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Sociocultural Systems: Principles of Structure and Change

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ISBN: 9781927356203 9781927356210 9781927356227 Year: Pages: 404 Language: English
Publisher: Athabasca University Press
Subject: Sociology
Added to DOAB on : 2013-07-15 10:35:10
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Macrosociology—the study of large-scale social structures and the fundamental principles of social organization—was the style of sociology practiced by the founders of the discipline. Today, the social theories of Karl Marx, Max Weber, Émile Durkheim, and Herbert Spencer (among others) are commonly studied as part of the history of the field, but, although the macrosociological approach that these thinkers advocated is still employed, it no longer dominates the discipline. Instead, sociologists typically adopt a narrower focus, specializing in areas such as social psychology, medicine, religion, or the study of social stratification. Examining the bigger picture is a task often left to public intellectuals.Sociocultural Systems aims to reinstate macrosciology as the heart of the discipline by demonstrating that both classical and contemporary macrosociologists stand upon common ground. Focusing on the broad issues that concerned the founders, Elwell addresses questions such as: Historically, what factors accounted for the origin, survival, and evolution of sociocultural systems? Why were some societies more technologically advanced than others? What is the origin of capitalism? What factors determine the allocation of goods and services within and among societies? What effects do changes in government and economic institutions have on communities?Elwell argues that, as evolution does for biology, the macrosociological paradigm offers an analytical strategy that can be used both to guide and prioritize research in all of the myriad specialties within sociology and to lay forth an orderly body of knowledge for students. Clearly articulating important sociological principles, Sociocultural Systems provides a critical understanding of social institutions and issues, while also furnishing a framework for possible solutions to the perennial social crises that are part and parcel of the development of human societies.

Textbook of Cortical Brain Stimulation

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ISBN: 9783110412628 9783110441208 Year: Pages: 294 DOI: 10.2478/9783110412628 Language: English
Publisher: De Gruyter
Subject: Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2015-04-13 11:05:20
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Developed over the past 25 years, Cortical Brain Stimulation has emerged as a brand new, cutting-edge option for the treatment of intractable neurological and psychiatric disorders. Devoid of the mortality and disabling morbidity that may accompany deep brain stimulation, stimulating the cortex with a minimally invasive surgical approach had initially proved its worth for the treatment of Central and other Neuropathic Pain Syndromes and later for Parkinson Disease, Dystonia, Stroke and Coma rehabilitation, Epilepsy, Depression and Tinnitus. Written by many of the pioneers in the field, this authoritative treatise is a comprehensive presentation - from surgical details, to clinical results and mechanisms of action. It also provides the busy clinician with comparisons with non-invasive cortical stimulation techniques, such as TMS and tDCS. No other book deals with this form of brain stimulation. The clinician will harness the power of this formidable new therapeutic option, which is being further refined with the advent of closed-loop stimulation.Dr Canavero deciphered the genesis of the central pain syndromes, introduced extradural cortical stimulation for Parkinson Disease and the vegetative state and co-introduced extradural cortical stimulation for stroke rehabilitation. He made worldwide news in 2008 for partially restoring consciousness in two vegetative patients, in 2013 for proposing the HEAVEN/GEMINI protocol for human head transplantation and in 2014 for pushing brain stimulation in the setting of criminal psychopathy. His books include: Central Pain Syndrome, Cambridge Univ. Press, 2011 (2nd ed.), Textbook of therapeutic cortical stimulation, Nova Sci, 2009 and two books in Italian on human sexual behavior.

General Anesthesia: From Theory to Experiments

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197491 Year: Pages: 138 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-749-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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General anesthesia is a standard medical procedure in today's hospital practice. Although in most cases the administration of anesthetics does not affect severely the patients health, side effects of anesthesia are well-known, such as nausea or cognitive impairment. Moreover 1-2 out of 1000 patients under surgery report a partial wake up from anesthesia during the operation. The reason for such a partial lack of control of depth of anesthesia is that medical procedures are highly optimized based on experience but the neural dynamics during general anesthesia is far from being understood. One reason for this lack of understanding is both the complex neural interactions of neurons on different spatial and temporal scales and the poorly understood action of anesthetics on neural populations. For instance, anesthetic agents act on synaptic receptors on a microscopic scale essentially evoking a macroscopic change of population activity, such as Local Field Potentials, EEG/MEG or resulting change of cerebral blood flow. This population effect then triggers the loss of consciousness in patients. This Research Topic aims to address recent theoretical and experimental advances in the field. The theoretical and experimental studies represent a good overview over the current state of research in the field and provides a deeper insight into the underlying neural mechanisms. Each article in the issue focusses on a specific current research topic in general anesthesia research and several articles introduce to the topic in a pedagogical way. The issue covers various types of anaesthesia and the most important topics in the field, such as (but not limited to) recent advances in theoretical models and states of consciousness reflected in experimental data, the connectivity changes observed during anesthesia or effects of specific drugs on brain activity. The introduction style of the papers facilitates the reader to understand the background of the research aspect and even allows readers not familiar with general anesthesia research to enter the research domain. Hence the Research Topic aims to provide on one hand an overview of the current state of the art and on the other hand a good starting point for new researchers in the field.

Language and Cognition

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196272 Year: Pages: 125 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-627-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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Interaction between language and cognition remains an unsolved scientific problem. What are the differences in neural mechanisms of language and cognition? Why do children acquire language by the age of six, while taking a lifetime to acquire cognition? What is the role of language and cognition in thinking? Is abstract cognition possible without language? Is language just a communication device, or is it fundamental in developing thoughts? Why are there no animals with human thinking but without human language? Combinations even among 100 words and 100 objects (multiple words can represent multiple objects) exceed the number of all the particles in the Universe, and it seems that no amount of experience would suffice to learn these associations. How does human brain overcome this difficulty?

From Genes to Species: Novel Insights from Metagenomics

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199754 Year: Pages: 229 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-975-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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The majority of microbes in many environments are considered “as yet uncultured” and were traditionally considered inaccessible for study through the microbiological gold standard of pure culture. The emergence of metagenomic approaches has allowed researchers to access and study these microbes in a culture-independent manner through DNA sequencing and functional expression of metagenomic DNA in a heterologous host. Metagenomics has revealed an extraordinary degree of diversity and novelty, not only among microbial communities themselves, but also within the genomes of these microbes. This Research Topic aims to showcase the utility of metagenomics to gain insights on the microbial and genomic diversity in different environments by revealing the breadth of novelty that was in the past, largely untapped.

Nutrition and prevention of Alzheimer's disease

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197194 Year: Pages: 76 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-719-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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Altered metabolism is known to be associated with a higher incidence of Alzheimer´s disease (AD). Diabetes type 2, obesity, and metabolic syndrome are considered risk factors for the development of dementias, including AD. These metabolic diseases may have a genetic predisposition, but most of them are caused by environmental factors and life-style. Most research has focused on the effect of a high-fat diet (HFD) and sweetened beverages that induce obesity. Importantly, a HFD can also trigger oxidative stress, neuro-inflammation and cognitive decline. Less is known, however, about beneficial effects of diet on cognition, such as slowing the progression or preventing AD by ingesting whole fruits, vegetables, fish and oil. It is important to highlight the difference between vitamin/mineral supplements and whole food, as it appears that the former are clinically ineffective, while multiple ingredients in the latter act synergistically to improve cognition. As AD is a disease of slow progression, therapies should start several decades before clinical symptoms can be observed; one strategy can be the ingestion of healthy food in those subjects with one or more risk factors (genetic, environmental, life-style) already in their 40s, just when some brain metabolic disturbances start to develop. This dietary therapy can overcome the increased reactive oxygen species, protein deposition and synaptic failure, characteristic of AD. This research topic will cover a range of research articles, case studies, opinion and mini-reviews, all focused on describing the damaging effects of an industrial diet on cognition as well as on highlighting the beneficial effects of a healthy diet to prevent AD. We believe that we still have time to fight against the negative impact of our industrialized cultures, and adopt better eating habits, increase exercise and slow down our life style to prevent increasing dementia in the aging population. Also, all these topics has been a product of intensives investigations, with a great life hope, and we hope you all enjoy reading this e-book.

Keywords

Cognition --- Diet --- Vitamins --- Minerals --- Functional Food --- Dementia --- Aging --- biomarkers --- diagnosis

Recent Advances and Challenges on Big Data Analysis in Neuroimaging

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451289 Year: Pages: 195 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-128-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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Big data is revolutionizing our ability to measure and study the human brain. New technology increases the resolution of images that are being study as well as enables researchers to study the brain as it functions. These technological advances are combined with efforts to collect neuroimaging data on large numbers of subjects, in some cases longitudinally. This combination of advances in measurement and scope of studies requires novel development in the statistical analysis. Fast, scalable, robust and accurate models and approaches need to be developed to make headway on these problems. This volume represents a unique collection of researchers providing deep insights on the statistical analysis of big neuroimaging data.

State-of-the-Art Materials Science in Belgium 2017

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ISBN: 9783038972426 9783038972433 Year: Pages: 300 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-243-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemistry (General) --- Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-10-17 12:18:12
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ca. 200 words; this text will present the book in all promotional forms (e.g. flyers). Please describe the book in straightforward and consumer-friendly terms.Belgium is a small country. The days of mining minerals and ores from the former colony, Congo, have long passed by and the last coal mine was closed 25 years ago. Now, there are hardly any physical resources in Belgium which can be exploited in materials research and development or industry. Materials research in Belgium bypasses this drawback by focussing on highly technological research fields, not requiring vast amounts of raw material. This approach includes the development of new analytical methods for the characterization of materials, research into new advanced functional materials as well as defining new industrial processes utilizing existing materials. This book compiles recent review and research papers from Belgian universities, covering a wide range of research disciplines in materials science. It thus presents a contemporary view on materials research activities in Belgium.

Grammaticalization and Language Change in Chinese

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Book Series: Routledge Studies in Asian Linguistics ISBN: 9780203420645 9780415336031 9780415864558 9781134307272 9781134307265 9781134307227 Year: DOI: 10.4324/9780203420645 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Political Science --- Sociology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-11-08 11:21:23
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This innovative study on the phenomenon of 'grammaticalization' and its manifestation in Chinese provides new insights into language change in Chinese and a large number of grammatical topics. Grammaticalization occurs in all of the world's languages. Xiu-Zhi Zoe Wu demonstrates general linguistic principles present and active in the phenomenon of grammaticalization whilst also describing the modelling of language in formal theoretical approaches to syntax; so this book fills two major gaps in the current study of linguistics. Grammaticalization and Language Change in Chinese illuminates how studies of language development and change provide special insights into the understanding of current, synchronic systems of language. Using patters from Chinese, the author establishes cross-linguistic generalizations about language change and grammaticalization. This book should be of great interest to Chinese linguists and readers interested in language change in different languages.

Keywords

functional --- head --- completive --- aspect --- projections --- tone --- sandhi --- small --- clause --- initial

Vergil's Political Commentary in the Eclogues, Georgics and Aeneid

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ISBN: 9783110426427 9783110456134 Year: Pages: 183 DOI: 10.1515/9783110426427 Language: English
Publisher: De Gruyter
Subject: Languages and Literatures
Added to DOAB on : 2015-08-11 08:52:53
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In the book titled Vergil's political commentary in Eclogues, Georgics and Aeneid, the author examines Vergil’s political views by analyzing the whole of the poet’s work. He introduces the notion of the functional model suggesting that the poet often used this instrument when making a political statement. New interpretations of a number of the Eclogues and passages of the Georgics and the Aeneid are suggested and the author concludes that Vergil’s political engagement is visible in much of his work. During his whole career the poet was consistent in his views on several major political themes. These varied from, the distress caused by the violation of the countryside during and after the expropriations in the 40s B.C., to the horrors of the civil war and the violence of war in general, and the necessity of strong leadership. Vergil hoped and expected that Octavian would establish peace and order, and he supported a form of hereditary kingship for which he considered Octavian a suitable candidate. He held Cleopatra in high regard, and he appreciated a more meaningful role for women in society. Vergil wrote poetry that supported Augustus, but he had also the courage to criticize Octavian and his policies. He was a commentator with an independent mind and was not a member of Augustus’ putative propaganda machine.

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