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Various cosmological observations support not only cosmological inflation in the early universe, which is also known as exponential cosmic expansion, but also that the expansion of the latetime universe is accelerating. To explain this phenomenon, the existence of dark energy is proposed. In addition, according to the rotation curve of galaxies, the existence of dark matter, which does not shine, is also suggested. If primordial gravitational waves are detected in the future, the mechanism for realizing inflation can be revealed. Moreover, there exist two main candidates for dark matter. The first is a new particle, the existence of which is predicted in particle physics. The second is an astrophysical object which is not found by electromagnetic waves. Furthermore, there are two representative approaches to account for the accelerated expansion of the current universe. One is to assume the unknown dark energy in general relativity. The other is to extend the gravity theory to large scales. Investigation of the origins of inflation, dark matter, and dark energy is one of the most fundamental problems in modern physics and cosmology. The purpose of this book is to explore the physics and cosmology of inflation, dark matter, and dark energy.
bransdicke theory  dark energy model  cosmological parameters  Dark Energy  statistical analysis  Baryon Acoustic Oscillation (BAO)  Supernovae  cosmological model  Hubble constant  Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) temperature  n/a  Dark Energy  Dark Matter  memory  dark matter  galactic rotation curve  cosmoligical parameters  dark energy models  loop quantum cosmology  dark energy  spacetime symmetry  de Sitter vacuum  quantum optical systems  astronomical and spaceresearch instrumentation  instruments, apparatus, and components common to several branches of physics and astronomy  normal galaxies, extragalactic objects and systems  field theory  comparative planetology  properties of specific particles  quantum optics  fundamental astronomy  EinsteinAether theory of gravity  dosmological parameters  dark energy models  cosmology  particle physics  cosmo–particle physics  QCD  hypercolor  dark atoms  composite dark matter  scalar–tensor gravity  junction conditions  null hypersurfaces  higher dimension gauged supergravity black hole  quantum gravity  quantum tunneling phenomenon  Hawking radiation  dynamical Chern–Simons modified gravity  parametrizations  cosmological parameters
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This Special Issue covers a wide range of topics from fundamental studies to applications of ionized gases. It is dedicated to four topics of interest: 1. ATOMIC COLLISION PROCESSES (electron and photon interactions with atomic particles, heavy particle collisions, swarms, and transport phenomena); 2. PARTICLE AND LASER BEAM INTERACTION WITH SOLIDS (atomic collisions in solids, sputtering and deposition, and laser and plasma interactions with surfaces); 3. LOW TEMPERATURE PLASMAS (plasma spectroscopy and other diagnostic methods, gas discharges, and plasma applications and devices); 4. GENERAL PLASMAS (fusion plasmas, astrophysical plasmas, and collective phenomena). This Special Issue of Atoms will highlight the need for continued research on ionized gas physics in different topics ranging from fundamental studies to applications, and will review current investigations.
strongfield physics  attoscience  bicircular field  highorder harmonic generation  abovethreshold ionization  spinpolarized electrons  capacitivelycoupled discharge  oxygen  particleincell/Monte Carlo collision  electron heating  secondary electron emission  Large Helical Device (LHD)  deuterium experiment  ion temperature of 10 keV  plasma research  spectroscopic study  dispersion interferometer  modified theories of gravity  methods: analytical  methods: numerical  galaxies: elliptical  galaxies: fundamental parameters  nonequilibrium  collisions  radiation  planetary atmospheric entry  laser matter interaction  laserinduced breakdown  plasma  spectroscopy  streak camera  plasma  spectral lines  Stark broadening  oxygen  silicon  spectroscopy  gas discharges  plasma applications  databases  virtual observatory  cross sections  rate coefficients  runway electron  plasma current  fusion plasma  tokamak  glow discharge  argon  nitrogen admixture  discharge voltage  diffuse discharge  constricted discharge  electrical theory of DBDs  QVplot  instantaneous power  rainbow scattering  positron channeling effect  timedependent Schrödinger equation  chiral single wall carbon nanotubes  black hole physics  cosmology  quasar spectroscopy  cosmological parameters  ionized gas  broad line region  Rydberg atoms  dynamic instability  control of atomic states  Förster resonance  plasma spectroscopy  Stark broadening  plasma diagnostics  line shape modeling  ZeemanDoppler broadening  Balmer line series  radiative recombination  photoacoustic  photothermal  inverse problem  thermal memory  minimum volume cell  neural networks  thermal diffusivity  conductivity  linear coefficient of thermal extension  AGN  black holes  gravitational waves  binary black holes  quasars  photodetachment  magnetically confined fusion  neutral beam injection  plasma heating  optical cavity amplification  lowenergy electrons  electron–molecule interactions  astrochemistry  laboratory plasma  astrophysical plasma  fusion plasma  lasers  stars  extragalactic objects  spectra  spectroscopy  scaling laws
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