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Recent Investigations of Ergot Alkaloids Incorporated into Plant and/or Animal Systems

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195510 Year: Pages: 91 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-551-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Biology --- Science (General) --- Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Abstract

Ergot alkaloids produced by fungi have a basic chemical structure but different chemical moieties at substituent sites result in various forms of alkaloids that are distinguishable from one another. Since the ergoline ring structure found in ergot alkaloids is similar to that of biogenic amines (neurotransmitters), a variety of physiological effects can result after ingestion. Research involving ergot alkaloids is an increasing important global issue as more governments pass laws that limit permissible levels of ergot alkaloids in both foodstuffs and feedstuffs. Regardless of whether these compounds are found directly in foodstuffs or in feed/plants given to forage animals (i.e., cattle, horses, sheep, and goats), introduction of these compounds can complicate the food supply. In addition, toxicosis resulting from alkaloids can be a costly hindrance, with mounting annual production losses associated with forage-animal production systems that impact other agricultural and food based industries. Recent advances for the analysis of these compounds in different matrices as well as the understanding the role these compounds play in distinct biological pathways have begun to help address the issue.This Research Topic has developed a novel platform where different groups share recent data in their investigations with ergot alkaloids. The presented collection of articles emphasizes the complexity of this issue and the multiple approaches necessary to resolve the global ergot alkaloid challenges.

Effects of Mycotoxins on the Intestine

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ISBN: 9783038977827 9783038977834 Year: Pages: 262 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-783-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Public Health
Added to DOAB on : 2019-05-09 17:16:14
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Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by several fungal species. They can contaminate human food and animal feed, and have been a threat for thousands of years. The gastrointestinal tract is the first target when ingesting mycotoxin-contaminated food or feed. As unlikely as it sounds, the investigations concerning the effects of mycotoxins on the intestine are still in their early stages. This book gathers the most recent advances related to the characterization of the intestinal toxicity of mycotoxins. Substantial data assembled on the damage caused to a number of histological structures and functions of the intestine remove any remaining doubt about this organ being a primary target for the toxicity of mycotoxins. An interesting overview of the detrimental effects of mycotoxins on the gut-hosted microbiota—now regarded as a fully-fledged organ associated with the gut—is also given. Finally, outstanding contributions in this book address questions relating to the suitability of current regulations to protect against alterations of the intestine, and to the efficacy assessment of new detoxification strategies using the intestinal toxicity of mycotoxins as a relevant endpoint.

Keywords

mice --- aflatoxin B1 --- intestinal bacterial flora --- response --- Clostridium sp. WJ06 --- deoxynivalenol --- pig --- intestinal morphology --- microbial diversity --- aflatoxin M1 --- ochratoxin A --- intestinal epithelial cells --- tight junction --- permeability --- ileum --- jejunum --- deoxynivalenol --- piglet --- contaminated feed --- tight junction --- aflatoxin B1 --- small intestine --- histopathological lesions --- ultrastructural changes --- toll-like receptors --- T-2 toxin --- enteric nervous system --- pig --- vasoactive intestinal polypeptide --- mycotoxins --- zearalenone --- deoxynivalenol --- histology --- ultrastructure --- large intestine --- pig --- Claviceps --- liver --- digestive tract --- mycotoxin --- sclerotia --- ergot alkaloids --- toxicity --- deoxynivalenol --- Saccharomyces cerevisiae boulardii CNCM I-1079 --- intestine --- transcriptome --- inflammation --- oxidative stress --- lipid metabolism --- fumonisin --- microbiota --- pigs --- MiSeq 16S rDNA sequencing --- intestinal microbiota --- hydrogen-rich water --- lactulose --- Fusarium mycotoxins --- piglets --- functional oligosaccharides --- mycotoxins --- swine --- explant technique --- intestinal morphology --- goblet cells --- deoxynivalenol --- zearalenone --- pig --- colon microbiota --- Lactobacillus --- detoxification --- zearalenone --- doses --- caecal water --- genotoxicity --- pre-pubertal gilts --- atlantic salmon --- deoxynivalenol --- feed --- intestine --- PCR --- proliferating cell nuclear antigen --- suppressor of cytokine signaling --- tight junctions --- Zearalenone --- N-acetylcysteine --- SIEC02 cells --- Mitochondrial apoptosis --- n/a

Biological Activities of Alkaloids: From Toxicology to Pharmacology

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9783039289271 / 9783039289288 Year: Pages: 270 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-928-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Abstract

Natural products are increasingly attracting attention from both basic and applied science. Plant secondary metabolites, especially alkaloids, are receiving interest from a wide range of researchers due to their biological activity. They are produced to protect plants from diseases and herbivores. Therefore, they reveal a toxic activity that affects organisms at various levels of biological organization. A growing amount of research is proving their antimicrobial, antifungal, insecticidal, and anticancer activities. That makes them applicable in various fields from medicine, to pharmacology, veterinary, and toxicology, to crop protection. This Special Issue of Toxins, “Biological Activities of Alkaloids: From Toxicology to Pharmacology"", collects 15 manuscripts describing the ecological, biological, pharmacological, and toxicological effects as well as structural and analytical aspects of plant alkaloids, their mode of action, and possible application in veterinary, medicine, and plant protection. These studies prove the potential for alkaloid application in various areas of science.

Keywords

Arecoline --- lung cancer cells --- mAchR3 --- EGFR --- SRC --- FAK --- dehydrocrenatidine --- neuropathic pain --- voltage-gated sodium channels --- Solanum melongena L. --- malonylated form --- glycoalkaloids --- secondary metabolites --- solasonine --- solamargine --- malonyl-solamargine --- acetylcholinesterase --- antioxidant --- Ovarian cancer --- Rutidea parviflora --- Palmatine --- Apoptosis --- chanoclavine --- toxicology --- subchronic feeding study --- acute toxicity --- endophyte --- Epichloë --- plant secondary metabolites --- glycoalkaloids --- insect heart --- beetles --- insect --- Tenebrio molitor --- Radix Aconiti Lateralis preparations --- short-term and long-term usage --- di-ester diterpenoid alkaloids --- mono-ester diterpenoid alkaloids --- biodistribution --- ergot alkaloids --- livestock --- reproduction --- isoquinoline alkaloids --- antimicrobial activity --- Chelidonium majus --- cytotoxicity --- apoptosis --- sanguinarine --- berberine --- Chelidonium majus --- Berberis thunbergii --- leukemia --- anticancer --- natural products --- alkaloids --- plant secondary metabolites --- ?-carboline --- Staphylococcus aureus --- antimicrobial activity --- cytotoxicity --- acid-sensing ion channel subtype 1a --- bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid --- lindoldhamine --- nociception --- inflammation --- isoquinoline alkaloids --- HPLC-DAD --- cytotoxic activity --- Mahonia aquifolia --- Meconopsis cambrica --- Corydalis lutea --- Dicentra spectabilis --- Fumaria officinalis --- Macleaya cordata --- alkaloids --- natural sources --- anticancer --- antibacterial --- antiviral --- antifungal --- Curine --- alkaloid --- macrophage --- neutrophil --- lipopolysaccharide --- n/a

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