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Stammzellforschung. Debatte zwischen Ethik, Politik und Gesellschaft

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ISBN: 9783980822350 Year: Pages: 182 DOI: 10.15460/HUP.64 Language: German
Publisher: Hamburg University Press
Subject: Agriculture (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:33:23

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The biopolitical debate on stem cell research and reproductive medicine has provoked heated controversy over biological issues and related anthropological questions. The social implications of the controversial issues are no less controversial: To what extent are developments in molecular genetics and reproductive medicine changing our normative orientations? What role do politics and law play in relation to science and economics? And how do biotechnological innovations shape ethical discourses? The contributions of the volume address such questions. They offer information and assessments from medical and scientific perspectives and contain normative and cultural studies reflections from pedagogy, philosophy and theology. The volume is the result of a multidisciplinary lecture series that took place in the summer semester 2002 at the University of Hamburg.

Animal (De)liberation

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ISBN: 9781909188846 9781909188839 9781909188853 9781909188860 9781909188877 9781909188846 Year: Pages: 244 DOI: 10.5334/bay Language: English
Publisher: Ubiquity Press Grant: Wellcome Trust - 104137
Subject: Agriculture (General) --- Public Health --- Medicine (General) --- Law --- Animal Sciences --- Philosophy
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-19 11:01:13
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"In this book, Jan Deckers addresses the most crucial question that people must deliberate in relation to how we should treat other animals: whether we should eat animal products. Many people object to the consumption of animal products from the conviction that it inflicts pain, suffering, and death upon animals. This book argues that a convincing ethical theory cannot be based on these important concerns: rather, it must focus on our interest in human health. Tending to this interest demands not only that we extend speciesism—the attribution of special significance to members of our own species merely because they belong to the same species as ourself—towards nonhuman animals, but also that we safeguard the integrity of nature.
In this light, projects that aim to engineer the genetic material of animals to reduce their capacities to feel pain and to suffer are morally suspect. The same applies to projects that aim to develop in-vitro flesh, even if the production of such flesh should be welcomed on other grounds.
The theory proposed in this book is accompanied by a political goal, the ‘vegan project’, which strives for a qualified ban on the consumption of animal products. Deckers also provides empirical evidence that some support for this goal exists already, and his analysis of the views of others—including those of slaughterhouse workers—reveals that the vegan project stands firm in spite of public opposition.
Many charges have been pressed against vegan diets, including: that they alienate human beings from nature; that they increase human food security concerns; and that they are unsustainable. Deckers argues that these charges are legitimate in some cases, but that, in many situations, vegan diets are actually superior.
For those who remain doubtful, the book also contains an appendix that considers whether vegan diets might actually be nutritionally adequate."

Biotechnologies for Plant Mutation Breeding: Protocols

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9783319450193 9783319450216 Year: Pages: 340 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-45021-6 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Manufactures --- Chemical Engineering --- Biotechnology --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2017-03-08 13:33:36
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This book offers 19 detailed protocols on the use of induced mutations in crop breeding and functional genomics studies, which cover topics including chemical and physical mutagenesis, phenotypic screening methods, traditional TILLING and TILLING by sequencing, doubled haploidy, targeted genome editing, and low-cost methods for the molecular characterization of mutant plants that are suitable for laboratories in developing countries. The collection of protocols equips users with the techniques they need in order to start a program on mutation breeding or functional genomics using both forward and reverse-genetic approaches. Methods are provided for seed and vegetatively propagated crops (e.g. banana, barley, cassava, jatropha, rice) and can be adapted for use in other species.

Engineering the Plant Factory for the Production of Biologics and Small-Molecule Medicines

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450510 Year: Pages: 377 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-051-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Biotechnology --- General and Civil Engineering --- Botany --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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Plant gene transfer achieved in the early ‘80s paved the way for the exploitation of the potential of gene engineering to add novel agronomic traits and/or to design plants as factories for high added value molecules. For this latter area of research, the term "Molecular Farming" was coined in reference to agricultural applications in that major crops like maize and tobacco were originally used basically for pharma applications. The concept of the “green biofactory” implies different advantages over the typical cell factories based on animal cell or microbial cultures already when considering the investment and managing costs of fermenters. Although yield, stability, and quality of the molecules may vary among different heterologous systems and plants are competitive on a case-to-case basis, still the “plant factory” attracts scientists and technologists for the challenging features of low production cost, product safety and easy scale up. Once engineered, a plant is among the cheapest and easiest eukaryotic system to be bred with simple know-how, using nutrients, water and light. Molecules that are currently being produced in plants vary from industrial and pharmaceutical proteins, including medical diagnostics proteins and vaccine antigens, to nutritional supplements such as vitamins, carbohydrates and biopolymers. Convergence among disciplines as distant as plant physiology and pharmacology and, more recently, as omic sciences, bioinformatics and nanotechnology, increases the options of research on the plant cell factory. “Farming for Pharming” biologics and small-molecule medicines is a challenging area of plant biotechnology that may break the limits of current standard production technologies. The recent success on Ebola fighting with plant-made antibodies put a spotlight on the enormous potential of next generation herbal medicines made especially in the name of the guiding principle of reduction of costs, hence reduction of disparities of health rights and as a tool to guarantee adequate health protection in developing countries.Plant gene transfer achieved in the early ‘80s paved the way for the exploitation of the potential of gene engineering to add novel agronomic traits and/or to design plants as factories for high added value molecules. For this latter area of research, the term "Molecular Farming" was coined in reference to agricultural applications in that major crops like maize and tobacco were originally used basically for pharma applications. The concept of the “green biofactory” implies different advantages over the typical cell factories based on animal cell or microbial cultures already when considering the investment and managing costs of fermenters. Although yield, stability, and quality of the molecules may vary among different heterologous systems and plants are competitive on a case-to-case basis, still the “plant factory” attracts scientists and technologists for the challenging features of low production cost, product safety and easy scale up. Once engineered, a plant is among the cheapest and easiest eukaryotic system to be bred with simple know-how, using nutrients, water and light. Molecules that are currently being produced in plants vary from industrial and pharmaceutical proteins, including medical diagnostics proteins and vaccine antigens, to nutritional supplements such as vitamins, carbohydrates and biopolymers. Convergence among disciplines as distant as plant physiology and pharmacology and, more recently, as omic sciences, bioinformatics and nanotechnology, increases the options of research on the plant cell factory. “Farming for Pharming” biologics and small-molecule medicines is a challenging area of plant biotechnology that may break the limits of current standard production technologies. The recent success on Ebola fighting with plant-made antibodies put a spotlight on the enormous potential of next generation herbal medicines made especially in the name of the guiding principle of reduction of costs, hence reduction of disparities of health rights and as a tool to guarantee adequate health protection in developing countries.

Advances and Trends in Development of Plant Factories

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451395 Year: Pages: 203 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-139-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Botany --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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The plant factory is a facility that aids the steady production of high-quality vegetables all year round by artificially controlling the cultivation environment (e.g., light, temperature, humidity, carbon dioxide concentration, and culture solution), allowing growers to plan production. By controlling theinternal environment,plant factories can produce vegetables about two to four times faster than by typical outdoor cultivation. In addition, as multiple cultivation shelves (a multi-shelf system) are used, the mass production of vegetables in a small space is facilitated. This research topic presents some new trends on intelligent measuring systems; environment controlled and optimization; favonoids; phenylpropanoids, transcriptomes, and bacteria.

Building Strategies for Porcine Cancer Models

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456505 Year: Pages: 75 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-650-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Genetics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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The eBook "Building Strategies for Porcine Cancer Models" presents a series of articles demonstrating the state-of-the-art developments in pig models for cancer research. Renowned researchers dedicated to the reproduction, genomic and biological engineering of the pig model for biomedicine contribute to this special research area. Although advances in these areas are occurring at surprising speeds, they are still far from realizing all the potential benefits that this biological model could provide to science. The current biomedical models may limit the frontier of knowledge in the cancer research.

Genome Editing in Neurosciences

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Book Series: Research and Perspectives in Neurosciences ISSN: 0945-6082 / 2196-3096 ISBN: 9783319601915 9783319601922 Year: Pages: 123 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-60192-2 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Neurology --- Genetics
Added to DOAB on : 2017-11-24 13:07:59
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Innovations in molecular biology are allowing neuroscientists to study the brain with unprecedented resolution, from the level of single molecules to integrated gene circuits. Chief among these innovations is the CRISPR-Cas genome editing technology, which has the precision and scalability to tackle the complexity of the brain. This Colloque Médecine et Recherche has brought together experts from around the world that are applying genome editing to address important challenges in neuroscience, including basic biology in model organisms that has the power to reveal systems-level insight into how the nervous system develops and functions as well as research focused on understanding and treating human neurological disorders.

Food for Africa

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ISBN: 9781920499815 9781775820482 Year: Language: English
Publisher: UCT Press Grant: Knowledge Unlatched - 102948
Subject: History
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-11 11:21:02
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Jennifer Thomson, one of the world’s leading scientific advisors on genetic engineering, traces through anecdote and science the development of a hotly contended area of research, from the dawn of genetic engineering in the USA in 1974, through the early stages of its uptake in South Africa to the current situation in which approximately 80% of maize in South Africa is genetically modified for drought resistance. Through her own story of how she came to choose GM as a career and her path-breaking involvement in the development of GM research, she describes the spread of this technology into other parts of Africa and her venture into unknown territory to develop crops resistant to drought, insects and viruses, a journey in which she came up against the multinational Monsanto. The book describes a remarkable personal and scientific evolution and looks to a future in which staple crops may be grown in difficult conditions by smallholder farmers and help Africans achieve food security.

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