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District Heating and Cooling Networks

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ISBN: 9783039288397 / 9783039288403 Year: Pages: 270 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-840-3 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Abstract

Conventional thermal power generating plants reject a large amount of energy every year. If this rejected heat were to be used through district heating networks, given prior energy valorisation, there would be a noticeable decrease in the amount of fossil fuels imported for heating. As a consequence, benefits would be experienced in the form of an increase in energy efficiency, an improvement in energy security, and a minimisation of emitted greenhouse gases. Given that heat demand is not expected to decrease significantly in the medium term, district heating networks show the greatest potential for the development of cogeneration. Due to their cost competitiveness, flexibility in terms of the ability to use renewable energy resources (such as geothermal or solar thermal) and fossil fuels (more specifically the residual heat from combustion), and the fact that, in some cases, losses to a country/region’s energy balance can be easily integrated into district heating networks (which would not be the case in a “fully electric” future), district heating (and cooling) networks and cogeneration could become a key element for a future with greater energy security, while being more sustainable, if appropriate measures were implemented. This book therefore seeks to propose an energy strategy for a number of cities/regions/countries by proposing appropriate measures supported by detailed case studies.

Energy Efficiency in Buildings: Both New and Rehabilitated

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ISBN: 9783039287024 / 9783039287031 Year: Pages: 412 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-703-1 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Arts in general --- Architecture
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Buildings are one of the main causes of the emission of greenhouse gases in the world. Europe alone is responsible for more than 30% of emissions, or about 900 million tons of CO2 per year. Heating and air conditioning are the main cause of greenhouse gas emissions in buildings. Most buildings currently in use were built with poor energy efficiency criteria or, depending on the country and the date of construction, none at all. Therefore, regardless of whether construction regulations are becoming stricter, the real challenge nowadays is the energy rehabilitation of existing buildings. It is currently a priority to reduce (or, ideally, eliminate) the waste of energy in buildings and, at the same time, supply the necessary energy through renewable sources. The first can be achieved by improving the architectural design, construction methods, and materials used, as well as the efficiency of the facilities and systems; the second can be achieved through the integration of renewable energy (wind, solar, geothermal, etc.) in buildings. In any case, regardless of whether the energy used is renewable or not, the efficiency must always be taken into account. The most profitable and clean energy is that which is not consumed.

Keywords

greenhouse --- floor envelope design --- ground heat transfer --- thermal insulation --- energy modeling --- life cycle cost analysis --- nearly zero energy building --- artificial neural network --- performance parameter design --- energy saving ratio --- dynamic simulation --- urban modelling --- co-simulation --- simulation engines --- building stock energy demand --- building --- energy --- heat load --- sensitivity --- glazing --- surface cooling --- three-phase unbalance minimization --- model predictive control --- home energy management system --- perturbation and observation --- adjustable step size --- low power loss --- maximum power point tracking --- HVAC demand --- prediction --- energy efficiency --- residential buildings --- Ipomoea batatas --- lightweight expanded clay aggregate (LECA), thermal performance --- extensive green roof --- subtropical climate --- artificial neural network --- big data --- energy-performance gap --- building energy prediction --- building user activity --- single-person household --- Korean household energy consumption --- analytical hierarchy process --- energy efficiency promotion --- influencing factors --- residential buildings --- policy design --- building energy --- passive architecture --- test method --- energy performance standard --- zero energy building --- technology package --- renovation --- energy renovation --- demolition --- new construction --- energy use --- energy performance --- life cycle cost --- optimization --- OPERA-MILP --- multi-family buildings --- Arab region --- building sector --- energy efficiency --- energy productivity --- GCC --- Maghreb --- Mashreq --- space heating --- domestic hot water (DHW) --- air, ground and water source heat pump (ASHP, GSHP and WSHP) --- coefficient of performance (COP) --- seasonal performance factor (SPF) --- energy pile --- energy tunnel --- Level(s) --- green building rating systems --- Building Research Establishment Assessment Method (BREEAM) --- Deutsche Gesellschaft für Nachhaltiges Bauen (DGNB) --- Haute Qualité Environnementale (HQE) --- Leadership in Energy &amp --- Environmental Design (LEED) --- energy efficiency --- subtropical climate building --- Minimum-Energy Building (MEB) --- building refurbishment --- building rehabilitation --- building renovation --- envelope airtightness --- envelope thermography --- envelope transmittance

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MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (2)


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CC by-nc-nd (2)


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eng (2)


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2020 (2)