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Microbial and Environmental Factors in Autoimmune and Inflammatory Diseases

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451555 Year: Pages: 193 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-155-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General) --- Allergy and Immunology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-08-28 14:01:09
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In recent years there has been a substantial increase in the number of diseases with the inflammatory component such as such as allergy, asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowl disease (IBD, which includes ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease), chronic sinusitis, and many other conditions. The majority of these diseases are multifactorial, with the contribution of genetic and environmental factors. Among the latter, the role of certain microorganisms and viruses in triggering or sustaining the inflammatory process is most controversial. In rheumatoid arthritis, for example, the following bacteria and viruses have been implicated in triggering the disease: Mycoplasma spp., Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus spp., Bordetella spp., Acinetobacter spp., the parvoviruses, Epstein-Barr virus, and retroviruses. The list of putative microbial triggers of rheumatoid arthritis is still growing, and it becomes essentially impossible to make a causation link between certain infectious agents and the disease. In the light of these disappointing results there are calls for even larger studies with the use of more advanced and large-scale technologies. The primary function of the immune system is the maintenance of body homeostasis and protection against any threats to it via several lines of elaborate and complex immune defense. Given even higher complexity that involves the microbiota and the corresponding host-microbe interaction, the conditions for this equilibrium become even more challenging. In the absence of a defined pathogen, for example, the spectrum of microorganisms involved in triggering inappropriate immune responses may include polymicrobial communities or the cumulative effect of several microbial/viral factors. Under the normal circumstances there is a fine-tuned balance between commensal microbiota and the host’s immune responses. However, when this balance is compromised, for example in IBD, a massive immune response is launched against commensal microbiota resulting in chronic inflammation. Besides the microbial/viral factors, the balance of the immune system can be compromised by other causes. Given, for example, the close and inclusive interaction of the immune, nervous and endocrine systems, the list of these provoking factors can expand even more. For instance, it has been demonstrated that even mild sleep deprivation may increase the production of interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein. Understanding the complex role of microbial and environmental factors in inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, therefore, is the main subject of this topic.

Animal allergens: Common protein characteristics featuring their allergenicity

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196203 Year: Pages: 88 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-620-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Allergy and Immunology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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Among the many molecules present in our environment, some have the property to induce allergic sensitization and IgE-mediated reactions. The analysis of known major animal allergens has shown that most belong to single protein families: lipocalins and serum albumins for inhalant allergens, EF-hand proteins, tropomyosins and caseins for the digestive allergens. The finding that allergens are often clustered in large families may be related to the fact that common structural, biochemical or functional features contribute to their allergenicity, in addition to external adjuvant factors. Currently, there is no curative treatment for animal allergy available. In order to lower allergic reactions to respiratory allergens in daily life and to food allergens upon accidental exposure, it is important to desensitize concerned patients. Tolerance induction by allergen-specific immunotherapy is in the current focus of an ambitious research. This Research Topic aims to provide a comprehensive view of the basic and recent insights on the allergenicity of animal allergens in view of their structural and functional aspects as well as allergen-specific immunotherapy.

Ethanol, Its Active Metabolites, and Their Mechanisms of Action: Neurophysiological and Behavioral Effects

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455164 Year: Pages: 184 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-516-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
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Ethanol, the main psychopharmacologically active ingredient of alcoholic drinks, represents a paradigmatic example of a research subject intrinsically able to perpetually self-generate interdisciplinary cutting-edge investigations.This eBook was inspired by the aim of providing an up-to-date characterization of the diverse effects of ethanol, of the possible mechanisms of action on different intracellular systems as well as of the hypothesized actions of ethanol and/or its metabolites on various neurotransmitters and neuromodulators.Indeed, the eBook provides a factual example of an excellent synthesis on the complex relationship between ethanol and its main biologically active metabolites (Chapter 1), on the behavioral and molecular consequences of early exposure to them (Chapter 2), on the recent proposals, advanced by the preclinical research, for new therapeutic approaches to distinct aspects of alcoholism (Chapter 3) and on the most recent and original preclinical evidence of the interactions between ethanol and/or its metabolites and the dopaminergic, adenosinergic and endocannabinoidergic systems (Chapter 4).Overall we believe that this eBook accomplishes its main goals of widening the perspective on this research subject and offering the readership a newer and, simultaneously, up-to-date and comprehensive scenery on ethanol’s and ethanol's active metabolites neurophysiological and behavioral effects.

Mercury and Methylmercury Toxicology and Risk Assessment

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ISBN: 9783038979708 9783038979715 Year: Pages: 142 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-971-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- Chemical Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Mercury is a global pollutant that affects the health of both humans and ecosystems. This Special Issue collects three review papers and six research articles that report on the latest findings on the mechanisms of mercury toxicology and its impacts on environmental health. This collection of papers provides useful, new information on the mechanisms of mercury toxicity and methods of improving the risk assessment of mercury exposure.

Abhängigkeit der Exposition von der Zellgröße beim Mobilfunk unter Gewährleistung der Versorgung

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Book Series: Karlsruher Forschungsberichte aus dem Institut für Hochfrequenztechnik und Elektronik ISSN: 18684696 ISBN: 9783731503088 Year: Volume: 76 Pages: XIX, 271 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000044724 Language: GERMAN
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:02:00
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The influence of the cell size of mobile communication networks onto the exposure to electromagnetic fields is investigated in this work. The exposure is assessed by means of a radio network planning. In a novel approach the path loss for the coverage and the path loss for the exposure are distinguished. The developed model is applied to different wave propagation models and cell structures. The results are discussed.

Human Mobility, Spatiotemporal Context, and Environmental Health: Recent Advances in Approaches and Methods

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ISBN: 9783039211838 9783039211845 Year: Pages: 382 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-184-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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Environmental health researchers have long used concepts like the neighborhood effect to assessing people’s exposure to environmental influences and the associated health impact. However, these are static notions that ignore people’s daily mobility at various spatial and temporal scales (e.g., daily travel, migratory movements, and movements over the life course) and the influence of neighborhood contexts outside their residential neighborhoods. Recent studies have started to incorporate human mobility, non-residential neighborhoods, and the temporality of exposures through collecting and using data from GPS, accelerometers, mobile phones, various types of sensors, and social media. Innovative approaches and methods have been developed. This Special Issue aims to showcase studies that use new approaches, methods, and data to examine the role of human mobility and non-residential contexts on human health behaviors and outcomes. It includes 21 articles that cover a wide range of topics, including individual exposure to air pollution, exposure and access to green spaces, spatial access to healthcare services, environmental influences on physical activity, food environmental and diet behavior, exposure to noise and its impact on mental health, and broader methodological issues such as the uncertain geographic context problem (UGCoP) and the neighborhood effect averaging problem (NEAP). This collection will be a valuable reference for scholars and students interested in recent advances in the concepts and methods in environmental health and health geography.

Keywords

obesity --- built environment --- activity space --- regression analysis --- UGCoP --- foodscape exposure --- activity space --- commuting route --- space-time kernel density estimation --- time-weighted exposure --- Beijing --- cycling for transportation --- bike paths --- train stations --- subway stations --- adults --- Brazil --- fuel consumption --- emissions estimation --- GPS trace --- big data --- air pollution exposure --- human mobility --- mobile phone data --- dynamic assessment --- GIS --- GPS --- activity space --- environmental exposure --- the uncertain geographic context problem --- noise pollution --- mental disorders --- built environment --- multilevel model --- China --- PM concentrations --- crop residue burning --- correlation analysis --- interannual and seasonal variations --- China --- the neighborhood effect averaging problem (NEAP) --- human mobility --- environmental exposure --- the uncertain geographic context problem --- UGCoP --- car ownership --- car use --- built environment --- spatial autocorrelation --- multilevel Bayesian model --- geographical accessibility --- Healthcare services --- GIS --- E2SFCA --- CHAS --- Singapore --- environmental health --- food environment --- environmental context cube --- environmental context exposure index --- the uncertain geographic context problem (UGCoP) --- GPS --- GIS --- healthcare accessibility --- catchment areas --- access probability --- taxi GPS trajectories --- E2SFCA --- greenspace exposure --- health --- human mobility --- physical activity --- structural equation modeling --- Guangzhou --- healthcare accessibility --- population demand --- geographic impedance --- the elderly --- urban planning --- 3SFCA --- real-time traffic --- crowdedness --- well-being experience --- long-distance walking --- collective leisure activity --- walking event --- urban leisure --- missing data --- spatial data --- imputation --- geographic imputation --- activity space --- ecological momentary assessment --- EMA --- walking --- active travel --- ageing --- physical environment --- personal projects --- activity space --- Public Participatory GIS (PPGIS) --- spatial accessibility --- multimodal network --- primary healthcare --- China --- 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic --- transport modes --- rail travel --- spatial spread --- quantile regression --- green space --- road traffic accidents --- cognitive aging --- activity space --- life-course perspectives --- environmental exposures

Cadmium Sources and Toxicity

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ISBN: 9783038979845 9783038979852 Year: Pages: 130 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-985-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Public Health
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental toxicant of continuing public health concern worldwide, because total diet studies have shown that Cd is present in virtually all foodstuffs. Consequently, foods that are frequently consumed in large quantities, such as rice, potatoes, wheat, leafy salad vegetables, and other cereal crops, are the most significant dietary Cd sources. Moreover, Cd has chemical propensities that confer the potential to interfere with the physiological functions of calcium and zinc. Evidence of a wide range of diverse, toxic effects of Cd is increasingly apparent. In this collection, environmental Cd exposure is linked to an increased risk of chronic kidney disease that is known to be a cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Cd is also implicated in an early onset of menarche and deaths from cancer, especially in the uterus, kidney, and urinary tract. Moreover, Cd-induced kidney injury is replicated in Sprague Dawley rats, as is Cd-induced periodontal disease. Experimental studies suggest that the development of kidneys in fetuses and the function of insulin-producing cells may be adversely affected by Cd and that metformin, an anti-diabetic drug, is ineffective in Cd-intoxicated Wistar rats.

Remote Sensing and Geospatial Technologies in Public Health

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ISBN: 9783038971726 9783038971733 Year: Pages: 244 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-173-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-09-21 11:22:29
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This book demonstrates the utilization of remote sensing and geospatial technologies for a wide range of public health studies.Although remote sensing and geospatial technologies have been successfully applied for more than 50 years, continuous advancements are essential to better understand the complex environment around us that impacts our health and well-being.Thankfully, the availability of spatial analytical tools and necessary data have enabled us to reveal multifaceted, obscured spatial relationships that would have been unexplored otherwise. Now, we are able to make more precise and effective public health-related decisions. However, without a proper understanding of the methodologies, applying these tools may result in inaccurate findings for decision-making.With 15 selected papers, this book covers diverse topics and discusses different methodologies that are fundamentals for spatial analysis in public health. Readers will have an opportunity to experience the advancements in spatial tools, data, and methodologies that are applicable to public health investigations.This book, Remote Sensing and Geospatial Technologies in Public Health, is expected to encourage academicians and professionals to further advance their knowledge in this sub-discipline.

Brain and Human Body Modeling 2020

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783030456238 Year: Pages: 407 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-45623-8 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Agriculture (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-09-01 00:01:37
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​This open access book describes modern applications of computational human modeling in an effort to advance neurology, cancer treatment, and radio-frequency studies including regulatory, safety, and wireless communication fields. Readers working on any application that may expose human subjects to electromagnetic radiation will benefit from this book’s coverage of the latest models and techniques available to assess a given technology’s safety and efficacy in a timely and efficient manner. Describes computational human body phantom construction and application; Explains new practices in computational human body modeling for electromagnetic safety and exposure evaluations; Includes a survey of modern applications for which computational human phantoms are critical.

Long-Term Health Effects of the 9/11 Disaster

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ISBN: 9783039218127 9783039218134 Year: Pages: 298 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-813-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Philosophy
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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The terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center towers on September 11, 2001, also referred as 9/11, was an iconic event in US history that altered the global and political response to terrorism. The attacks, which involved two planes hitting the twin towers in Lower Manhattan, New York City, resulted in the collapse of the buildings and over 2800 deaths of occupants of the buildings, fire, police and other responders and persons on the street in the vicinity of the collapsing buildings. The destroyed towers and the surrounding buildings have since been replaced but the health effects that resulted from the release of tons of dust, gases and debris as well as the life threat trauma are ongoing, and represent a major health burden among persons directly exposed. Hundreds of scientific publications have documented the physical and mental health effects attributed to the disaster. The current state-of-the-art in understanding the ongoing interactions of physical and mental health, especially PTSD, and the unique mechanisms by which pollutants from the building collapse, have resulted in long term pulmonary dysfunction, course of previously reported conditions, potential emerging conditions (e.g., heart disease and autoimmune diseases), as well as quality of life, functioning and unmet health care needs would be in the purview of this Special Issue on the 9/11 Disaster.

Keywords

counseling --- post-disaster --- psychotherapy --- mental health treatment --- treatment utilization --- World Trade Center --- indoor allergens sensitization --- asthma quality of life --- asthma control --- asthma outcomes --- mini asthma quality of life questionnaire --- asthma morbidity --- WTC-related asthma --- immunoglobulin E --- allergen exposure --- WTC attack --- respiratory symptoms --- lower Manhattan residents --- cleaning practices --- WTC --- fibrotic sarcoid --- injury --- inflammation --- fibrosis --- World Trade Center disaster --- pulmonary fibrosis --- dust --- injury --- physical health --- mental health --- World Trade Center disaster --- Short Form-12 (SF-12) --- HQoL --- 9/11 --- 9/11 disaster --- handgrip strength --- WTC responders --- PTSD --- depression --- aging --- 9/11 impact --- retirement --- chronic disease --- PTSD --- disaster --- income loss --- PTSD symptom change --- PCL score --- longitudinal analysis --- PTSD cluster --- WTC survivors --- 9/11 disaster --- obstructive sleep apnea --- comorbid insomnia --- sleep-related quality of life --- chronic sinusitis --- sleepiness --- WTC responders --- thyroid cancer --- 9/11 disaster --- World Trade Center --- surveillance bias --- sarcoidosis --- World Trade Center (WTC) --- Scadding stage --- lung function --- severe lung disease --- extrathoracic sarcoidosis --- cardiac sarcoidosis --- unmet mental health care needs --- Asian Americans --- World Trade Center attack --- disaster --- mental health conditions --- mental health service use --- health insurance --- social support --- stressful life events --- cognitive reserve --- cognitive decline --- latent class analysis --- disaster epidemiology --- PTSD --- airway physiology --- dust --- environmental health --- forced oscillation --- respiratory function --- small airway disease --- paresthesia --- neuropathic symptoms --- Cox regression --- hazard function --- World Trade Center exposure --- metabolic syndrome --- airway hyperreactivity --- World Trade Center --- disaster mental health --- evidence-based treatment --- mental health service utilization --- quality improvement --- 9/11 --- screening --- thyroid cancer --- biomarkers --- medical imaging --- pulmonary function tests --- lung injury --- occupational exposure --- epidemiological studies --- peripheral neuropathy --- prevalence --- World Trade Center --- rescue/recovery workers --- occupational exposure --- sarcoidosis --- World Trade Center --- 9/11 --- genetics --- firefighters --- FDNY --- 9/11 disaster --- asthma --- trigger(s) --- air pollution --- irritant(s) --- health-related quality of life --- n/a

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