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Cardiac Remodeling: New Insights in Physiological and Pathological Adaptations

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453313 Year: Pages: 117 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-331-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Physiology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:45
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The effective management of Cardiac remodeling(CR), remains a major challenge. Heart failure remains the leading cause of death in industrialized countries. Yet, despite the enormity of the problem, effective therapeutic interventions remain elusive. In fact, several initially promising agents were found to decrease mortality in patients recovering from myocardial infarction. Cardiac remodeling is defined as molecular and interstitial changes, manifested clinically by changes in size, mass , geometry and function of the heart in response to certain aggression. Initially, ventricular remodeling aims to maintain stable cardiac function in situations of aggression.

High-Tech Trash

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ISBN: 9780520974494 9780520340145 Year: Pages: 253 DOI: 10.1525/luminos.83 Language: English
Publisher: University of California Press
Subject: Information theory
Added to DOAB on : 2020-02-05 11:21:21
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High-Tech Trash: Glitch, Noise, and Aesthetic Failure maps an archaeology of failure in a culture seemingly ill-equipped to deal with it. To better understand failure, Kane argues, we must abstract from our subjective, personal disappointments and see them as meaningful symbols of a broader human struggle. By connecting twenty-first century digital aesthetics to critical issues in the history of high-tech, the book elucidates what it means to be an error-prone, fallible human in an age of hyper technology; to fail again and again without recourse to anything but repetition.&#xD;

CaMKII in Cardiac Health and Disease

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889192991 Year: Pages: 165 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-299-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Medicine (General) --- Therapeutics --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-10 11:59:07
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The calcium-calmodulin dependent protein kinases (CaMKs) are a broadly expressed family of calcium-sensitive intracellular kinases, which are responsible for transducing cytosolic calcium signals into phosphorylation-based regulation of proteins and physiological functions. As the multifunctional member of the family, CaMKII has become the most prominent for its roles in the central nervous system and heart, where it controls a diverse range of calcium-dependent processes; from learning and memory at the neuronal synapse, to cellular growth and death in the myocardium. In the heart, CaMKII directly regulates many of the most important ion channels and calcium handling proteins, and controls the expression of an ever-increasing number of transcripts and their downstream products. Functionally, these actions are thought to orchestrate many of the electrophysiologic and contractile adaptations to common cardiac stressors, such as rapid pacing, chronic adrenergic stimulation, and oxidative challenge. In the context of disease, CaMKII has been shown to contribute to a remarkably wide variety of cardiac pathologies, of which heart failure (HF) is the most conspicuous. Hyperactivity of CaMKII is an established contributor to pathological cardiac remodeling, and is widely thought to directly promote arrhythmia and contractile dysfunction during HF. Moreover, several non-failing arrhythmia-susceptible phenotypes, which result from specific genetic channelopathies, functionally mimic constitutive channel phosphorylation by CaMKII. Because CaMKII contributes to both the acute and chronic manifestations of major cardiac diseases, but may be only minimally required for homeostasis in the absence of chronic stress, it has come to be one of the most promising therapeutic drug targets in cardiac biology. Thus, development of more specific and deliverable small molecule antagonists remains a key priority for the field. Here we provide a selection of articles to summarize the state of our knowledge regarding CaMKII in cardiac health and disease, with a particular view to highlighting recent developments in CaMKII activation, and new targets in CaMKII-mediated control of myocyte physiology.

Students at Risk of School Failure

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455911 Year: Pages: 594 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-591-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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The main objective of this Research Topic is to determine the conditions that place students at risk of school failure, identifying student and context variables.In spite of the fact that there is currently little doubt about how one learns and how to teach, in some countries of the “developed world,” there is still there is a high rate of school failure. Although the term “school failure” is a very complex construct, insofar as its causes, consequences, and development, from the field of educational psychology, the construct “student engagement” has recently gained special interest in an attempt to deal with the serious problem of school failure. School engagement builds on the anatomy of the students’ involvement in school and describes their feelings, behaviors, and thoughts about their school experiences. So, engagement is an important component of students’ school experience, with a close relationship to achievement and school failure. Children who self-set academic goals, attend school regularly and on time, behave well in class, complete their homework, and study at home are likely to interact adequately with the school social and physical environments and perform well in school. In contrast, children who miss school are more likely to display disruptive behaviors in class, miss homework frequently, exhibit violent behaviors on the playground, fail subjects, be retained and, if the behaviors persist, quit school. Moreover, engagement should also be considered as an important school outcome, eliciting more or less supportive reactions from educators. For example, children who display school-engaged behaviors are likely to receive motivational and instructional support from their teachers. The opposite may also be true. But what makes student engage more or less? The relevant literature indicates that personal variables (e.g., sensory, motor, neurodevelopmental, cognitive, motivational, emotional, behavior problems, learning difficulties, addictions), social and/or cultural variables (e.g., negative family conditions, child abuse, cultural deprivation, ethnic conditions, immigration), or school variables (e.g., coexistence at school, bullying, cyberbullying) may concurrently hinder engagement, preventing the student from acquiring the learnings in the same conditions as the rest of the classmates.

Computer assisted optimization of cardiac resynchronization therapy

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Book Series: Karlsruhe transactions on biomedical engineering / Ed.: Universität Karlsruhe (TH) / Institute of Biomedical Engineering ISSN: 18645933 ISBN: 9783866443600 Year: Volume: 6 Pages: IV, 293 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000011293 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:02:02
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The efficacy of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) through biventricular pacing (BVP) has been demonstrated by numerous studies in patients suffering from congestive heart failure. In order to achieve a guideline for optimal treatment with BVP devices, an automated non-invasive strategy based on an electrophysiological computer model of the heart is presented. The presented research investigates an off-line optimization algorithm based on different electrode positioning and timing delays.

Brody

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ISBN: 9783205787631 Year: Pages: 442 DOI: 10.26530/oapen_437213 Language: German
Publisher: Böhlau Grant: Austrian Science Fund - D 4281
Subject: History
Added to DOAB on : 2013-03-27 11:49:47
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Brody, a town today lying in Western Ukraine, became part of the Habsburg Empire following the First Partition of Poland in 1772. Until Austria-Hungary's collapse at the end of the First World War the town was right on the border with Poland (until 1795) and later with Russia (until 1918). This book embraces a timespan of almost 150 years, excluding the First World War. It examines Brody's economic and social history in the first two sections; the third section is dedicated to the perception of the town's Austrian past. The most important material which serves as the basis for this work are archival sources mainly holdings in L'viv, Vienna, Paris and Kraków as well as published sources such as statistics, administrative handbooks and travel reports.&#xD;During the 18th and the early 19th century Brody was a major commercial hub in Central and Eastern Europe. Only in the last decades of the 19th century the city transformed from a centre of international trade and cultural importance into a peripheral town at the Galician-Russian border. Whether we should consider the case of Brody as a history of failure depends on one's perspective: From a macroeconomic point of view Brody's performance would not qualify as a success story, because the city failed to embrace an urbanisation and modernisation that was so characteristic for cities in this period. From the Galician perspective, however, the economical transformation of Brody was desirable, because the city's former international orientation had led to a certain self isolation from its Galician surroundings. Thus, from a regional point of view Brody's shrinking proved the city's successful integration into the social and political realities of the Crownland.&#xD;Several features distinguished Brody from other Galician towns even at the beginning of the twentieth century. No other Austro-Hungarian town was so predominantly Jewish, with Roman-Catholic Poles and Greek-Catholic Ukrainians never accounting for more than a third of the total population. Moreover Brody continued to play a certain role in Jewish thinking, in Rabbinic-Talmudic scholarship as well as in the spread of the Haskalah in east central Europe. In close connection with the strong support of Brody's Jewish elites for the Enlightenment, the German language kept its importance many decades longer than in other Galician cities. However, by the outbreak of the First World War even Brody's Jewish elites had switched from an orientation towards the German-speaking centre of the Empire to a certain degree of auto-polonisation. Special to Brody was also the strong commitment of the city and its environs to Russophile currents, whereas in the rest of Galicia the Ukrainian national movement rapidly gained popularity at the turn of the century.&#xD;The dichotomy between the extraordinary Brody and the typical Galician Brody wittingly or unwittingly shaped the city's perception in travel reports, literature and mental images. Today there are different ways of remembering Habsburg Brody. They mostly but not exclusively run along ethnic lines and omit the non-national. Sometimes the national narratives differ so much that we get the impression that they talk about completely different cities. Besides partly overlapping Ukrainian, Polish, Jewish, Austrian and Soviet lieux de mémoire we also find places where we can trace the town's former economic, administrative or cultural functions in present day Brody.&#xD;&#xD;&#xD;

The adrenergic system in cardiovascular physiology and pathophysiology

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193981 Year: Pages: 85 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-398-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Physiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-10 11:59:06
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Cardiovascular diseases pose an enormous clinical challenge, remaining the most common cause of death in the world. ß-adrenoceptors play an important role on cardiac, vascular and/or endothelial function at a cellular level with relevant applications in several cardiovascular diseases, such as heart failure and hypertension. G protein– coupled receptors (GPCRs), including ß-adrenergic receptors, constitute the most ubiquitous superfamily of plasma membrane receptors and represent the single most important type of therapeutic drug target. Sympathetic nervous system hyperactivity, which characterizes several cardiovascular diseases, such as heart failure and hypertension, as well as physiological ageing, has been proved to exert in the long-term detrimental effects in a wide range of cardiovascular diseases. Acutely, sympathetic hyperactivity represents the response to an insult to the myocardium, aiming to compensate for decreased cardiac output. This process involves the activation of beta-adrenergic receptors by catecholamine with consequent heart rate and cardiac contractility increase. However, long-term exposure of the heart to elevated norepinephrine and epinephrine levels, originating from sympathetic nerve endings and chromaffin cells of the adrenal gland, results in further progressive deterioration in cardiac structure and function. At the molecular level, sustained sympathetic nervous system hyperactivity is responsible for several alterations including altered beta-adrenergic receptor signaling and function (down-regulation/ desensitization). Moreover, the detrimental effects of catecholamine affect also the function of different cell types including, but not limited to, endothelial cells, fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells. Thus, the success of beta-blocker therapy is due, at least in part, to the protection of the heart and the vasculature from the noxious effects of augmented catecholamine levels. The research topic aimed to support the progress towards understanding the role of sympathetic nervous system under physiological conditions, and the contribution of its hyperactivity in the pathogenesis and progression of cardiovascular diseases.

Carotid Body: A New Target for Rescuing Neural Control of Cardiorespiratory Balance in Disease

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199433 Year: Pages: 134 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-943-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Physiology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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The carotid body (CB) is in charge of adjusting ventilatory and cardiovascular function during changes in arterial blood gases. Regardless this essential function, the CB has been implicated in the sensing of other physiological signals such as changes in blood flow and glucose levels. More important, malfunction of the CB chemoreceptors has been associated with the progression and deterioration of several disease states such as hypertension, heart failure, renal failure, insulin resistance, diabetes and sleep apnea. Although the mechanisms involved in the alterations of the CB function in pathophysiology are currently under intense research, the development of therapeutic approaches to restore normal CB chemoreflex function remains unsolved. Recent studies showing the effect of CB denervation in pathophysiology have unveiled a key role of these arterial chemoreceptors in the development of autonomic imbalance and respiratory disturbances, and suggest that targeting the CB could represent a novel strategy to improve disease outcome. Unfortunately, classical pharmacotherapy intended to normalize CB function may be hard to establish since several cellular pathways are involved in the CB dysfunction. Augmented levels of angiotensin II, endothelin-1, cytokines and free radicals along with decreases in nitric oxide had all been related to the CB dysfunction. Moreover, changes in expression of angiotensin receptors, nitric oxide synthases and cytokines that take place within the CB tissue in pathological states also contribute to the enhanced CB chemoreflex drive. It has been shown in heart failure, hypertension and obstructive sleep apnea that the CB becomes tonically hyper-reactive. During the progression of the disease this CB chemosensory facilitation process induces central nervous system plasticity. The altered autonomic-respiratory control leads to increased cardiorespiratory distress and the deterioration of the condition. The focus of this e-book will be to cover the role of the CB in pathophysiology and to provide new evidence of the pathways involved in the maladaptive potentiation of the CB chemoreflex function. In memory of Professor Mashiko Shirahata and Professor Constancio Gonzalez.

The Adrenergic System in Cardiovascular Physiology and Pathophysiology, 2nd Edition

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197316 Year: Pages: 78 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-731-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Physiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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Cardiovascular diseases pose an enormous clinical challenge, remaining the most common cause of death in the world. ß-adrenoceptors play an important role on cardiac, vascular and/or endothelial function at a cellular level with relevant applications in several cardiovascular diseases, such as heart failure and hypertension. G protein– coupled receptors (GPCRs), including ß-adrenergic receptors, constitute the most ubiquitous superfamily of plasma membrane receptors and represent the single most important type of therapeutic drug target. Sympathetic nervous system hyperactivity, which characterizes several cardiovascular diseases, such as heart failure and hypertension, as well as physiological ageing, has been proved to exert in the long-term detrimental effects in a wide range of cardiovascular diseases. Acutely, sympathetic hyperactivity represents the response to an insult to the myocardium, aiming to compensate for decreased cardiac output. This process involves the activation of beta-adrenergic receptors by catecholamine with consequent heart rate and cardiac contractility increase. However, long-term exposure of the heart to elevated norepinephrine and epinephrine levels, originating from sympathetic nerve endings and chromaffin cells of the adrenal gland, results in further progressive deterioration in cardiac structure and function. At the molecular level, sustained sympathetic nervous system hyperactivity is responsible for several alterations including altered beta-adrenergic receptor signaling and function (down-regulation/ desensitization). Moreover, the detrimental effects of catecholamine affect also the function of different cell types including, but not limited to, endothelial cells, fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells. Thus, the success of beta-blocker therapy is due, at least in part, to the protection of the heart and the vasculature from the noxious effects of augmented catecholamine levels. The research topic aimed to support the progress towards understanding the role of sympathetic nervous system under physiological conditions, and the contribution of its hyperactivity in the pathogenesis and progression of cardiovascular diseases.

Function of Renal Sympathetic Nerves

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452958 Year: Pages: 96 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-295-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Physiology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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Sympathetic overactivity is associated with the development of hypertension. Renal denervation (RDN) prevents or delays hypertension in a variety of animal models, which laid the groundwork for the introduction of RDN as a clinical therapy in humans. In 2007, a novel, minimally invasive RDN ablation catheter was first trialled in hypertensive patients, with a 93% success rate of lowering blood pressure for at least three years post-RDN. However, a large scale, sham-controlled clinical trial (Symplicity HTN -3) failed to show reductions in BP greater than sham. The aim of this research topic was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of RDN, to explore the contribution of both afferent and efferent renal nerve activity to hypertension and non-hypertension disorders, and to stimulate future research to better understand the function of the renal nerves and the effects of RDN by highlighting gaps in knowledge.

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