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Transfer von Expertenwissen in der Frühen Neuzeit - Gelehrte Diskurse in der volkssprachigen Praxis

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783863953416 Year: DOI: 10.17875/gup2018-1109 Language: German
Publisher: Universitätsverlag Göttingen
Subject: History
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:33:25

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The transfer of expert knowledge to an unlearned audience is a highly complex process. It is not only dependant on subject-specific requirements, but also on institutional and media requirements. The early modern period proves to be a time of upheaval due to book printing, during which transfer processes can be studied in a special way. The adaptation of scientific knowledge, for example of law, medicine, theology or artes , to the reception conditions of laypersons requires differentiated communication strategies that link theoretical concepts of the sciences to the requirements of technical expertise and are able to translate scholarship into practice. This volume brings together interdisciplinary contributions from the history of law, historical book studies, general rhetoric and Germanic medieval studies.

Experts et expertises au Moyen Âge. Consilium quaeritur a perito : XLIIe Congrès de la SHMESP (Oxford, 31 mars-3 avril 2011)

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ISBN: 9791035101602 DOI: 10.4000/books.psorbonne.34027 Language: French
Publisher: Éditions de la Sorbonne
Subject: History
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-06 13:15:42
License: OpenEdition Licence for Books

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Le XLIIe Congrès de la Société des historiens médiévistes de l'Enseignement supérieur public, qui s'est tenu à Oxford en mars-avril 2011, a consacré ses travaux à une figure longtemps mal connue et mal identifiée, une figure dont la dénomination semble à ce point sortie de la technocratie moderne qu'on peine à l'imaginer pour les époques plus anciennes, et pour le Moyen Âge en particulier : l'expert. À la charnière de la pratique et de la doctrine, l'expert sert de raccord entre des expériences sociales aussi complexes que diversifiées. Seul ou en petit comité, il est requis pour donner son avis, valider une hypothèse, dire sa vérité nourrie – du moins, le suppose-t-on – d'objectivité et de connaissances savantes, dans les lieux les plus divers : le tribunal évidemment, mais aussi le chantier de construction, le lit du malade, devant des reliques ou lors d'une discussion savante. Ce qui qualifie l'expert à agir, c'est à la fois un savoir reconnu et une position sociale : la compétence technique ne suffit pas toujours ; il y faut en plus une reconnaissance qui n'est pas souvent explicitée, mais qui est pourtant indispensable pour que les parties requérantes s'en remettent à l'avis d'une tierce personne. C'est à cet entre-deux social et fonctionnel, entre savoir et faire savoir, que se situe la fonction de l'expert. En en faisant le sujet de son congrès, la Société des médiévistes a voulu attirer l'attention sur cette fonction qui n'est ni un métier, ni un statut permanent, mais qui présuppose à la fois la maîtrise savante et la capacité de la faire reconnaître dans des situations nécessairement délicates ou incertaines. La multiplicité des cas ici examinés, qui balaient tout le millénaire médiéval, de l'Orient à l'Occident, témoigne de la place qu'a su conquérir ce technicien – le métier étant très majoritairement masculin, comme tous les espaces de domination – qui vient aider à la prise de décision, sans être lui-même décisionnaire. C'est qu'en effet l'expertise n'est pas une fin en soi. Elle vise à éclairer pour permettre au jeu des institutions de fonctionner dans un consensus garanti par la compétence super partes d'une personnalité extérieure. En s'intéressant aux critères de sélection des experts autant qu'à leur modalité d'intervention ou aux effets de celle-ci, les contributions ici réunies brassent une large matière qui illustre comment les sociétés médiévales ont su mobiliser ces médiateurs de la décision, bien plus nombreux et actifs qu'on ne le supposait.

Psychological perspectives on expertise

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195206 Year: Pages: 240 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-520-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-10 11:59:06
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Experts are persons who are very knowledgeable about or skillful in a particular area. The aim of this Research Topic is to advance knowledge in the understanding of the phenomenon of expertise by putting together different lines of research that directly or indirectly study expertise. Herbert Simon’s expertise studies initiated two lines of research. One is interested in elucidating the cognitive processes underlying expertise, and the other investigates how expertise develops. These lines of research started with studies comparing experts and novices in chess, and then they extended to numerous areas of expertise such as music, medical diagnosis, sports, arts and sciences. In the field of judgment and decision making researchers investigate the quality of judgments and decisions of experts in different professions (e.g., clinical psychologists, medical practitioners, judges, meteorologists, stock brokers). Those lines of research explicitly investigate the topic of expertise, but there are other research areas that make a substantial contribution to understanding expertise. Scholars in language acquisition and in face perception, for example, investigate cognitive processes and development of expertise in areas in which almost everyone becomes an expert. Furthermore, skill acquisition research informs in detail about short term cognitive changes that may be important to understand how expertise develops. We are interested in original research that advances knowledge in the understanding of decision making, cognitive processes and development of expertise in sports, intellectual games, arts, scientific disciplines and professions, as well as expertise in cognitive abilities such as perception, memory, attention, language and imagery. We are also interested in theoretical articles in any of these areas, articles that describe computational or mathematical models of expertise, and articles offering a framework that would guide expertise research. Articles that offer integrative approaches of some of the areas described above are strongly encouraged. The goal of this Research Topic is to produce a hallmark piece of work in the field of expertise, which complements and does not overlap with the “Neural implementations of expertise” Research Topic in Frontiers in Human Neuroscience.

Experts et expertise judiciaire

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ISBN: 9782868478580 9782753524842 Year: Language: French
Publisher: Presses universitaires de Rennes
Added to DOAB on : 2017-03-22 17:18:59
License: OpenEdition licence for Books

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Négligée par les historiens, boudée par les juristes, délaissée par les sociologues et finalement ignorée par la recherche, l'histoire des experts et de l'expertise judiciaire s'avère essentielle pour comprendre à la fois le fonctionnement de la justice et celui des sociétés contemporaines. Aujourd'hui, tandis que l'actualité apporte son lot quotidien d'épisodes tragiques – explosions, accidents du travail, catastrophes aériennes, tragédies maritimes, tremblement d'un animal de ferme ou de bo...

Computer Aided Policy Making

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ISBN: 9780203979259 9781138381551 9780419244806 9781135920319 9781135920302 9781135920265 Year: DOI: 10.4324/9780203979259 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Architecture
Added to DOAB on : 2019-11-08 11:21:28
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This book will prove a unique source of information and instruction for anyone seeking to make better human-oriented policy, whether urban planner, business strategist, or manager in the field of education, health or welfare, Ingeniously Wyatt has created two books in one: the main text covers the types of software package available: mainstream software, peripheral software, innovative software, frontier software; the lessons generated from the software are outlined in lesson boxes. Readers can use the text alone to familiarize themselves with the computer packages or read the boxes only, or they can do both.

Keywords

policymaking --- practice --- problems --- goals --- hierarchy --- expert --- choice --- exercise --- process --- soft

Savoirs experts et profanes dans la construction des problèmes publics

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9782802804208 DOI: 10.4000/books.pusl.3762 Language: French
Publisher: Presses de l’Université Saint-Louis
Subject: Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-06 13:15:51
License: OpenEdition Licence for Books

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Comment émergent et se développent les problèmes que la société entend prendre en charge ? Quels sont les savoirs qui alimentent cette construction ? Peut-on mettre sur un même pied les savoirs ordinaires, dits « profanes », et les savoirs « experts » ? Quel est le poids des citoyens et celui des savants dans l'alimentation d'une controverse ? Comment se construisent les « vérités », scientifiques et politiques, au départ desquelles se déploie l'action publique ? Ces questionnements sont au centre de cet ouvrage qui explore une thématique éminemment contemporaine et aux enjeux multiples : la place des savoirs dans la construction des problèmes publics. Ces dernières années, les formes d'expertise et les manières dont sont produites les connaissances se sont en effet multipliées tandis que le cadrage des problèmes publics et la défi­nition de l'action publique se sont, eux aussi, diversifiés. Des acteurs aussi dif­férents que les scientifiques, les associations de la société civile ou encore les « simples » citoyens sont aujourd'hui investis d'un rôle important. Au fil des contributions, traitant notamment des controverses climatiques, des savoirs sur le genre, des figures du terrorisme ou encore de la thématique du « malaise des cadres », les auteurs éclairent la manière dont les différentes formes d'ex­pertise ou de contre-expertise, qu'elles soient savantes ou profanes, configu­rent les problèmes publics et influent sur l'action publique.

Arctic governance

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ISBN: 9781526131645 Year: Pages: 176 Language: English
Publisher: Manchester University Press Grant: The Research Council of Norway - 257664
Subject: Political Science --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-06-06 11:01:52
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This book seeks to pose and explore a question that sheds light on the contested but largely cooperative nature of Arctic governance in the post-Cold War period: how does power matter – and how has it mattered – in shaping cross-border cooperation and diplomacy in the Arctic? Each chapter functions as a window through which power relations in the Arctic are explored. Issues include how representing the Arctic region matters for securing preferred outcomes, how circumpolar cooperation is marked by regional hierarchies and how Arctic governance has become a global social site in its own right, replete with disciplining norms for steering diplomatic behaviour. This book draws upon Russia’s role in the Arctic Council as an extended case study and examines how Arctic cross-border governance can be understood as a site of competition over the exercise of authority.

10. Når dommeren i fotball dømmer feil … (Book chapter)

Book title: Trender for idrettspsykologisk forskning i Skandinavia

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9788202596903 9788202596903 Year: Pages: 20 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.39.ch10 Language: Norwegian
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-07-28 11:01:02
License: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)

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"The aim of this study was to investigate characteristics of situations when top referees in soccer make an incorrect decision. Two expert panels, consisting of four top referees and four top players respectively, assessed 98 potential penalty shootout situations in Tippeligaen (Norwegian Premier League). The situations in which all the expert panels considered that the match referee made an incorrect decision (N = 14) were then analyzed based on recommended technical refereeing criteria and guidelines, as the referee’s distance to, angle to and insight into these penalty situations. The results revealed that in 11 of these 14 situations the referee had a greater distance than recommended. Furthermore, both the angle and insight were only of medium or poor nature. This may indicate that the referee had limited basis when assessing these situations, and subsequently landed on a wrong decision. Findings also showed that referees were more likely to go in favor of high status teams. This will be a topic for discussion in this article, based on the theory of dealing with mistakes and social pressure."

Evidence in Civil Law - Portugal

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Law & Society ISBN: 9789616842556 Year: Pages: 70 DOI: 10.4335/978-961-6842-55-6 Language: English
Publisher: Institute for Local Self-Government and Public Procurement Maribor
Subject: Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-09 21:50:14
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The following text deals with the general principles and legal rules regarding evidence and evidence taking in the Portuguese legal system. Based on the rules foreseen in legal texts, as well as court decisions and national literature, the authors approach the general theory behind the current rules and notions in force while also referencing the specifications of the means of proof in use in legal practice.

Soziale Aktivierung von Arbeitslosen?

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Book Series: Gesellschaft der Unterschiede ISBN: 9783837635485 9783839435489 Year: DOI: 10.14361/9783839435489 Language: German
Publisher: transcript Verlag Grant: Knowledge Unlatched - 103373
Subject: Social and Public Welfare
Added to DOAB on : 2018-03-30 11:01:59
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Das neuartige Arbeitsmarktinstrument "Soziale Aktivierung" versammelt Maßnahmen, deren Wirkungen über die dominierenden Ziele der direkten und zeitnahen Integration in den Arbeitsmarkt hinausgehen sollen. Anhand von Fallbeispielen wie Kung-Fu-Kursen oder Theatergruppen rekonstruiert Carolin Freier, wie Langzeitarbeitslose und andere arbeitsmarktferne Personen hierdurch "sozial aktiviert" und zur sozialen Teilhabe befähigt werden sollen, u.a. durch das (Wieder-)Erlernen von Alltagskompetenzen. Die Studie zeichnet nach, wie diese Maßnahmen in der täglichen Praxis der Arbeitsvermittlung entstanden, auf welche Strategien sie sich zurückführen lassen und welche Folgen sich für die Arbeitslosen ergeben.

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