet formation, the form and function of planetary interiors, and the origin and diversity of life. DCO recognizes that is integrating and promoting the contributions of early career scientists are integral to the advancement of knowledge regarding the quantities, movements, origins, and forms of Earth’s deep carbon through field, experimental, analytical, and computational research. Early career scientists represent the future of deep carbon science and contribute substantially to ongoing research by implementing innovative ideas, challenging traditional working schemes, and bringing a globally interconnected perspective to the scientific community. This research topic highlights the contributions at the forefront of deep carbon research by DCO Early Career Scientist community. The manuscripts of this Frontiers e-volume bear evidence of the rapid advances in deep carbon science, and highlights the importance of approaching this field from a plethora of different angles integrating disciplines as diverse as mineralogy, geochemistry and microbiology. This integration is fundamental in understanding the movements and transformations of carbon across its deep cycle.

Volcanic Plumes.Impacts on the Atmosphere and Insights into Volcanic Processes

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ISBN: 9783038976288 Year: Pages: 252 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-629-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-05 10:34:31
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Volcanoes release plumes of gas and ash to the atmosphere during episodes of passive and explosive behavior. These ejecta have important implications for the chemistry and composition of the troposphere and stratosphere, with the capacity to alter Earth's radiation budget and climate system over a range of temporal and spatial scales. Volcanogenic sulphur dioxide reacts to form sulphate aerosols, which increase global albedo, e.g., by reducing surface temperatures, in addition to perturbing the formation processes and optical properties of clouds. Released halogen species can also deplete stratospheric and tropospheric ozone. Volcanic degassing, furthermore, played a key role in the formation of Earth’s atmosphere, and volcanic plumes can affect air quality, pose hazards to aviation and human health, as well as damage ecosystems. The chemical compositions and emission rates of volcanic plumes are also monitored via a range of direct-sampling and remote-sensing instrumentation, in order to gain insights into subterranean processes, in the respect of the magmatic bodies these volatiles exsolve from. Given the significant role these gases play in driving volcanic activity, e.g., via pressurisation, the study of volcanic plumes is proving to be an increasingly fruitful means of improving our understanding of volcanic systems, potentially in concert with observations from geophysics and contributions from fluid dynamical modelling of conduit dynamics.

Sediment Transport in Coastal Waters

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ISBN: 9783038978442 9783038978459 Year: Pages: 284 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-845-9 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Oceanography
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-25 16:37:17
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The interface of 440,000 km long coastline in the world is subject to global change, with an increasing human pressure (land use, buildings, sand mining, dredging) and increasing population. Improving our knowledge on involved mechanisms and sediment transport processes, monitoring the evolution of sedimentary stocks and anticipating changes in littoral and coastal zones is essential for this purpose. The special issue of Water on “Sediment transport in coastal waters” gathers thirteen papers which introduce the current revolution in the scientific research related to coastal and littoral hydrosedimentary dynamics, and reflect the diversity of concerns on which research in coastal sediment transport is based, and current trends — topics and preferred methods — to address them.

Keywords

suspended sediment --- sediment transport --- coastal hydraulics --- Mekong --- river plume --- monsoon --- mathematical model --- geochemical map --- particle transfer process --- tidal current --- analysis of variance (ANOVA) --- Cluster analysis --- Mahalanobis’ generalized distances --- Seto Inland Sea --- East Coast Low --- nearshore processes --- coastal erosion --- coastal management --- climate change --- numerical modelling --- Southeast Australia --- soil erosion --- SWAT --- water scarcity --- sediment transport modelling --- Tafna catchment --- North Africa --- suspended sediment --- sediment transport --- lagoon --- geochemistry --- Ni mining --- sediment trap --- hydrodynamics --- New Caledonia --- dry season --- Senegal River delta --- Langue de Barbarie spit --- delta vulnerability --- river-mouth migration --- spit breaching --- ERA hindcast waves --- longshore sediment transport --- Vietnam --- South China Sea --- erosion --- recovery --- storminess --- winter monsoon --- typhoons --- shoreline --- waves forcing --- storms --- resilience --- post-storm recovery --- Bight of Benin --- seasonal cycle --- trend --- sand-mud mixture erosion --- numerical modelling --- non-cohesive to cohesive transition --- remote sensing reflectance --- turbidity --- seagrass beds --- bed shear stress --- fresh water runoff --- oceanic water intrusion --- suspended particulate matter --- aggregates --- flocculation --- biomass --- sediment --- turbidity --- remote-sensing --- MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) --- Support Vector Regression (SVR) --- oligotrophic lagoon --- bathymetry --- reflectance --- seabed colour --- coral reef --- New Caledonia --- sediment transport --- cohesive sediments --- non cohesive sediments --- sand --- mud --- coastal erosion --- sedimentation --- morphodynamics --- suspended particulate matter --- bedload

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