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Fractional calculus provides the possibility of introducing integrals and derivatives of an arbitrary order in the mathematical modelling of physical processes, and it has become a relevant subject with applications to various fields, such as anomalous diffusion, propagation in different media, and propogation in relation to materials with different properties. However, many aspects from theoretical and practical points of view have still to be developed in relation to models based on fractional operators. This Special Issue is related to new developments on different aspects of fractional differential equations, both from a theoretical point of view and in terms of applications in different fields such as physics, chemistry, or control theory, for instance. The topics of the Issue include fractional calculus, the mathematical analysis of the properties of the solutions to fractional equations, the extension of classical approaches, or applications of fractional equations to several fields.
fractional qdifference equation  existence and uniqueness  positive solutions  fixed point theorem on mixed monotone operators  fractional pLaplacian  Kirchhofftype equations  fountain theorem  modified functional methods  Moser iteration method  fractionalorder neural networks  delays  distributed delays  impulses  Mittag–Leffler synchronization  Lyapunov functions  Razumikhin method  generalized convexity  bvex functions  subbsconvex functions  oscillation  nonlinear differential system  delay differential system  ?fractional derivative  positive solution  fractional thermostat model  fixed point index  dependence on a parameter  Hermite–Hadamard’s Inequality  Convex Functions  Powermean Inequality  Jenson Integral Inequality  Riemann—Liouville Fractional Integration  Laplace Adomian Decomposition Method (LADM)  NavierStokes equation  Caputo Operator  fractionalorder system  model order reduction  controllability and observability Gramians  energy inequality  integral conditions  fractional wave equation  existence and uniqueness  initial boundary value problem  conformable fractional derivative  conformable partial fractional derivative  conformable double Laplace decomposition method  conformable Laplace transform  singular one dimensional coupled Burgers’ equation
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The many technical and computational problems that appear to be constantly emerging in various branches of physics and engineering beg for a more detailed understanding of the fundamental mathematics that serves as the cornerstone of our way of understanding natural phenomena. The purpose of this Special Issue was to establish a brief collection of carefully selected articles authored by promising young scientists and the world's leading experts in pure and applied mathematics, highlighting the stateoftheart of the various research lines focusing on the study of analytical and numerical mathematical methods for pure and applied sciences.
ultraparabolic equation  ultradiffusion process  probabilistic representation  mathematical finance  linear elastostatics  layer potentials  fredholmian operators  fractional differential equations  fractional derivative  Abeltype integral  time delay  distributed lag  gamma distribution  macroeconomics  Keynesian model  integral transforms  Laplace integral transform  transmutation operator  generating operator  integral equations  differential equations  operational calculus of Mikusinski type  Mellin integral transform  fractional derivative  fractional integral  Mittag–Leffler function  Riemann–Liouville derivative  Caputo derivative  Grünwald–Letnikov derivative  spacetime fractional diffusion equation  fractional Laplacian  subordination principle  MittagLeffler function  Bessel function  exterior calculus  exterior algebra  electromagnetism  Maxwell equations  differential forms  tensor calculus  Fourier Theory  DFT in polar coordinates  polar coordinates  multidimensional DFT  discrete Hankel Transform  discrete Fourier Transform  Orthogonality  multispecies biofilm  biosorption  free boundary value problem  heavy metals toxicity  method of characteristics  relativistic diffusion equation  Caputo fractional derivatives of a function with respect to another function  BesselRiesz motion  Mittag–Leffler function  matrix function  Schur decomposition  Laplace transform  fractional calculus  central limit theorem  anomalous diffusion  stable distribution  fractional calculus  power law  n/a
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This book is focused on fractional order systems. Historically, fractional calculus has been recognized since the inception of regular calculus, with the first written reference dated in September 1695 in a letter from Leibniz to L’Hospital. Nowadays, fractional calculus has a wide area of applications in areas such as physics, chemistry, bioengineering, chaos theory, control systems engineering, and many others. In all those applications, we deal with fractional order systems in general. Moreover, fractional calculus plays an important role even in complex systems and therefore allows us to develop better descriptions of realworld phenomena. On that basis, fractional order systems are ubiquitous, as the whole real world around us is fractional. Due to this reason, it is urgent to consider almost all systems as fractional order systems.
anomalous diffusion  complexity  magnetic resonance imaging  fractional calculus  fractional complex networks  adaptive control  pinning synchronization  timevarying delays  impulses  reaction–diffusion terms  fractional calculus  mass absorption  diffusionwave equation  Caputo derivative  harmonic impact  Laplace transform  Fourier transform  MittagLeffler function  fractional calculus  fractionalorder system  long memory  time series  Hurst exponent  fractional  control  PID  parameter  meaning  audio signal processing  linear prediction  fractional derivative  musical signal  optimal randomness  swarmbased search  cuckoo search  heavytailed distribution  global optimization
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Due to the influence of porethroat size distribution, pore connectivity, and microscale fractures, the transport, distribution, and residual saturation of fluids in porous media are difficult to characterize. Petrophysical methods in natural porous media have attracted great attention in a variety of fields, especially in the oil and gas industry. A wide range of research studies have been conducted on the characterization of porous media covers and multiphase flow therein. Reliable approaches for characterizing microstructure and multiphase flow in porous media are crucial in many fields, including the characterization of residual water or oil in hydrocarbon reservoirs and the longterm storage of supercritical CO2 in geological formations. This book gathers together 15 recent works to emphasize fundamental innovations in the field and novel applications of petrophysics in unconventional reservoirs, including experimental studies, numerical modeling (fractal approach), and multiphase flow modeling/simulations. The relevant stakeholders of this book are authorities and service companies working in the petroleum, subsurface water resources, air and water pollution, environmental, and biomaterial sectors.
Wilkins equation  nonlaminar flow  turbulence modelling  porous media  oil tanker  temperature drop  oscillating motion  numerical simulation  soilwater characteristic curve  initial void ratio  airentry value  fractal dimension  fractal model  oil properties  diffusion coefficient  supercritical CO2  PengRobinson equation of state (PR EOS)  CT  digital rock  microfractures  Lattice Boltzmann method  porescale simulations  tight sandstone  pore structure  multifractal  classification  Ordos Basin  loose media  coal  porosity  true density  bulk density  overburden pressure  particle size  tight conglomerate  fracture characterization and prediction  fractal method  salt rock  creep  damage  fractional derivative  acoustic emission  marine gas hydrate  submarine landslide  greenhouse gas emission  lifecycle management  hazard prevention  multilayer reservoir  interlayer interference  producing degree  seepage resistance  wellbore multiphase flow  inclined angle  liquid rate  gas rate  pressure drawdown model with new coefficients  baselevel cycle  pore structure  mouth bar sand body  Huanghua Depression  isotopic composition  methane  gas hydrate  South China Sea  Bakken Formation  pore structure  controlling factors  lowtemperature nitrogen adsorption  petrophysics  fractal porous media  unconventional reservoirs  multiphase flow
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In recent decades, the study of groundwater flow and solute transport has advanced into new territories that are beyond conventional theories, such as Darcy’s law and Fick’s law. The studied media have changed from permeable porous and fractured ones to much less permeable ones, such as clay and shale. The studied pore sizes have also changed from millimetres to micrometers or even nanometers. The objective of this Special Issue is to report recent advances in groundwater flow and solute transport that push the knowledge boundary into new territories which include, but are not limited to, flow and transport in sloping aquifer/hillslopes, coupled unsaturated and saturated flow, coupled aquifervertical/horizontal/slant well flow, interaction of aquifer with connected and disconnected rivers, nonDarcian flow, anomalous transport beyond the Fickian scheme, and flow and transport in extremely small pore spaces such as shale and tight sandstones. Contributions focusing on innovative experimental, numerical, and analytical methods for understanding unconventional problems, such as the abovelisted ones, are encouraged, and contributions addressing flow and transport at interfaces of different media and crossing multiple temporal and spatial scales are of great value
soil formation  percolation  infiltration  erosion  Levy stable distribution  permeameter test  hydraulic conductivity  silty clay  solute transport  nuclear waste disposal  the Beishan area  TOUGH2  groundwater flow  assessment  rough single fracture  solute transport  nonDarcian  nonFickian  heterogeneity  bimsoils  water flow  slenderness effect  permeability coefficient  nonDarcy flow  hydrologic exchange  SW–GW interaction  field measurements  Columbia River  steadystate vertical flux  evaporation calculation  unsaturated flow  semianalytical solution  solute longitudinal dispersion  evolvingscale logconductivity  firstorder analytical approach  stochastic Lagrangian framework  fractured aquifers  seawater intrusion  flow modeling  salinity map  groundwater ERT  groundwater flow model  numerical simulation  uncertainty  IUV  IUM  perturbation method  Monte Carlo  GFModel  radioactive contaminant  fractional derivative  analytical solution  Ulan Buh Desert  DSR  infiltration  desert farmland  irrigation  sustainable development  water resource utilization efficiency  n/a
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This Special Issue aims to be a compilation of new results in the areas of differential and difference Equations, covering boundary value problems, systems of differential and difference equations, as well as analytical and numerical methods. The objective is to provide an overview of techniques used in these different areas and to emphasize their applicability to reallife phenomena, by the inclusion of examples. These examples not only clarify the theoretical results presented, but also provide insight on how to apply, for future works, the techniques used.
Legendre wavelets  collocation method  threestep Taylor method  asymptotic stability  timedependent partial differential equations  noninstantaneous impulses  Caputo fractional derivative  differential equations  state dependent delays  lipschitz stability  limitperiodic solutions  difference equations  exponential dichotomy  strong nonlinearities  effective existence criteria  population dynamics  discrete Lyapunov equation  difference equations  Hilbert space  dichotomy  exponential stability  ?Laplacian operator  mean curvature operator  heteroclinic solutions  problems in the real line  lower and upper solutions  Nagumo condition on the real line  fixed point theory  coupled nonlinear systems  functional boundary conditions  Schauder’s fixed point theory  Arzèla Ascoli theorem  lower and upper solutions  first order periodic systems  SIRS epidemic model  mathematical modelling  Navier–Stokes equations  global solutions  regular solutions  a priori estimates  weak solutions  kinetic energy  dissipation  Bäcklund transformation  Clairin’s method  generalized Liouville equation  Miura transformation  Kortewegde Vries equation  secondorder differential/difference/qdifference equation of hypergeometric type  nonuniform lattices  divideddifference equations  polynomial solution  integrodifferentials  Sumudu decomposition method  dynamical system
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A plethora of problems from diverse disciplines such as Mathematics, Mathematical: Biology, Chemistry, Economics, Physics, Scientific Computing and also Engineering can be formulated as an equation defined in abstract spaces using Mathematical Modelling. The solutions of these equations can be found in closed form only in special case. That is why researchers and practitioners utilize iterative procedures from which a sequence is being generated approximating the solution under some conditions on the initial data. This type of research is considered most interesting and challenging. This is our motivation for the introduction of this special issue on Iterative Procedures.
Banach space  weightedNewton method  local convergence  Fréchetderivative  ball radius of convergence  Nondifferentiable operator  nonlinear equation  divided difference  Lipschitz condition  convergence order  local and semilocal convergence  scalar equations  computational convergence order  Steffensen’s method  basins of attraction  nonlinear equations  multipleroot solvers  Traub–Steffensen method  fast algorithms  Multiple roots  Optimal iterative methods  Scalar equations  Order of convergence  simple roots  Newton’s method  computational convergence order  nonlinear equations  split variational inclusion problem  generalized mixed equilibrium problem  fixed point problem  maximal monotone operator  left Bregman asymptotically nonexpansive mapping  uniformly convex and uniformly smooth Banach space  nonlinear equations  multiple roots  derivativefree method  optimal convergence  multiple roots  optimal iterative methods  scalar equations  order of convergence  Newton–HSS method  systems of nonlinear equations  semilocal convergence  local convergence  convergence order  Banach space  iterative method  nonlinear equations  Chebyshev’s iterative method  fractional derivative  basin of attraction  nonlinear equations  iterative methods  general means  basin of attraction
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Researches and investigations involving the theory and applications of integral transforms and operational calculus are remarkably widespread in many diverse areas of the mathematical, physical, chemical, engineering and statistical sciences.
highly oscillatory  convolution quadrature rule  volterra integral equation  Bessel kernel  convergence  higher order Schwarzian derivatives  Janowski starlike function  Janowski convex function  bound on derivatives  tangent numbers  tangent polynomials  Carlitztype qtangent numbers  Carlitztype qtangent polynomials  (p,q)analogue of tangent numbers and polynomials  (p,q)analogue of tangent zeta function  symmetric identities  zeros  Lommel functions  univalent functions  starlike functions  convex functions  inclusion relationships  analytic function  Hankel determinant  exponential function  upper bound  nonlinear boundary value problems  fractionalorder differential equations  RiemannStieltjes functional integral  LiouvilleCaputo fractional derivative  infinitepoint boundary conditions  advanced and deviated arguments  existence of at least one solution  Fredholm integral equation  Schauder fixed point theorem  Hölder condition  generalized Kuramoto–Sivashinsky equation  modified Kudryashov method  exact solutions  Maple graphs  analytic function  Hadamard product (convolution)  partial sum  Srivastava–Tomovski generalization of Mittag–Leffler function  subordination  differential equation  differential inclusion  Liouville–Caputotype fractional derivative  fractional integral  existence  fixed point  Bernoulli spiral  Grandi curves  Chebyshev polynomials  pseudoChebyshev polynomials  orthogonality property  symmetric  encryption  password  hash  cryptography  PBKDF  q–Bleimann–Butzer–Hahn operators  (p,q)integers  (p,q)Bernstein operators  (p,q)Bleimann–Butzer–Hahn operators  modulus of continuity  rate of approximation  Kfunctional  HurwitzLerch zeta function  generalized functions  analytic number theory  ?generalized HurwitzLerch zeta functions  derivative properties  series representation  basic hypergeometric functions  generating functions  qpolynomials  analytic functions  Mittag–Leffler functions  starlike functions  convex functions  Hardy space  vibrating string equation  initial conditions  spectral decomposition  regular solution  the uniqueness of the solution  the existence of a solution  analytic  ?convex function  starlike function  stronglystarlike function  subordination  q Sheffer–Appell polynomials  generating relations  determinant definition  recurrence relation  q Hermite–Bernoulli polynomials  q Hermite–Euler polynomials  q Hermite–Genocchi polynomials  Volterra integral equations  highly oscillatory Bessel kernel  Hermite interpolation  direct Hermite collocation method  piecewise Hermite collocation method  differential operator  qhypergeometric functions  meromorphic function  Mittag–Leffler function  Hadamard product  differential subordination  starlike functions  Bell numbers  radius estimate  (p, q)integers  Dunkl analogue  generating functions  generalization of exponential function  Szász operator  modulus of continuity  function spaces and their duals  distributions  tempered distributions  Schwartz testing function space  generalized functions  distribution space  wavelet transform of generalized functions  Fourier transform  analytic function  subordination  Dziok–Srivastava operator  nonlinear boundary value problem  nonlocal  multipoint  multistrip  existence  Ulam stability  functions of bounded boundary and bounded radius rotations  subordination  functions with positive real part  uniformly starlike and convex functions  analytic functions  univalent functions  starlike and qstarlike functions  qderivative (or qdifference) operator  sufficient conditions  distortion theorems  Janowski functions  analytic number theory  ?generalized Hurwitz–Lerch zeta functions  derivative properties  recurrence relations  integral representations  Mellin transform  natural transform  Adomian decomposition method  Caputo fractional derivative  generalized mittagleffler function  analytic functions  Hadamard product  starlike functions  qderivative (or qdifference) operator  Hankel determinant  qstarlike functions  fuzzy volterra integrodifferential equations  fuzzy general linear method  fuzzy differential equations  generalized Hukuhara differentiability  spectrum symmetry  DCT  MFCC  audio features  anuran calls  analytic functions  convex functions  starlike functions  strongly convex functions  strongly starlike functions  uniformly convex functions  Struve functions  truncatedexponential polynomials  monomiality principle  generating functions  Apostoltype polynomials and Apostoltype numbers  Bernoulli, Euler and Genocchi polynomials  Bernoulli, Euler, and Genocchi numbers  operational methods  summation formulas  symmetric identities  Euler numbers and polynomials  qEuler numbers and polynomials  HurwitzEuler eta function  multiple HurwitzEuler eta function  higher order qEuler numbers and polynomials  (p, q)Euler numbers and polynomials of higher order  symmetric identities  symmetry of the zero
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The use of scientific computing tools is currently customary for solving problems at several complexity levels in Applied Sciences. The great need for reliable software in the scientific community conveys a continuous stimulus to develop new and better performing numerical methods that are able to grasp the particular features of the problem at hand. This has been the case for many different settings of numerical analysis, and this Special Issue aims at covering some important developments in various areas of application.
time fractional differential equations  mixedindex problems  analytical solution  asymptotic stability  conservative problems  Hamiltonian problems  energyconserving methods  Poisson problems  Hamiltonian Boundary Value Methods  HBVMs  line integral methods  constrained Hamiltonian problems  Hamiltonian PDEs  highly oscillatory problems  boundary element method  finite difference method  floating strike Asian options  continuous geometric average  barrier options  isogeometric analysis  adaptive methods  hierarchical splines  THBsplines  local refinement  linear systems  preconditioners  Cholesky factorization  limited memory  Volterra integral equations  Volterra integro–differential equations  collocation methods  multistep methods  convergence  Bspline  optimal basis  fractional derivative  Galerkin method  collocation method  spectral (eigenvalue) and singular value distributions  generalized locally Toeplitz sequences  discretization of systems of differential equations  higherorder finite element methods  discontinuous Galerkin methods  finite difference methods  isogeometric analysis  Bsplines  curl–curl operator  time harmonic Maxwell’s equations and magnetostatic problems  low rank completion  matrix ODEs  gradient system  ordinary differential equations  Runge–Kutta  tree  stump  order  elementary differential  edgehistogram  edgepreserving smoothing  histogram specification  initial value problems  onestep methods  Hermite–Obreshkov methods  symplecticity  Bsplines  BS methods  hyperbolic partial differential equations  high order discontinuous Galerkin finite element schemes  shock waves and discontinuities  vectorization and parallelization  high performance computing  generalized Schur algorithm  nullspace  displacement rank  structured matrices  stochastic differential equations  stochastic multistep methods  stochastic Volterra integral equations  meansquare stability  asymptotic stability  numerical analysis  numerical methods  scientific computing  initial value problems  onestep methods  Hermite–Obreshkov methods  symplecticity  Bsplines  BS methods
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Inequalities appear in various fields of natural science and engineering. Classical inequalities are still being improved and/or generalized by many researchers. That is, inequalities have been actively studied by mathematicians. In this book, we selected the papers that were published as the Special Issue ‘’Inequalities’’ in the journal Mathematics (MDPI publisher). They were ordered by similar topics for readers’ convenience and to give new and interesting results in mathematical inequalities, such as the improvements in famous inequalities, the results of Frame theory, the coefficient inequalities of functions, and the kind of convex functions used for Hermite–Hadamard inequalities. The editor believes that the contents of this book will be useful to study the latest results for researchers of this field.
analytic functions  starlike functions  convex functions  FeketeSzegö inequality  Hilbert C*module  gframe  gBessel sequence  adjointable operator  analytic functions  starlike functions  convex functions  FeketeSzegö inequality  operator inequality  positive linear map  operator Kantorovich inequality  geometrically convex function  frame  weaving frame  weaving frame operator  alternate dual frame  Hilbert space  quantum estimates  HermiteHadamard type inequalities  quasiconvex  Hermite–Hadamard type inequality  strongly ?convex functions  Hölder’s inequality  Power mean inequality  Katugampola fractional integrals  Riemann–Liouville fractional integrals  Hadamard fractional integrals  Steffensen’s inequality  higher order convexity  Green functions  Montgomery identity  Fink’s identity  HermiteHadamard inequality  intervalvalued functions  (h1, h2)convex  majorization inequality  twice differentiable convex functions  refined inequality  Taylor theorem  Gronwall–Bellman inequality  proportional fractional derivative  Riemann–Liouville and Caputo proportional fractional initial value problem  convex functions  Fejér’s inequality  special means  weaving frame  weaving Kframe  Kdual  pseudoinverse  ?variation  onesided singular integral  commutator  onesided weighted Morrey space  onesided weighted Campanato space  power inequalities  exponential inequalities  trigonometric inequalities  weight function  halfdiscrete HardyHilbert’s inequality  parameter  EulerMaclaurin summation formula  reverse inequality
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