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Advances in Anthocyanin Research 2018

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ISBN: 9783038975236 9783038975243 Year: Pages: 224 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-524-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Nutrition and Food Sciences --- Biochemistry --- Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-21 11:00:27
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Anthocyanins are natural plant pigments, responsible for many of the orange/red/purple/blue colors of many flowers, fruits, and vegetables. These colorants play important roles in plants, such as conferring UV protection and antimicrobial properties, and they are also implicated to have many potential human health-promoting properties. Research works and epidemiological studies have indicated these plant pigments to be beneficial in the reduction of chronic inflammatory diseases, such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. For these reasons, there is increasing interest in their incorporation in foods, drugs, cosmetics, and dietary supplements as naturally derived colorants and health-promoting compounds. There is a large natural diversity in the chemical composition of anthocyanin pigments. More than 700 unique anthocyanin structures have been identified, and each has unique colorimetric, reactivity, and health-promoting properties. With such a great number of unique anthocyanins and increasing interest in their use, there is a considerable need to better understand the factors affecting their production and accumulation in plants, the factors affecting their stability and colorimetric properties, and their metabolism and mechanisms for disease alleviation. This Special Issue includes several new research works dedicated to these topics and a review of the current knowledge of anthocyanin chemistry affecting their application in food and nutrition.

Innovative Geo-Information Tools for Governance

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ISBN: 9783039213375 9783039213382 Year: Pages: 186 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-338-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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In current times, highly complex and urgent policy problems—e.g., climate change, rapid urbanization, equitable access to key services, land rights, and massive human resettlement—challenge citizens, NGOs, private corporations, and governments at all levels. These policy problems, often called ‘wicked’, involve multiple causal factors, anticipated and unanticipated effects, as well as high levels of disagreement among stakeholders about the nature of the problem and the appropriateness of solutions. Given the wickedness of such policy problems, interdisciplinary and longitudinal research is required, integrating and harnessing the diverse skills and knowledge of urban planners, anthropologists, geographers, geo-information scientists, economists, and others. This Special Issue promotes innovative concepts, methods, and tools, as well as the role of geo-information, to help (1) analyze alternative policy solutions, (2) facilitate stakeholder dialogue, and (3) explore possibilities for tackling wicked problems related to climate change, rapid urbanization, equitable access to key services (such as water and health), land rights, and human resettlements in high-, middle-, and low-income countries in the North and South. Such integrative approaches can deepen our understanding of how different levels of government and governance reach consensus, despite diverging beliefs and preferences. Due to the particularly complex spatiotemporal characteristics of wicked policy problems, innovative concepts, alternative methods, and new geo-information tools play a significant role.

Characterization of Bioactive Components in Edible Algae

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ISBN: 9783039285600 / 9783039285617 Year: Pages: 226 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-561-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Algae have been used since ancient times as food for humans, animal feed, agricultural fertilizer, and as a source of substances for therapeutic use. Currently, seaweed represents a vast source of raw materials used in the pharmaceutical, food, traditional medicine, and cosmetics industries. They are nutritionally valuable, both fresh and dried, or as ingredients in a wide variety of pre-made foods. In particular, seaweed contains significant amounts of protein, lipids, minerals, and vitamins. Information is limited on the role of algae and their metabolites in therapy. Only a few taxa have been studied for use in medicine. Many traditional cultures report the healing powers of selected algae in tropical and subtropical marine forms. This is especially true in the maritime areas of Asia, where the sea plays a significant role in daily activities. However, currently, only a few genera and species of algae are involved in aspects of medicine and therapy. The beneficial uses of seaweed or seaweed products include those that can mimic specific manifestations of human disease, production of antibiotic compounds, or improved human nutrition.

Synthesis and Modification of Nanostructured Thin Films

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ISBN: 9783039284542 9783039284559 Year: Pages: 276 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-455-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
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The Special Issue “Synthesis and Modification of Nanostructured Thin Films” highlights the recent progress in thin film synthesis/modification and characterization. New methods are reviewed for the synthesis and/or modification of thin films based on laser, magnetron, chemical, and other techniques. The obtained thin nanostructures are characterized by complex and complementary techniques. We think that most of proposed methods can be directly applied in production, but some others still need further elaboration for long-term prospective applications in lasers, optics, materials, electronics, informatics, telecommunications, biology, medicine, and probably many other domains. The Guest Editor and the MDPI staff are therefore pleased to offer this Special Issue to interested readers, including graduate and PhD students as well as postdoctoral researchers, but also to the entire community interested in the field of nanomaterials. We share the conviction that this can serve as a useful tool for updating the literature, but also to aid in the conception of new production and/or research programs. There is plenty of room for further dedicated R&D advances based on new instruments and materials under development.

Keywords

AlGaN --- nanopatterned sapphire substrate --- hydride vapor phase epitaxy --- stress --- transmission electron microscopy --- copper nanowires --- CuNWs --- degradation --- encapsulation --- PDMS --- PMMA --- solution-based --- transparent electrode --- photonic crystal fiber --- demultiplexer --- dense wavelength division multiplexing --- lithium niobate --- waveguide --- photonic integrated circuit --- propagation loss --- optical lithography --- chemo-mechanical polishing --- gold thin film --- nonlinear absorption --- nonlinear refraction --- transient absorption --- nanoparticles --- high-order harmonics --- electroluminescence --- nanolaminate --- Al2O3 --- Tm2O3 --- atomic layer deposition --- germanium --- DLC --- doped biomaterials --- pulsed laser deposition --- reactive oxygen species --- apoptosis --- cytotoxicity --- titanium film --- interlayer --- cohesion --- residual stress --- nano-indenter --- nanocrystal --- CdTe --- Cu-doped --- ZnTe --- solar cells --- solution processed --- pulsed laser deposition --- chalcogenide thin films --- Raman spectroscopy --- spectroscopic ellipsometry --- noble metal nanoparticles --- pulsed laser ablation --- surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy --- antiepileptic drugs --- Zn2+ substituted Coll-CaPs biomimetic layers --- MAPLE --- spin coating --- dye-sensitized solar cells --- photovoltaic conversion efficiency --- TiO2 thin films --- pulsed laser deposition --- DLC bio-functionality --- silicon doping --- diffusion barrier --- biocompatibility --- proliferation improvement --- endothelial cells --- ZnO nanofilms --- SHG --- Ga doping --- polarization angle --- Cu2MgxZn1?xSnS4 --- thin films --- photoelectric performance --- sol–gel --- sulfuration treatment --- solar cell --- nanomaterial --- zinc oxide --- barium titanate --- composite --- ethylene vinyl acetate --- elastic modulus --- toughness --- flexural rigidity --- radiopacity --- piezoelectricity --- laser surface texturing --- laser-induced periodic surface structures --- LIPSS --- silicon --- PTFE --- friction --- n/a

Advances in Food and Non-Food Biomass Production, Processing and Use in Sub-Saharan Africa: Towards a Basis for a Regional Bioeconomy

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9783039286683 / 9783039286690 Year: Pages: 446 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-669-0 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Agriculture (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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The bioeconomy concept aims to add sustainability to the production, transformation, and trade of biological goods. Though implemented around the world, the development of national bioeconomies is uneven, especially in the global South, where major challenges exist in Sub-Saharan Africa. In this context, the international BiomassWeb project aimed to underpin the bioeconomy concept by applying the value web approach, which seeks to uncover complex interlinked value webs instead of linear value chains. The project also aimed to develop intervention options to strengthen and optimize the synergies and trade-offs among different value chains. The Special Issue “Advances in Food and Non-Food Biomass Production, Processing and Use in Sub-Saharan Africa: Toward a Basis for a Regional Bioeconomy"" compiles 23 articles produced in this framework. The articles are grouped in four sections: the value web approach; the production side; processing, transformation and trade; and global views.

Keywords

contract farming --- contract design --- cassava --- bioeconomy --- Ghana --- adoption --- land-use --- deforestation --- food security --- renewable energy --- collaboration --- leadership --- push–pull technology --- sustainability --- transdisciplinary research --- Ethiopia --- demand-driven research --- Biomass --- innovation --- Ghana --- husk --- pulp --- parchment --- mucilage --- methane --- renewable energy --- bioeconomy --- green economy --- sustainable development --- bioproductivity --- high-tech bioeconomy --- knowledge-based bioeconomy --- primary sector --- typology --- cluster analysis --- food and non-food benefit --- homegarden --- multipurpose tree on farmland --- multistorey coffee system --- multi-functionality --- traditional agroforestry --- Yayu Biosphere Reserve --- yellow cassava --- sustainability --- cassava variants --- cassava processing --- carotenoids retention --- amylose --- bioeconomy --- governance --- development policy --- innovation --- technology --- bio-based --- mixed methods --- richness --- edible --- food bearing --- neighborhoods --- maize --- Policy Analysis Matrix --- comparative advantage --- probit --- Ghana --- cassava farmers --- value addition --- productivity differentials --- impact --- endogenous switching regression --- plantain residues --- fiber --- value web --- bioeconomy --- Ghana --- biochar --- crop residue --- corncob --- germination --- phytotoxicity --- self-purging pyrolysis --- soil amendment --- biomass --- value web --- bioeconomy --- bamboo --- Ethiopia --- sustainability --- intensification options --- maize --- groundnut --- crop residue --- crop model --- cassava processors --- smallholders --- solid waste --- pollution --- value-added --- willingness to pay --- biomass utilization --- intensity --- cassava smallholders --- Nigeria --- availability --- access --- Ghana --- Nigeria --- Ethiopia --- value chain --- CGE --- fertilizer-yield-response --- productivity --- welfare --- Ethiopia --- family farming --- farmland --- food security --- rural development --- biomass scenarios --- global biomass --- bioenergy --- sustainability --- food security --- basic needs --- intragenerational justice --- equity --- fairness --- development --- Biomass-based value web --- biological goods --- bio-based economy --- food and non-food --- circular economy

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