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Diateichismata

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ISBN: 9783900305543 Year: Pages: 248 Seiten DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_437145 Language: German
Publisher: Österreichisches Archäologisches Institut Grant: Austrian Science Fund - D 4001
Subject: Archaeology
Added to DOAB on : 2013-03-27 11:48:43
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A Diateichisma is part of a city´s fortification system. Unlike a city wall it was built within the urban area dividing a city in two parts. This study focuses on two aspects. On the one hand, the phenomenon of diateichismata is considered as part of fortification architecture, on the other hand the influence of diateichism on the organisation of the urban space is pointed out. Furthermore, the reasons, why diateichismata were build are considered as a focal point of the study. The settlement are displayed in a catalogue, technical data is in charts. Written sources mentioning diatechisma are put together including relevant passages of the text. In scientific research diateichismata have been regarded as mere functional buildings, however, they have been studied systematically. In this study, the significance of diateichismata is analysed beyond the aspects of fortification; in particular, the impact of diateichismata on the development and utilisation of urban space is a spezial interest. A comparative analysis of settlements with diateichisma has needs of comparable criteria. The most applicable term, after which settlements with diateichisma can be discerned and put in order, is the chronological relation of diateichisma and city wall, because here chronology is the only variable giving valuable information on settlement development. Hence three variations of settlements with diateichisma can be discerned: 1. Settlements with diateichisma built together with the enceinte. 2. Settlements with secondarily but diateichisma. 3. Settlements with diateichisma which originate after expansion of walled urban space. Most of the studied settlements have diateichismata which were built after the enceinte (23 examples) or which origins from expansion of walled city space (19 settlements). Contemporaneous diateichismate are rare (14 settlements), only in a few cities the relation between diateichisma and city wall remains unclear. The earliest diateichismata be dated in late 7th cent. B.C., the latest was build in the middle of the 2nd cent. B.C. Within this chronological frame the highest concentration of diateichismata can be traced in classical and hellenistic times. The distriution of cities is spead from the Iberian Peninsula to Greek parts of modern Afghanistan (Graeco-bactria). Only any regions do show concentrations of settlements with diateichisma. In the Western Mediterranean there are more cities with secondarily built diateichisma, in the area of north-western Greek in a lot of cities the walled urban space was enlarged establishind diateichismata between the original city area and the newly acquired space. Generally, diateichismata serve as obstacles to enemies which conquered the enceinte already or as barrier wall for hostile parties fighting within the boundaries of the city wall. Despite of the clear military function only cities of military character have a diateichisma; there it always serves as a barrier wall protecting free space

Le vieux Pondichéry (1673-1824) revisité d'après les plans anciens

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ISBN: 9791036544293 Year: DOI: 10.4000/books.ifp.354 Language: French
Publisher: Institut Français de Pondichéry
Subject: History
Added to DOAB on : 2020-09-09 12:19:30
License: OpenEdition Licence for Books

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La découverte de nouveaux documents cartographiques concernant les origines du développement urbain et la structure sociale de Pondichéry à des moments cruciaux de son histoire modifie considérablement notre représentation de la ville. Rassemblant l’ensemble de la documentation aujourd’hui disponible dans les centres d’archives de France et des Pays-Bas, l’auteur nous montre comment, à partir d’une simple agglomération d’artisans, cet établissement est devenu une métropole structurée selon un plan d’urbanisme rigoureux, comment, aussi, s’est développé le système défensif de la place, du modeste fort barlong de François Martin au fort Louis et à la grande enceinte du temps de Dupleix, jusqu’à la décrépitude de la fin du xviiie siècle, nous permettant ainsi de lire, comme en filigrane, les épaisseurs du passé de Pondichéry.

Studies on fortification in India

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ISBN: 9791036549847 Year: DOI: 10.4000/books.ifp.3975 Language: English
Publisher: Institut Français de Pondichéry
Subject: Architecture
Added to DOAB on : 2020-09-09 12:19:30
License: OpenEdition Licence for Books

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This book brings together essays on some prominent defensive works which have been constructed over many centuries across the Indian subcontinent, particularly South India. The first chapter, on the Harappan period and Early Historic Indian sites, is based mainly on archaeological reports; all the other chapters, covering South India from the 3rd to the 18th century A.D., draw on the available historical material, both documentary and epigraphic, as well as on intense field work and personal investigations carried out by the author over the past twenty years in numerous hill forts and fortified towns in India. Much of the information has been already published piecemeal in a range of articles written in French. Here, the findings of this body of work are freshly presented with an attempt at synthesis. For each period a selection has been made of outstanding examples of fortification in order to analyse the building techniques, considering the evolution of military technology, particularly the development of artillery, to establish the typology of the structures and to bring into focus a reliable method for identifying and dating defensive works in India. This analysis, which draws attention to the considerable skills and ingenuities of Indian fort builders, has something to engage the interest of all those concerned with India military monuments, be they engineers, archaeologists or historians.

Forts and Fortification in Wallacea

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Terra Australis ISBN: 9781760463892 Year: Pages: 306 DOI: 10.22459/TA53.2020 Language: English
Publisher: ANU Press
Subject: History --- Archaeology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-11-19 00:21:24
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This volume presents ground-breaking research on fortified sites in three parts of Wallacea by a highly regarded group of scholars from Australia, Europe, Southeast Asia and the United States. In addition to surveying and dating defensive sites in often remote and difficult terrain, the chapters provide an important and scholarly set of archaeological and ethnohistoric studies that investigate the origin of forts in Wallacea. Socio-political instability from climate events, the materialisation of indigenous belief systems, and the substantial impact of imperial expansion and European colonialism are examined and comprise a significant addition to our knowledge of conflict and warfare in an under-studied part of the Indo-Pacific. The archaeological record for past conflict is frequently ambiguous and the contribution of warfare to social development is mired in debate and paradox. Authors demonstrate that forts and other defensive constructions are costly and complicated structures that, while designed and built to protect a community from a threat of imminent violence, had (and have) complicated life histories as a result of their architectural permanence, strategic locations and traditional cultural and political significance. Understanding why conflict outbreaks – like human colonisation – often appear in the past as a punctuated event can best be approached through long-term records of conflict and violence involving archaeology and allied historical disciplines, as has been successfully done here. The volume is essential reading for archaeologists, cultural heritage managers and those with an interest in conflict studies.' — Professor Geoffrey Clark, College of Asia and the Pacific, The Australian National University, Canberra.

Plataiai

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ISBN: 9783900305659 Year: Pages: 485 Seiten DOI: 10.26530/oapen_451002 Language: German
Publisher: Österreichisches Archäologisches Institut Grant: Austrian Science Fund - D 4309
Subject: Archaeology
Added to DOAB on : 2013-08-16 18:46:33
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Plataiai, in SW-Boiotia, is famous above all for the events which took place in its vicinity in the autumn of 479 B.C. This victory of the Greeks over the Persian army, in concert with the Battle of Salamis, was an event of the utmost significance for European history and is often the topic of modern scientific analysis. Nevertheless, the ancient polis which gave its name to the battle has been overlooked by modern historians and all the more by archaeologists, in a rather curious way. The Plataiai Project was consequently inaugurated in 1996 in order to gain a better understanding of the history and chronology of this ancient place. Results from the investigations have made it possible to establish a settlement sequence for Plataiai; this sequence spans seven millennia, from the Middle Neolithic Age to the modern era. Plataiai is situated in a relatively secure location on the lower slopes of Mt. Kithairon where the first settlers established a small hamlet. The site continued to be inhabited in a nearly unbroken sequence into historical times. During the formative period of Classical Hellas Plataiai developed into an independent polis. The town became entangled in the internecine struggles of 6th and 5th century B.C. Greece and suffered accordingly. Plataiai was twice destroyed and depopulated as a result of the wars between Athens, Sparta and Thebes. Only a final shift of the political and strategic focusses under Philip and Alexander helped secure the existence of the town. During Hellenistic times and the time of the Roman Empire Plataiai remained undisturbed. Plataiai's existence during the 6th, 5th and 4th centuries B.C. is documented mainly by way of surface finds and its earliest known fortification. In addition to the discovery of fragmentary dwellings from the 6th century B.C., small scale excavations appear to have uncovered a cult deposit from the same period. The main characteristics of Plataiai in the late 4th century B.C. and beyond consist of an ambitious extension of the settlement, structured internally along an orthogonal grid of urban blocks and roads which was protected by an extended belt of fortifications. Geophysical survey has helped to locate and document the main urban monuments, such as the Agora, the precinct of Dionysos, the Temple of Hera, and other public buildings, in addition to an extended area covered by private dwellings, some of truly impressive size. The evidence of such large buildings confirms, beyond a doubt, that several very wealthy families existed in Plataiai, who made good use of their dwellings to express their social and political status. Late Antiquity seems to have severely curtailed Plataiai's prosperity. Urgent military threats led to the building of an emergency fortification which re-used the building materials of many Hellenistic and Roman structures. Nevertheless, a bishopric at Plataiai, a note in Procopius' de aedeficiis and the remains of several churches at the site prove that the town still existed during the reign of the emperor Justinian, whereas it is possible that the site was abandoned after this time. Only from the 11th and 12th centuries A.D. onwards does the surface material again corroborate the existence of a settlement at the site. The modern village of Kokla was renamed Plataies during the 1920s and thus continues the tradition of the ancient polis right into the 21st century A.D.

Défendre la Bresse et le Bugey : Les châteaux savoyards dans la guerre contre le Dauphiné (1282-1355)

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ISBN: 9782729710897 Year: DOI: 10.4000/books.pul.21240 Language: French
Publisher: Presses universitaires de Lyon
Subject: History
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-04 12:20:44
License: OpenEdition Licence for Books

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L’histoire de la guerre entre la Savoie et le Dauphiné en Bresse en Bugey dans la première moitié du xive siècle est mal connue, malgré richesse des sources écrites et des vestiges architecturaux. Cet ouvrage vient combler un manque important de l’histoire des deux régions qui firent partie du comté puis duché de Savoie jusqu’en 1601. Il témoigne, par l’étude de la guerre et des châteaux-forts qui défendent et organisent le territoire, d’une principauté (le comté de Savoie) en voie de formation et d’extension, aux structures relativement modernes, efficaces et cohérentes. Il montre à l’œuvre la stratégie savoyarde subtile et pugnace. Relevant à la fois de l’histoire et de de l’archéologie, cette étude intéresse l’histoire militaire, politique, administrative mais aussi économique et technique. Elle repose sur l’exploitation méthodique et minutieuse d’une documentation en latin, inédite et massive, au caractère avant tout financier. L’essentiel de ces sources provient de copies microfilmées conservées aux Archives Départementales de l’Ain. Elles sont complétées et enrichies par de nombreuses et attentives prospections sur le terrain. L’auteur propose d’abord une chronique détaillée des faits politiques et militaires qui représente un récit tout à fait neuf et unique dans l’histoire de la guerre delphino-savoyarde. Il traite ensuite de l’organisation et du fonctionnement en réseau des centres administratifs et militaires que sont les châteaux-forts. Il met en évidence l’articulation entre les châtellenies, les centres de bailliage que sont Bagé, Bourg-en-Bresse, Rossillon et St Germain d’Ambérieu. Par une étude et une analyse rigoureuses des fortifications et de leurs éléments architecturaux il fournit un ensemble d’informations et de connaissances précises sur les formes que ces châteaux, bâties et maisons-fortes avaient avant leur ruine. Enfin il décrit les constructions et les réparations, l’origine régionale des matériaux, leur transport leur mise en œuvre et l’organisation réglementée et organisée par le pouvoir central. Cet ouvrage, qui est une découverte du comté de Savoie avant les grands bouleversements de la fin du Moyen Âge, devrait toucher toute personne s’intéressant à l’histoire de la guerre et des châteaux en général, soucieuse de connaître une période et des événements de leur région fort peu étudiés jusqu’à ce jour. Le département de l’Ain actuel couvre quasiment le même espace que les baillages savoyards de Bresse et de Bugey au Moyen Âge.

Amboise : Un château dans la ville

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ISBN: 9782869065376 Year: DOI: 10.4000/books.pufr.8117 Language: French
Publisher: Presses universitaires François-Rabelais
Subject: History
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-06 13:15:43
License: OpenEdition Licence for Books

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Alors que Louis XI accentua le caractère fortifié du château d’Amboise dont il actualisa le parti résidentiel, le projet de Charles VIII tendit à en faire un palais, séjour privilégié de la cour. D’une ampleur jamais encore égalée, le chantier de construction royal eut des répercussions immédiates sur l’économie et l’urbanisme de cette petite ville en bordure de Loire. La tradition constructive ancienne, liée aux ponts, fut renouvelée par l’afflux et le dynamisme d’une main d’œuvre hautement qualifiée attirée par le chantier royal. À l’ombre du château Renaissance, ce sont des quartiers nouveaux et de nombreuses maisons qui sont édifiés. Dans les trois dernières décennies du XVe siècle, la ville d’Amboise s’enrichit ainsi de quatre édifices édilitaires qui demeurèrent les seuls de la ville jusqu’au XVIIIe siècle. L’architecture privée et urbaine témoigne des cadres de vie des différents milieux sociologiques renouvelés par l’installation des officiers de la cour et de la main d’œuvre industrieuse. En 1498, Amboise avait tous les atouts pour devenir une ville d’importance ; la mort accidentelle du roi Charles VIII arrêta cet essor. Ce dynamisme sur une quarantaine d’années constitua le laboratoire de nouvelles solutions architecturales qui influencèrent les chantiers princiers du début de la Renaissance.

La vallée engloutie (Volume 2

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ISBN: 9782351595398 Year: DOI: 10.4000/books.ifpo.7085 Language: French
Publisher: Presses de l’Ifpo
Subject: History --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-06 13:15:32
License: OpenEdition Licence for Books

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La construction sur l’Euphrate des barrages turcs et syriens a entraîné la disparition d’un tiers des sites hellénistiques, romains et byzantins de la vallée ; elle a modifié le rôle que le Moyen-Euphrate jouait depuis des millénaires comme axe principal de circulation et d’échanges entre la Méditerranée et la Mésopotamie. Cet essai de géographie historique se propose de poursuivre la synthèse que René Dussaud avait consacrée aux rives de l’Euphrate dans la Topographie historique de la Syrie antique et médiévale, publiée en 1927. En croisant différentes sources textuelles et documentaires, des écrits des géographes antiques aux images satellitaires, cette étude, accompagnée de nombreuses illustrations, met en valeur les dynamiques géographiques et historiques qui ont marqué l’occupation de la vallée depuis la fin du IVe s. av. J.-C. jusqu’au VIIe s. (volume 1). Complément indispensable de l’étude d’ensemble, le catalogue (volume 2) présente 212 notices, accompagnées d’une très riche documentation graphique et photographique sur les sites archéologiques de la vallée : centres urbains, villages, forteresses, églises, monastères, nécropoles du Moyen-Euphrate durant les périodes hellénistique, romaine et byzantine. Il permet de parcourir les deux rives du fleuve, de Zeugma à Doura-Europos : ainsi se trouve rassemblée la somme des données archéologiques représentatives des profondes mutations intervenues entre la colonisation séleucide et le siècle de Justinien.

La vallée engloutie (volume 1

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ISBN: 9782351595404 Year: DOI: 10.4000/books.ifpo.8345 Language: French
Publisher: Presses de l’Ifpo
Subject: History --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-06 13:15:32
License: OpenEdition Licence for Books

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La construction sur l’Euphrate des barrages turcs et syriens a entraîné la disparition d’un tiers des sites hellénistiques, romains et byzantins de la vallée ; elle a modifié le rôle que le Moyen-Euphrate jouait depuis des millénaires comme axe principal de circulation et d’échanges entre la Méditerranée et la Mésopotamie. Cet essai de géographie historique se propose de poursuivre la synthèse que René Dussaud avait consacrée aux rives de l’Euphrate dans la Topographie historique de la Syrie antique et médiévale, publiée en 1927. En croisant différentes sources textuelles et documentaires, des écrits des géographes antiques aux images satellitaires, cette étude, accompagnée de nombreuses illustrations, met en valeur les dynamiques géographiques et historiques qui ont marqué l’occupation de la vallée depuis la fin du IVe s. av. J.-C. jusqu’au VIIe s.

Current Strategies to Improve the Nutritional and Physical Quality of Baked Goods

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039283460 9783039283477 Year: Pages: 164 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-347-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Nutrition and Food Sciences --- Biology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
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The lifestyle of humans is rapidly changing, and, correspondingly, their needs and the current and future megatrends of the food market. It is worth mentioning (1) the preference for natural, simple, and flexible diets that drive the further expansion of plant-focused formulations, (2) the focus on food sustainability (food waste reduction), and (3) the interest in healthy eating as the basis for good health. The hectic routine and rapid urbanization in developed and developing regions, respectively, have shifted consumer preferences toward bread and baked foods, which, interestingly, are often high in sugars and are categorized as having a high glycemic index. Therefore, it is of major importance to address the technological challenges of manufacturing baked goods with high physical and sensory quality that result in positive metabolic responses. This Special Issue seeks to provide fundamental understanding in this area and novel strategies to improve the nutritional properties of baked goods, including a decrease in starch bioaccessibility, sugar reduction, increase in fiber and/or protein content, and the improvement of phytochemical bioactivity. This Special Issue will also cover studies on the physical and sensory improvements of baked goods that may provide a mechanistic understanding to minimize the loss of quality after the incorporation of nutritional-improving ingredients, such as edible byproducts, proteins, or fibers. Last but not least, studies focused on the reduction of additives (clean label) or fat and on the use of sourdough to improve the sensory properties of baked goods will also be included.

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