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Crystal Growth of Multifunctional Borates and Related Materials

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ISBN: 9783038978381 9783038978398 Year: Pages: 116 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-839-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-05-09 17:16:14
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Abstract

Borate crystals are attractive for different technological applications because of their favorable physical and chemical properties like stability and high transparency, both high thermal and non-linear optical coefficients, making them ideal active media for highly efficient solid state lasers. In this Special Issue, different aspects of multifunctional borate crystals are discussed, including ortho- and oxyorthoborates and compounds with condensed anions, as well as their nonlinear optical and laser properties and piezoelectric characteristics. For this reason, complex investigations of the phase relationships in multi-component borate melts, the study of crystal growth conditions of novel high-temperature borates, and the development of the “crystallization conditions, composition, structure, and properties” concept will provide a scientific basis for growth technologies of high performance electronic and optical devices and components with a variety of industrial, medical and many other applications. In the meantime, these relationships can help to estimate the affinity of synthetic borate materials with their natural prototypes and structural analogues.

Glassy Materials Based Microdevices

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ISBN: 9783038976189 Year: Pages: 284 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-619-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Electrical and Nuclear Engineering --- General and Civil Engineering --- Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-03-21 15:50:41
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Microtechnology has changed our world since the last century, when silicon microelectronics revolutionized sensor, control and communication areas, with applications extending from domotics to automotive, and from security to biomedicine. The present century, however, is also seeing an accelerating pace of innovation in glassy materials; as an example, glass-ceramics, which successfully combine the properties of an amorphous matrix with those of micro- or nano-crystals, offer a very high flexibility of design to chemists, physicists and engineers, who can conceive and implement advanced microdevices. In a very similar way, the synthesis of glassy polymers in a very wide range of chemical structures offers unprecedented potential of applications. The contemporary availability of microfabrication technologies, such as direct laser writing or 3D printing, which add to the most common processes (deposition, lithography and etching), facilitates the development of novel or advanced microdevices based on glassy materials. Biochemical and biomedical sensors, especially with the lab-on-a-chip target, are one of the most evident proofs of the success of this material platform. Other applications have also emerged in environment, food, and chemical industries. The present Special Issue of Micromachines aims at reviewing the current state-of-the-art and presenting perspectives of further development. Contributions related to the technologies, glassy materials, design and fabrication processes, characterization, and, eventually, applications are welcome.

Keywords

micro-crack propagation --- severing force --- quartz glass --- micro-grinding --- microfluidics --- single-cell analysis --- polymeric microfluidic flow cytometry --- single-cell protein quantification --- glass molding process --- groove --- roughness --- filling ratio --- label-free sensor --- optofluidic microbubble resonator --- detection of small molecules --- chalcogenide glass --- infrared optics --- precision glass molding --- aspherical lens --- freeform optics --- micro/nano patterning --- 2D colloidal crystal --- soft colloidal lithography --- strain microsensor --- vectorial strain gauge --- compound glass --- microsphere --- resonator --- lasing --- sensing --- microresonator --- whispering gallery mode --- long period grating --- fiber coupling --- distributed sensing --- chemical/biological sensing --- direct metal forming --- glassy carbon micromold --- enhanced boiling heat transfer --- metallic microstructure --- microspheres --- microdevices --- glass --- polymers --- solar energy --- nuclear fusion --- thermal insulation --- sol-gel --- Ag nanoaggregates --- Yb3+ ions --- down-shifting --- photonic microdevices --- alkali cells --- MEMS vapor cells --- optical cells --- atomic spectroscopy --- microtechnology --- microfabrication --- MEMS --- microfluidic devices --- laser materials processing --- ultrafast laser micromachining --- ultrafast laser welding --- enclosed microstructures --- glass --- porous media --- fluid displacement --- spray pyrolysis technique --- dielectric materials --- luminescent materials --- photovoltaics --- frequency conversion --- device simulations --- europium --- luminescence --- hybrid materials --- microdevices --- light --- photon --- communications --- waveguides --- fibers --- biosensors --- microstructured optical fibers --- whispering gallery modes --- light localization --- optofluidics --- lab-on-a-chip --- femtosecond laser --- laser micromachining --- diffusion

Mathematical Modeling of Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in Petroleum Industries and Geothermal Applications

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ISBN: 9783039287208 / 9783039287215 Year: Pages: 470 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-721-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Geothermal energy is the thermal energy generated and stored in the Earth's core, mantle, and crust. Geothermal technologies are used to generate electricity and to heat and cool buildings. To develop accurate models for heat and mass transfer applications involving fluid flow in geothermal applications or reservoir engineering and petroleum industries, a basic knowledge of the rheological and transport properties of the materials involved (drilling fluid, rock properties, etc.)—especially in high-temperature and high-pressure environments—are needed. This Special Issue considers all aspects of fluid flow and heat transfer in geothermal applications, including the ground heat exchanger, conduction and convection in porous media. The emphasis here is on mathematical and computational aspects of fluid flow in conventional and unconventional reservoirs, geothermal engineering, fluid flow, and heat transfer in drilling engineering and enhanced oil recovery (hydraulic fracturing, CO2 injection, etc.) applications.

Keywords

dynamic hydraulic-fracturing experiments --- dynamic crack tip --- fluid front kinetics --- energy conservation analysis --- cost-effective --- frequency conversion technology (FCT) --- ventilation --- methane removal --- computational fluid dynamic (CFD) --- spatiotemporal characteristics --- capacitance-resistance model --- aquifer support --- inter-well connectivity --- production optimization --- karst carbonate reservoir --- tight reservoir --- huff-‘n-puff --- fracture simulation --- enhanced oil recovery --- CO2 diffusion --- percolation model --- fractal theory --- microstructure --- critical porosity --- conductivity --- permeability --- tight oil reservoirs --- fracture compressibility --- numerical simulation --- flowback --- fracture uncertainty --- enhanced geothermal systems --- multiple parallel fractures --- semi-analytical solution --- main gas pipeline --- pressure fluctuations --- unsteady process --- multifractal theory --- fractal theory --- pore structure --- mercury intrusion porosimetry --- pore size distribution --- natural gas --- pipeline network --- continuity/momentum and energy equations coupled --- efficient simulation --- enhanced gas recovery --- longitudinal dispersion coefficient --- injection orientation --- supercritical CO2 --- CO2 permeability --- Coal excavation --- coal and rock fracture --- multiple structural units (MSU) --- energy dissipation --- AE energy --- cement --- non-Newtonian fluids --- rheology --- variable viscosity --- diffusion --- underground coal gasification (UCG) --- economics --- cost of electricity (COE) --- techno-economic model --- methanol --- ammonia --- carbon capture and storage (CCS) --- carbon capture and utilization (CCU) --- electricity generation --- process simulation --- fractal --- slippage effect --- Knudsen diffusion --- surface diffusion --- apparent permeability --- wellbore temperature --- bottom-hole pressure --- multi-pressure system --- comprehensive heat transfer model --- leakage and overflow --- GSHP (ground source heat pump) --- heat transfer --- coupled heat conduction and advection --- nest of tubes --- three-dimensional numerical simulation --- sloshing --- real-scale --- highly viscous fluids --- Navier-Stokes equations --- impact pressure --- flowback --- complex fracture network --- shale oil --- porous media --- fractal theory --- particles model --- permeability --- tube bundle model --- cement slurries --- non-Newtonian fluids --- rheology --- constitutive relations --- viscosity --- yield stress --- thixotropy --- mathematical modeling --- computational fluid dynamics (CFD) --- drilling --- porous media --- multiphase flow --- hydraulic fracturing --- geothermal --- enhanced oil recovery

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english (2)

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2020 (1)

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