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Fundamentals for the Anthropocene

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ISBN: 9783110567311 Year: Pages: 135 DOI: 10.1515/9783110567311 Language: English
Publisher: De Gruyter
Subject: Statistics --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-09-11 11:41:35
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This book seeks to bridge the gap between leading edge scholarship about the nature of the physical, tangible Universe and the nature of the life process on Earth on the one hand, and on the other hand challenges facing human society as to the current revolution in energy sources, national and international levels of political and economic organization, and humanity`s impacts upon the global ecosystem which have given rise to the depiction of a new era in earthlife termed the anthropocene.The author`s public career included responsibilities for economic policy formulation and implementation at the United States Department of Justice, the United States Agency for International Development, and a White House Office of Consumer Affairs. This provided an elevated overview of many current economic and political issues.These responsibilities stimulated a multi-decade exploration of leading academics` insights into the relational structuring of the Universe, non-equilibrium thermodynamics, complexity in the universe, and the structure of the life process. This book applies such fundamental insights to the question whether humanity will succeed or fail in its ambitious but uncertain quest.

Non-Extensive Entropy Econometrics for Low Frequency Series. National Accounts-Based Inverse Problems

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ISBN: 9783110550443 9783110550764 Year: Pages: 218 DOI: 10.1515/9783110550443 Language: English
Publisher: De Gruyter
Subject: Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2017-08-10 13:47:31
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Non-extensive Entropy Econometrics for Low Frequency Series provides a new and robust power-law-based, non-extensive entropy econometrics approach to the economic modelling of ill-behaved inverse problems. Particular attention is paid to national account-based general equilibrium models known for their relative complexity.In theoretical terms, the approach generalizes Gibbs-Shannon-Golan entropy models, which are useful for describing ergodic phenomena. In essence, this entropy econometrics approach constitutes a junction of two distinct concepts: Jayne’s maximum entropy principle and the Bayesian generalized method of moments. Rival econometric techniques are not conceptually adapted to solving complex inverse problems or are seriously limited when it comes to practical implementation. Recent literature showed that amplitude and frequency of macroeconomic fluctuations do not substantially diverge from many other extreme events, natural or human-related, once they are explained in the same time (or space) scale. Non-extensive entropy is a precious device for econometric modelling even in the case of low frequency series, since outputs evolving within the Gaussian attractor correspond to the Tsallis entropy limiting case of Tsallis q-parameter around unity. This book introduces a sub-discipline called Non-extensive Entropy Econometrics or, using a recent expression, Superstar Generalised Econometrics. It demonstrates, using national accounts-based models, that this approach facilitates solving nonlinear, complex inverse problems, previously considered intractable, such as the constant elasticity of substitution class of functions. This new proposed approach could extend the frontier of theoretical and applied econometrics.

The Experiment in the History of Economics

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Book Series: Routledge Studies in the History of Economics ISBN: 9780203023594 9780415344296 9780415649230 9781134287604 9781134287598 9781134287550 Year: DOI: 10.4324/9780203023594 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Business and Management --- Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-11-08 11:21:08
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Throughout the history of economic ideas, it has often been asserted that experimentation is impossible, yet, in fact, history shows that the idea of ‘experimentation’ has always been important, and as such has been interpreted and put to use in many ways. Rich in historical detail, the essays in this topical volume deal with such issues as laboratory experimentation, the observed transition from a post-war economics to a contemporary discipline, the contrasting positions of Friedrich Hayek and Oskar Morgenstern, the socio-economic experiments proposed by Ernest Solvay and Knut Wicksell, and a rigorous examination of the way in which economic models can or cannot be construed as valid experiments producing useful knowledge. A testament to the variety of ways in which experimentation has been of importance in the creation of economic knowledge, these wide-ranging essays will interest those seeking to expand their historical understanding of the discipline, be they theorists, historians, philosophers, advanced students or researchers.

Keywords

allais --- paradox --- von --- neumann --- oskar --- morgenstern --- experimental --- general --- equilibrium --- theory

Models of Political Economy

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ISBN: 9780203358559 9780415327053 9780415327060 9781134338634 9781134338627 9781134338580 Year: DOI: 10.4324/9780203358559 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Business and Management --- Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-11-08 11:21:17
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Models of Political Economy will introduce students to the basic methodology of political economics. It covers all core theories as well as new developments including: decision theory game theory mechanism design games of asymmetric information. Hannu Nurmi's text will prove to be invaluable to all students who wish to understand this increasingly technical field.

Keywords

condorcet --- winner --- borda --- count --- pairwise --- contest --- nash --- equilibrium --- risky --- prospects

Globalisation and Poverty

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Book Series: Routledge Studies in Globalisation ISBN: 9780203088333 9780415343602 9780415479677 9781134289356 9781134289349 9781134289301 Year: DOI: 10.4324/9780203088333 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Economics --- Political Science --- Sociology --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-11-08 11:21:23
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The consequences of globalization for the world's poor are uncertain and fierce rhetoric is dividing its supporters and detractors. The channels of effect of essentially macroeconomic shocks on the microeconomic position of individuals and households in poor countries are many and various. This book addresses three core issues: 1) what are the main channels of effect? 2) what are the lessons to be learned from policy measures to alleviate negative poverty consequences? and 3) do the proposed analytical approaches assist in providing a monitoring capability? This volume assesses the more easily quantifiable effects resulting from price and quantity responses in the goods and labour markets. It includes studies of Colombia, Ghana, India, Nepal, Bangladesh and Vietnam. It uses key analytical approaches, most of which are based on numerical simulation methods employing models with different levels of complexity. These models capture the features of an economy, how it functions, and how it might respond to globalization shocks. The most important collective contribution of the authors is their establishment of directions and magnitudes of effect, based on empirical evidence.

Keywords

trade --- liberalisation --- computable --- general --- equilibrium --- social --- accounting --- matrix --- shocks --- reforms

The Equilibrium Controversy: Guidobaldo del Monte’s Critical Notes on the Mechanics of Jordanus and Benedetti and their Historical and Conceptual Backgrounds

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Book Series: Sources 2: Max Planck Research Library for the History and Development of Knowledge ISBN: 9783869319599 Year: Pages: 386 Language: English
Publisher: Edition Open Access
Subject: Mechanical Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2017-03-03 16:42:47
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This study, the second volume of the series "Sources" of the "Max Planck Research Library for the History and Development of Knowledge," reviews a historical discussion about the question of whether a balance in equilibrium, after having been deflected, returns to its original position. This question captured the attention of philosophers and scientists for almost two millennia, from Greek antiquity to the sixteenth century when the "equilibrium controversy" became a central question among scholars.Two new sources related to this controversy are presented: an annotated copy of Jordanus de Nemore's "Liber de ponderibus" edited by Petrus Apianus in 1533 and an annotated copy of Giovanni Battista Benedetti's "Diversarum speculationum mathematicarum et physicarum liber" from 1585. Both works contain handwritten marginal notes by Guidobaldo del Monte, author of the most influential early modern text on mechanics.A detailed analysis of these sources, their prehistory, and their contexts shows that the "equilibrium controversy" only scratched the surface of a much deeper conceptual crisis of early modern mechanics that was triggered by the introduction of the medieval concept of "positional heaviness" into early modern discussions. This crisis helped to establish fundamental insights on which Galileo eventually built his theory of mechanics as well as his theory of motion.

Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics of Small Systems

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ISBN: 9783038970576 9783038970583 Year: Pages: 334 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-058-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-09-25 10:51:00
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A challenging frontier in modern statistical physics concerns systems with a small number of degrees of freedom, far from the thermodynamic limit. Beyond the general interest in the foundation of statistical mechanics, the relevance of this subject is due to the recent increase of resolution in the observation and manipulation of biological and man-made objects at micro- and nano-scales. A peculiar feature of small systems is the role played by fluctuations, which cannot be neglected and are responsible for many non-trivial behaviors. The study of fluctuations of thermodynamic quantities, such as energy or entropy, goes back to Einstein, Onsager, and Kubo; more recently, interest in this matter has grown with the establishment of new fluctuation–dissipation relations, and of so-called stochastic thermodynamics. This turning point has received a strong impulse from the study of systems that are far from the thermodynamic equilibrium, due to very long relaxation times, as in disordered systems, or due to the presence of external forcing and dissipation, as in granular or active matter. Applications of the thermodynamic and statistical mechanics of small systems range from molecular biology to micro-mechanics, including models of nano-transport, Brownian motors, and (living or artificial) self-propelled organisms.

Enlarging the European Union

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Book Series: Schriften zur Wirtschaftstheorie und Wirtschaftspolitik ISBN: 9783631373293 Year: Pages: 210 DOI: 10.3726/b13694 Language: English
Publisher: Peter Lang International Academic Publishing Group
Subject: Economics --- Political Science --- Sociology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:32:36
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European politics has provided clear signals: the next round in the process of EU enlargement with the accession of the Central and Eastern European countries (CEEC) will come. Since expectations concerning the costs and benefits of integration are varied, it is our aim to contribute to this discussion by undertaking an empirical assessment of integration. Firstly the extent of potential free labour mobility between the CEEC and the EU is assessed using an econometric model. On that basis, different integration scenarios, i.e. trade liberalisation, capital transfers and labour migration are simulated using a computable general equilibrium model. Our results suggest that migration flows will be moderate and that integration is likely to cause positive welfare effects in the CEEC and negligible effects in the EU.

Keywords

Assessment --- Central --- Computable --- Different --- Eastern --- Enlarging --- Equilibrium --- Europe --- European --- General --- Hille --- Integration --- Scenarios --- Union

Il ritorno dei sentimenti

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ISBN: 9788874629619 Language: Italian
Publisher: Quodlibet
Subject: Languages and Literatures
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-06 13:15:52
License: OpenEdition Licence for Books

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Un “fantasma” sembra aggirarsi nella letteratura francese a partire dagli anni Cinquanta del Novecento e pare destinato a rimanere tale per mezzo secolo, con una latente e, poi, dagli anni Ottanta, con una più riconoscibile capacità di produrre nuove forme o nuovi contesti letterari. Il “fantasma dei sentimenti” da tempo attraversa inquieto le pagine della narrativa, finzionale o autofinzionale, di Francia. Alcuni potrebbero, d’altronde, ipotizzare che questo “spettro” sia stato una presenza attiva, un fermento vitale, seppure dapprima minoritario, sotterraneo e sommesso (ma, forse, neppure troppo clandestino), anche nel periodo più ostile all’espressione in letteratura dei sentimenti. L’inversione di tendenza, nel romanzo francese di questo primo decennio del XXI secolo, appare sempre più netta e riconoscibile e finanche, talvolta, egemonica, se non eccessiva, come spesso succede, quando l’albero è stato troppo piegato, in precedenza, con corde cerebrali e funi ideologiche, nella direzione opposta a quella genetica e costitutiva della scrittura. Quando, come e perché è iniziata questa “riapparizione” dei sentimenti nel romanzo? In quali esperienze significative di scrittura si è espressa e quali sono le varianti narrative che si sono imposte? Quali sono i rischi che il romanzo francese contemporaneo corre quando la ricerca e l’espressione dei sentimenti si fa, come accade oggi, in maniera tumultuosa e incontrollata, con una forte esigenza di originalità che ne temperi i rischi insiti nel sentimentalismo? È possibile una letteratura dell’equilibrio, una letteratura che possa vivere senza l’eccesso, una letteratura senza esasperazione, o per dirla diversamente uno spazio letterario liberato da questa eredità e, dunque, propositivo? Perché il sentimento, anche quello più esacerbato, resta anche un punto di equilibrio tra la leggerezza dell’emozione e la gravità della passione, che porta pure lo stesso nome.

Development of Microbial Ecological Theory: Stability, Plasticity, and Evolution of Microbial Ecosystems

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451692 Year: Pages: 156 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-169-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-08-28 14:01:09
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“How can we develop microbial ecological theory?” The development of microbial ecological theory has a long way to reach its goal. Advances in microbial ecological techniques provide novel insights into microbial ecosystems. Articles in this book are challenging to determine the central and general tenets of the ecological theory that describes the features of microbial ecosystems. Their achievements expand the frontiers of current microbial ecology and propose the next step. Assemblage of these diverse articles hopefully helps to go on this long journey with many avenues for advancement of microbial ecology.

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