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Sprache und Kognition. Ereigniskonzeptualisierung im Deutschen und Tschechischen

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Book Series: Konvergenz und Divergenz ISBN: 9783110615746 Year: Volume: 8 Pages: 308 DOI: 10.1515/9783110615746 Language: German
Publisher: De Gruyter
Subject: Linguistics
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-14 18:42:56
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Ist unser Denken und somit die Weltsicht für alle Menschen gleich oder sprachspezifisch? Auf diese uralte Fragestellung, der bereits Wilhelm von Humboldt nachgegangen ist, gibt dieses Buch eine eindeutig bejahende Antwort: Unsere Weltanschauung wird durch die Grammatik der eigenen Muttersprache(n) geprägt, sodass Menschen Ereignisse sprachspezifisch wahrnehmen, versprachlichen und auch erinnern. Diese grundlegenden Erkenntnisse sind durch den hier gewählten experimentellen Zugang psycholinguistischer Methoden (z.B. Eye-Tracking) erstmalig möglich.Der Einfluss von Sprache auf Kognition erweist sich darüber hinaus für Sprachkontakt als extrem relevant. Infolge des über Jahrhunderte andauernden Sprachkontakts zwischen dem Deutschen und Tschechischen hat sich das Aspekt-System des Tschechischen dahingehend geändert, dass die Ereigniskonzeptualisierung im Tschechischen wie im Deutschen verläuft und das Tschechische sich systematisch von anderen ost- und westslawischen Sprachen absetzt.

Eye movement-related brain activity during perceptual and cognitive processing

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889192731 Year: Pages: 196 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-273-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-03 13:02:24
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The recording and analysis of electrical brain activity associated with eye movements has a history of several decades. While the early attempts were primarily focused on uncovering the brain mechanisms of eye movements, more recent approaches use eye movements as markers of the ongoing brain activity to investigate perceptual and cognitive processes. This recent approach of segmenting brain activity based on eye movement behavior has several important advantages. First, the eye movement system is closely related to cognitive functions such as perception, attention and memory. This is not surprising since eye movements provide the easiest and the most accurate way to extract information from our visual environment and the eye movement system largely determines what information is selected for further processing. The eye movement-based segmentation offers a great way to study brain activity in relation to these processes. Second, on the methodological level, eye movements constitute a natural marker to segment the ongoing brain activity. This overcomes the problem of introducing artificial markers such as ones for stimulus presentation or response execution that are typical for a lab-based research. This opens possibilities to study brain activity during self-paced perceptual and cognitive behavior under naturalistic conditions such as free exploration of scenes. Third, by relating eye movement behavior to the ongoing brain activity it is possible to see how perceptual and cognitive processes unfold in time, being able to predict how brain activity eventually leads to behavior. This research topic illustrates advantages of the combined recording and analysis of eye movements and neural signals such as EEG, local field potentials and fMRI for investigation of the brain processes in humans and animals. The contributions include research papers, methodology papers and reviews demonstrating conceptual and methodological achievements in this rapidly developing field.

Phonological and phonetic competence: between grammar, signal processing, and neural activity

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198092 Year: Pages: 160 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-809-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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The present collection of articles brings together experimental work in the field of segmental and prosodic processing and representation in phonology and phonetics. Contributions focus on the exploration of human cognitive, articulatory, and perceptual abilities dealing with all types of phonetic and phonological entities. Main topics of investigation include: (1) sounds and sound-changing processes—systemic and functional aspects, (2) prosodic units such as syllables and metrical feet—systemic properties, processing, and phonetic consequences, and (3) tones as building blocks of the sentence melody—their relation to the level of linguistic expressions on the one hand, their phonetic realization (e.g., tonal height and contours) and perception on the other hand. In addition, topics (1) and (2) extend to the question how phonological representations are stored in the mental lexicon: specified minimally in terms of categorical phonological information or as variable phonetic imprint of the exemplars in the input. Diagonally to these thematic domains, the present Research Topic shows a strong focus on up-to-date experimental approaches, going far beyond traditional linguistic analysis, and making use of psycho- and neurolinguistic methodologies.

Bridging Reading Aloud and Speech Production

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198955 Year: Pages: 134 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-895-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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For decades, human cognition involved in reading aloud and speech production has been investigated extensively (a quote search of the two in google scholar produces about 83,000 and 255,000 results, respectively). This large amount of research has produced quite detailed descriptions of the cognitive mechanisms that allow people to speak or to read aloud a word. However, despite the fact that reading aloud and speech production share some processes – generation of phonology and preparation of a motor speech response – the research in this two areas seems to have taken parallel and independent tracks, with almost no contact between the two. The present Research Topic takes an initial step towards building a bridge that will link the two research areas, as we believe that such an endeavour is essential for moving forward in our understanding of how the mind/brain processes words. To this aim, we encourage contributions exploring the relation between speech production and reading aloud. The questions the Research Topic should address include, but are not limited to, the following: To what extent are speech production and word reading/reading aloud similar? Are there some shared components and/or mechanisms between the two process? Is the time course of the (supposed) shared mechanisms activation similar in the two processes? How does the different input (conceptual vs. orthographic) interact with the types of information that reading and speaking share (semantic and phonological knowledge, articulatory codes)? How does a difference in the input affect the (supposed) common stages of processing (i.e., phonological encoding, and articulatory planning and execution)? We welcome any kind of contribution (e.g., original research article, review, opinion) that answers the above or other questions related to the Topic.

Ablenkung im Straßenverkehr und deren Einfluss auf das Fahrverhalten

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Book Series: Spektrum der Lichttechnik / Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT), Lichttechnisches Institut ISSN: 21951152 ISBN: 9783731502883 Year: Volume: 8 Pages: III, 176 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000043685 Language: GERMAN
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:58
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Nowadays drivers have to get along with an increasing complex visual environment in road traffic. There are not only distractions available within the vehicle, like radio, navigation system and passengers. The environment outside the car becomes also more and more complex. Car drivers’ gaze behaviour while being distracted is studied on the basis of some examples. Furthermore different performance indicators are analysed.

Open-Source Electronics Platforms

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ISBN: 9783038979722 9783038979739 Year: Pages: 262 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-973-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Open-source electronics are becoming very popular, and are integrated with our daily educational and developmental activities. At present, the use open-source electronics for teaching science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) has become a global trend. Off-the-shelf embedded electronics such as Arduino- and Raspberry-compatible modules have been widely used for various applications, from do-it-yourself (DIY) to industrial projects. In addition to the growth of open-source software platforms, open-source electronics play an important role in narrowing the gap between prototyping and product development. Indeed, the technological and social impacts of open-source electronics in teaching, research, and innovation have been widely recognized.

Keywords

human-computer interface (HCI) --- electrooculogram (EOG) --- electromyogram (EMG) --- modified sliding window algorithm --- piecewise linear approximation (PLA) --- support vector regression --- eye tracking --- blockchain --- ontology --- context --- cyber-physical systems --- robotics --- interaction --- coalition --- individual management of livestock --- momentum data sensing --- remote sensing platform --- sensor networks --- technology convergence --- industry 4.0 --- distributed measurement systems --- automation networks --- node-RED --- cloud computing --- OPC UA --- hardware trojan taxonomy --- thermal imaging --- side channel analysis --- infrared --- FPGA --- Internet of Things --- wireless sensor networks --- Cloud of Things --- virtual sensor --- sensor detection --- smart cities --- Internet of Things --- Raspberry Pi --- BeagleBoard --- Arduino --- Internet of Things --- open hardware --- smart farming --- teaching robotics --- science teaching --- STEM --- robotic tool --- Python --- Raspberry Pi --- PiCamera --- vision system --- service learning --- robotics --- open platform --- automated vehicle --- EPICS --- open-source platform --- visual algorithms --- digital signal controllers --- embedded systems education --- dsPIC --- Java --- smart converter --- maximum power point tracking (MPPT) --- photovoltaic (PV) system --- Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) --- Digital Signal Processor (DSP) --- interleaved --- DC/DC converter --- distributed energy resource --- n/a

Cognitive Aspects of Human-Computer Interaction for GIS

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ISBN: 9783039215683 9783039215690 Year: Pages: 196 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-569-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 16:10:12
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The book is dealing with recent progress in human–computer interaction (HCI) related to geographic information science (GIS). The Editorial starts with an overview about the evolution of the Internet and first HCI concepts and stimulates recent HCI developments using 3D and 4D apps, running on all mobile devices with OS Android, iOS, Linus, and Windows. Eight research articles present the state-of-the-art in HCI–GIS-related issues, starting with gender and age differences in using indoor maps via the estimation of building heights from space to an efficient visualization method for polygonal data with dynamic simplification. The review article deals with progress and challenges on entity alignment of geographic knowledge bases.

Individual Variation and the Bilingual Advantage - Factors that Modulate the Effect of Bilingualism on Cognitive Control and Cognitive Reserve

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ISBN: 9783039281046 9783039281053 Year: Pages: 264 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-105-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:08
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The number of bilingual and multilingual speakers around the world is steadily growing, leading to the questions: How do bilinguals manage two or more language systems in their daily interactions, and how does being bilingual/multilingual affect brain functioning and vice versa? Previous research has shown that cognitive control plays a key role in bilingual language management. This hypothesis is further supported by the fact that foreign languages have been found to affect not only the expected linguistic domains, but surprisingly, other non-linguistic domains such as cognitive control, attention, inhibition, and working memory. Somehow, learning languages seems to affect executive/brain functioning. In the literature, this is referred to as the bilingual advantage, meaning that people who learn two or more languages seem to outperform monolinguals in executive functioning skills. In this Special Issue, we first present studies that investigate the bilingual advantage. We also go one step further, by focusing on factors that modulate the effect of bilingualism on cognitive control. In the second, smaller part of our Special Issue, we focus on the cognitive reserve hypothesis with the aim of addressing the following questions: Does the daily use of two or more languages protect the aging individual against cognitive decline? Does lifelong bilingualism protect against brain diseases, such as dementia, later in life?

Keywords

multilingualism --- bilingual advantage --- Stroop task --- cognates --- orthographic neighbors --- cognitive control --- controlled language processing --- German as a foreign language --- bilingual advantage --- bilingualism --- cognitive control --- individual differences --- longitudinal studies --- methodology --- bilingualism --- bilingual experiences --- executive functioning --- language proficiency --- language use --- language switching --- interactional contexts --- domain-specific self-concept --- academic achievement --- metacognition --- executive functions --- multilingual children --- reading comprehension --- reading fluency --- spelling --- bilingual language dominance --- Stimulus-Stimulus inhibition --- Stimulus-Response inhibition --- speed-accuracy trade-off --- attention network --- alerting --- orienting --- executive functioning --- interpreting --- translation --- bilingualism --- inhibition --- bilingualism --- early childhood --- attention --- cognitive flexibility --- aging --- bilingualism --- cognitive decline --- cognitive reserve hypothesis --- dementia --- onset --- bilingual advantage --- executive control --- language switching --- shifting --- inhibition --- self-reports --- bilingualism --- Attentional Control Theory --- executive function --- trait anxiety --- rumination --- inhibitory control --- eye tracking --- multilingualism --- cognitive abilities --- inhibition --- switching --- disengagement of attention --- executive function --- cognitive effects --- bilingual advantage --- modulating factors --- bilingualism --- aging --- third-age language learning

Deep Learning Applications with Practical Measured Results in Electronics Industries

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9783039288632 / 9783039288649 Year: Pages: 272 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-864-9 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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This book collects 14 articles from the Special Issue entitled “Deep Learning Applications with Practical Measured Results in Electronics Industries” of Electronics. Topics covered in this Issue include four main parts: (1) environmental information analyses and predictions, (2) unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and object tracking applications, (3) measurement and denoising techniques, and (4) recommendation systems and education systems. These authors used and improved deep learning techniques (e.g., ResNet (deep residual network), Faster-RCNN (faster regions with convolutional neural network), LSTM (long short term memory), ConvLSTM (convolutional LSTM), GAN (generative adversarial network), etc.) to analyze and denoise measured data in a variety of applications and services (e.g., wind speed prediction, air quality prediction, underground mine applications, neural audio caption, etc.). Several practical experiments were conducted, and the results indicate that the performance of the presented deep learning methods is improved compared with the performance of conventional machine learning methods.

Keywords

computational intelligence --- offshore wind --- forecasting --- machine learning --- neural networks --- neuro-fuzzy systems --- humidity sensor --- data fusion --- nonlinear optimization --- multiple linear regression --- GSA-BP --- geometric errors correction --- kinematic modelling --- lateral stage errors --- Imaging Confocal Microscope --- K-means clustering --- data partition --- Least Squares method --- deep learning --- multivariate time series forecasting --- multivariate temporal convolutional network --- CNN --- hyperspectral image classification --- information measure --- transfer learning --- neighborhood noise reduction --- visual tracking --- update occasion --- update mechanism --- background model --- network layer contribution --- saliency information --- geometric errors --- rigid body kinematics --- lateral stage errors --- imaging confocal microscope --- MCM uncertainty evaluation --- dot grid target --- smart grid --- foreign object --- binary classification --- convolutional network --- image inpainting --- content reconstruction --- instance segmentation --- underground mines --- intelligent surveillance --- residual networks --- compressed sensing --- image compression --- image restoration --- discrete wavelet transform --- intelligent tire manufacturing --- digital shearography --- faster region-based CNN --- tire bubble defects --- tire quality assessment --- unmanned aerial vehicle --- UAV --- trajectory planning --- GA --- A* --- multiple constraints --- recommender system --- human computer interaction --- eye-tracking device --- deep learning --- oral evaluation --- generative adversarial network --- neural audio caption --- gated recurrent unit --- long short-term memory --- deep learning --- machine learning --- supervised learning --- unsupervised learning --- reinforcement learning --- optimization techniques

Multi-Sensor Information Fusion

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039283026 9783039283033 Year: Pages: 602 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-303-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
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This book includes papers from the section “Multisensor Information Fusion”, from Sensors between 2018 to 2019. It focuses on the latest research results of current multi-sensor fusion technologies and represents the latest research trends, including traditional information fusion technologies, estimation and filtering, and the latest research, artificial intelligence involving deep learning.

Keywords

linear regression --- covariance matrix --- data association --- sensor fusing --- SLAM --- multi-sensor data fusion --- conflicting evidence --- Dempster–Shafer evidence theory --- belief entropy --- similarity measure --- data classification --- fault diagnosis --- Bar-Shalom Campo --- Covariance Projection method --- data fusion --- distributed architecture --- Kalman filter --- linear constraints --- inconsistent data --- user experience evaluation --- user experience measurement --- eye-tracking --- facial expression --- galvanic skin response --- EEG --- interaction tracker --- self-reporting --- user experience platform --- mix-method approach --- image fusion --- multi-focus --- weight maps --- gradient domain --- fast guided filter. --- Dempster-Shafer evidence theory (DST) --- uncertainty measure --- open world --- closed world --- Deng entropy --- extended belief entropy --- sensor data fusion --- orthogonal redundant inertial measurement units --- data fusion architectures --- sensors bias --- fire source localization --- dynamic optimization --- global information --- the Range-Point-Range frame --- the Range-Range-Range frame --- sensor array --- SINS/DVL integrated navigation --- unscented information filter --- square root --- state probability approximation --- most suitable parameter form --- deep learning --- data preprocessing --- Human Activity Recognition (HAR) --- Internet of things (IoT) --- Industry 4.0 --- trajectory reconstruction --- low-cost sensors --- embedded systems --- powered two wheels (PTW) --- safe trajectory --- data fusion --- health management decision --- grey group decision-making --- health reliability degree --- maintenance decision --- sensor system --- least-squares filtering --- least-squares smoothing --- networked systems --- random parameter matrices --- random delays --- packet dropouts --- multi-sensor system --- multi-sensor information fusion --- particle swarm optimization --- sensor data fusion algorithm --- distributed intelligence system --- multi-sensor time series --- deep learning --- machine health monitoring --- time-distributed ConvLSTM model --- spatiotemporal feature learning --- optimal estimate --- unknown inputs --- distributed fusion --- augmented state Kalman filtering (ASKF) --- soft sensor --- coefficient of determination maximization strategy --- expectation maximization (EM) algorithm --- Gaussian mixture model (GMM) --- alumina concentration --- multi-sensor joint calibration --- high-dimensional fusion data (HFD) --- supervoxel --- Gaussian density peak clustering --- sematic segmentation --- multisensor data fusion --- multitarget tracking --- GMPHD --- sonar network --- RFS --- attitude estimation --- Kalman filter --- land vehicle --- magnetic angular rate and gravity (MARG) sensor --- quaternion --- yaw estimation --- network flow theory --- multitarget tracking --- spectral clustering --- A* search algorithm --- RTS smoother --- integer programming --- Surface measurement --- multi-sensor measurement --- surface modelling --- data fusion --- Gaussian process --- multi-sensor network --- observable degree analysis --- information fusion --- nonlinear system --- hybrid adaptive filtering --- weighted fusion estimation --- square-root cubature Kalman filter --- information filter --- surface quality control --- multi-sensor data fusion --- cutting forces --- vibration --- acoustic emission --- signal feature extraction methods --- predictive modeling techniques --- attitude --- orientation --- estimation --- Kalman filter --- quaternion --- manifold --- image registration --- evidential reasoning --- belief functions --- uncertainty --- DoS attack --- industrial cyber-physical system (ICPS) --- security zones --- mimicry security switch strategy --- fixed-point filter --- extended Kalman filter --- nested iterative method --- Steffensen’s iterative method --- convergence condition --- vehicular localization --- target positioning --- high-definition map --- vehicle-to-everything --- intelligent and connected vehicles --- intelligent transport system --- image registration --- non-rigid feature matching --- local structure descriptor --- Gaussian mixture model --- aircraft pilot --- workload --- multi-source data fusion --- fuzzy neural network --- principal component analysis --- parameter learning --- drift compensation --- domain adaption --- feature representations --- electronic nose --- data fusion --- dual gating --- MEMS accelerometer and gyroscope --- cardiac PET --- out-of-sequence --- multi-target tracking --- random finite set --- gaussian mixture probability hypothesis density --- multisensor system --- Gaussian process regression --- Bayesian reasoning method --- Dempster–Shafer evidence theory (DST) --- uncertainty measure --- novel belief entropy --- multi-sensor data fusion --- decision-level sensor fusion --- electronic nose --- subspace alignment --- interference suppression --- transfer --- evidence combination --- time-domain data fusion --- object classification --- uncertainty --- multirotor UAV --- precision landing --- artificial marker --- pose estimation --- sensor fusion --- camera --- LiDAR --- calibration --- plane matching --- ICP --- projection --- data fusion --- data registration --- adaptive distance function --- complex surface measurement --- Gaussian process model --- Dempster–Shafer evidence theory --- conflict measurement --- mutual support degree --- Hellinger distance --- Pignistic vector angle --- multi-sensor data fusion --- multi-environments --- state estimation --- unmanned aerial vehicle

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