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Understanding the Global Energy Crisis

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Book Series: Purdue Studies in Public Policy ISBN: 9781557536617 9781612493091 9781612493107 9781557537010 Year: Pages: 318 DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_469619 Language: English
Publisher: Purdue University Press Grant: Knowledge Unlatched
Subject: Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2014-03-29 09:14:34
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Central issues in global energy are discussed through interdisciplinary dialogue between experts from both North America and Europe with overview from historical, political, and socio-cultural perspectives, outlining the technology and policy issues facing the development of major conventional and renewable energy sources. We are facing a global energy crisis caused by world population growth, an escalating increase in demand, and continued dependence on fossil-based fuels for generation. It is widely accepted that increases in greenhouse gas concentration levels, if not reversed, will result in major changes to world climate with consequential effects on our society and economy. This is just the kind of intractable problem that Purdue University’s Global Policy Research Institute seeks to address in the Purdue Studies in Public Policy series by promoting the engagement between policy makers and experts in fields such as engineering and technology.
 
Major steps forward in the development and use of technology are required. In order to achieve solutions of the required scale and magnitude within a limited timeline, it is essential that engineers be not only technologically-adept but also aware of the wider social and political issues that policy-makers face. Likewise, it is also imperative that policy makers liaise closely with the academic community in order to realize advances. This book is designed to bridge the gap between these two groups, with a particular emphasis on educating the socially-conscious engineers and technologists of the future.
 
In this accessibly-written volume, central issues in global energy are discussed through interdisciplinary dialogue between experts from both North America and Europe. The first section provides an overview of the nature of the global energy crisis approached from historical, political, and sociocultural perspectives. In the second section, expert contributors outline the technology and policy issues facing the development of major conventional and renewable energy sources. The third and final section explores policy and technology challenges and opportunities in the distribution and consumption of energy, in sectors such as transportation and the built environment. The book’s epilogue suggests some future scenarios in energy distribution and use. 

This title was made Open Access by libraries from around the world through Knowledge Unlatched.

Vergleich technischer Implementierungen für GridFlow-Systeme

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Book Series: Wissenschaftliche Berichte des Instituts für Fördertechnik und Logistiksysteme des Karlsruher Instituts für Technologie ISSN: 01712772 ISBN: 9783731504009 Year: Volume: 86 Pages: VII, 157 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000047706 Language: GERMAN
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:02:00
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With the compact warehousing of goods, the main aim is to achieve the highest possible space utilisation rate. Automated compact warehouses only become profitable once they exceed a particular size and throughput. The alternative is to opt for low-cost ground storage systems. This book will examine various technical implementation methods that can be used to realise the GridFlow principle.

La ville compacte remise en cause ? Formes urbaines et mobilités de loisirs

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ISBN: 9782889301140 Year: Pages: 440 DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_624512 Language: French
Publisher: Editions Alphil Presses universitaires suisses Grant: Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF) - OAPEN-CH - 170316
Subject: Geology --- Earth Sciences --- Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2017-03-11 11:01:15
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Finally the weekend! The time to escape the dense city to enjoy quieter en-vironments? While leisure occupies a central place in our lifestyles, what is the relationship between urban styles and mobility? Are the inhabitants of city centers more mobile, seeking a greener environment in which to spend their free time? This would be the "barbecue effect," which invites stopping advocating for density and upgrading to suburban styles. This book explores this controversy by examining the cases of Geneva and Zurich, to answer some questions: Does the barbecue effect really exist?

Refrigeration Systems and Applications 2019

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039219520 / 9783039219537 Year: Pages: 200 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-953-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-07 09:08:26
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The Special Issue “Refrigeration Systems and Applications” aims to encourage researchers to address the concerns associated with climate change and the sustainability of artificial cold production systems, and to further the transition to the more sustainable technologies and methodologies of tomorrow through theoretical, experimental, and review research on the different applications of refrigeration and associated topics.

Sustainable Energy Systems Planning, Integration and Management

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9783039280469 / 9783039280476 Year: Pages: 286 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-047-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-30 16:39:46
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Energy systems worldwide are undergoing major transformation as a consequence of the transition towards the widespread use of clean and sustainable energy sources. Basically, this involves massive changes in technical and organizational levels together with tremendous technological upgrades in different sectors ranging from energy generation and transmission systems down to distribution systems. These actions generate huge science and engineering challenges and demands for expert knowledge in the field to create solutions for a sustainable energy system that is economically, environmentally, and socially viable while meeting high security requirements. This book covers these promising and dynamic areas of research and development, and presents contributions in sustainable energy systems planning, integration, and management. Moreover, the book elaborates on a variety of topics, ranging from design and planning of small- to large-scale energy systems to the operation and control of energy networks in different sectors, namely electricity, heat, ?and transport.

Keywords

Black Sea --- Romanian coastal environment --- wave energy --- numerical models --- SWAN --- renewable energy --- environment --- solid waste to energy plant --- FANP --- TOPSIS --- fuzzy logic --- MCDM --- smart logistics system --- smart box --- information platform --- renewable biomass energy --- agricultural pruning --- cuckoo search algorithm --- support vector machine --- ensemble empirical mode decomposition --- wind speed forecasting --- forecasting validity --- smart logistics system --- information platform --- pruning biomass --- performance evaluation --- product quality model --- product usability testing --- rural residential building --- solar energy --- heat transfer --- wind velocities --- field test and numerical simulation --- renewable energy --- load regulation --- datacenter --- smart grid --- demand response --- threshold value of daily operation hours --- intermittent heating --- configurations of internal wall --- heat storage and release --- hot summer and cold winter climate zone --- dual robust optimization --- risk aversion --- energy and environmental systems --- vehicular emissions --- multiple uncertainties --- photovoltaic systems --- meteorological variables --- electric power --- gradient descent --- sustainable development --- optimal chiller loading (OCL) --- uncertain cooling demand --- information gap decision theory (IGDT) --- mixed-integer non-linear programming problem (MINLP) --- novel method --- internal coverings --- neural networks --- energy --- thermal comfort --- control system --- resampling --- feature extraction --- non-intrusive load monitoring --- pure electric buses --- multi-type bus operating organization --- time-space network --- energy consumption --- public transport --- n/a

Planning, Development and Management of Sustainable Cities

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038979067 9783038979074 Year: Pages: 440 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-907-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Environmental Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-05-09 17:16:14
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The concept of ‘sustainable urban development’ has been pushed to the forefront of policymaking and politics as the world wakes up to the impacts of climate change and the destructive effects of the Anthropocene. Climate change has emerged to be one of the biggest challenges faced by our planet today, threatening both built and natural systems with long-term consequences, which may be irreversible. While there is a vast body of literature on sustainability and sustainable urban development, there is currently limited focus on how to cohesively bring together the vital issues of the planning, development, and management of sustainable cities. Moreover, it has been widely stated that current practices and lifestyles cannot continue if we are to leave a healthy living planet to not only the next generation, but also to the generations beyond. The current global school strikes for climate action (known as Fridays for Future) evidences this. The book advocates the view that the focus needs to rest on ways in which our cities and industries can become green enough to avoid urban ecocide. This book fills a gap in the literature by bringing together issues related to the planning, development, and management of cities and focusing on a triple-bottom-line approach to sustainability.

Keywords

spatial decision support systems --- urban planning --- sustainability indicators --- urban metabolism --- sustainable regional development --- land use governance --- regional stakeholder involvement --- precision farming (PF) --- wood fuel --- technology roadmapping (TRM) --- open innovation (OI) --- Germany --- sustainability assessment --- sustainable urban development --- neighborhood sustainability --- neighborhood sustainability assessment index --- sustainable city --- Ipoh --- Malaysia --- scaling-up strategy --- sustainable development --- local new town --- neoliberal capitalism --- Wujin --- China --- low-energy transport --- carbon --- energy consumption --- sociotechnical transition --- innovation --- cities --- United Kingdom --- sustainability --- tree --- urban forest --- forest values --- urban transport --- sustainable transport --- developing cities --- medium-sized cities --- infrastructure --- transport projects --- sustainability --- knowledge management --- practitioner perceptions --- frames --- framing processes --- low carbon cities --- visioning --- urban resilience --- sustainability --- sustainability literacy --- urban development --- public participation --- urban planning --- civic engagement --- green economy --- built environment sector --- eco-cities --- sustainable urban development --- green innovation --- low carbon economy --- socio-technical transition --- urban fire --- spatio-temporal features --- SDM, humidity --- GDP --- the fire assimilation effect --- fire inertia effect --- fire caution effect --- urban land development --- natural environmental impact --- driving forces-pressure-state-impact-policy and pattern (DPSIP) --- water supply --- demand --- time-series forecasting --- ARIMA --- urban water sustainability --- Istanbul --- ecosystem approach --- urban ecology --- eco-cities --- process-function ecology --- heat island mitigation --- urban forestry --- green infrastructure --- ecological landscape management --- sustainability index --- mixed land-use --- neighbourhood --- travel behaviour --- perception --- indicator --- stakeholder --- megacity --- co-design --- co-production --- bottom-up --- anthropogenic impact --- environmental threshold --- road grades --- heavy-duty vehicles --- emissions --- sustainable transportation --- China --- water asset management --- Gap analysis --- LOS (level of service) --- PIs (performance indicators) --- customer value --- noise pollution --- low-frequency noise --- DEFRA --- human well-being --- sustainability --- power poles --- City Biodiversity Index --- Satoyama Index --- land use mixture --- land cover --- GIS --- sustainability --- sustainable development --- sustainable urban development --- sustainable city --- sustainable urban ecosystems --- sustainability assessment --- smart cities

Modeling and Simulation of Carbon Emission Related Issues

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ISBN: 9783039213115 / 9783039213122 Year: Pages: 420 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-312-2 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Carbon emissions reached an all-time high in 2018, when global carbon dioxide emissions from burning fossil fuels increased by about 2.7%, after a 1.6% increase in 2017. Thus, we need to pay special attention to carbon emissions and work out possible solutions if we still want to meet the targets of the Paris climate agreement. This Special Issue collects 16 carbon emissions-related papers (including 5 that are carbon tax-related) and 4 energy-related papers using various methods or models, such as the input–output model, decoupling analysis, life cycle impact analysis (LCIA), relational analysis model, generalized Divisia index model (GDIM), forecasting model, three-indicator allocation model, mathematical programming, real options model, multiple linear regression, etc. The research studies come from China, Taiwan, Brazil, Thailand, and United States. These researches involved various industries such as agricultural industry, transportation industry, power industry, tire industry, textile industry, wave energy industry, natural gas industry, and petroleum industry. Although this Special Issue does not fully solve our concerns, it still provides abundant material for implementing energy conservation and carbon emissions reduction. However, there are still many issues regarding the problems caused by global warming that require research.

Keywords

household consumption --- total carbon emissions --- CLA Model --- influence factor --- STIRPAT model --- carbon emissions --- influencing factors --- decoupling elasticity --- Generalized Divisia Index --- Tapio’s model --- household CO2 emissions (HCEs) --- per capita household CO2 emissions (PHCEs) --- input–output model --- refined oil distribution --- inventory routing problem --- hybrid genetic algorithm --- carbon emissions --- carbon tax --- decoupling analysis --- greenhouse gas emissions --- carbon footprint --- low-carbon agriculture --- causal factors --- CO2 emissions forecasting --- VARIMAX-ECM model --- sustainable development --- economic growth --- population growth --- carbon price fluctuation --- renewable energy --- real options analysis --- investment under uncertainty --- carbon emissions --- carbon tax --- activity-based costing (ABC) --- capacity expansion --- green quality management --- product-mix decision model --- mathematical programming --- long-term --- final energy consumption --- LT-ARIMAXS model --- sustainable development --- economic growth and the environment --- error correction mechanism model --- activity-based costing (ABC) --- mathematical programming --- textile industry --- green manufacturing --- Industry 4.0 --- carbon emissions --- Activity-Based Costing (ABC) --- carbon emissions --- tire industry --- carbon trading --- mathematical programming --- quotas allocation --- carbon emissions --- electric power industry --- fairness --- agricultural-related sectors --- carbon emissions --- carbon tax --- China --- power industry --- carbon emissions --- Generalized Divisia Index --- scenario forecast --- Monte Carlo method --- wave energy converter --- life cycle assessment --- energy intensity --- carbon intensity --- aircraft --- taxi time --- takeoff rate --- pushback control --- green transportation --- carbon emissions --- reducing carbon emissions --- carbon intensity target --- energy structure --- gray model (GM (1, 1)) --- generalized regression neural network (GRNN) --- Markov forecasting model --- non-linear programming --- ethylene supply --- shale gas --- non-energy uses of fossil fuels --- socio-economic scenarios --- climate change --- tea --- climate change --- sustainable agriculture --- environmental impact --- carbon footprint --- CO2 emissions --- HOMER software --- hybrid ship power systems --- Li-ion battery --- shipping --- n/a

Ironmaking and Steelmaking

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039213290 / 9783039213306 Year: Pages: 464 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-330-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 16:10:12
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Steel is a critical material in our societies and will remain an important one for a long time into the future. In the last two decades, the world steel industry has gone through drastic changes and this is predicted to continue in the future. The Asian countries (e.g. China, India) have been dominant in the production of steel creating global over-capacity, while the steel industry in the developed countries have made tremendous efforts to reinforce its global leadership in process technology and product development, and remain sustainable and competitive. The global steel industry is also facing various grand challenges in strict environmental regulation, new energy and materials sources, and ever-increasing customer requirements for high quality steel products, which has been addressed accordingly by the global iron and steel community. This Special Issue, “Ironmaking and Steelmaking”, released by the journal Metals, published 33 high quality articles from the international iron and steel community, covering the state-of-the-art of the ironmaking and steelmaking processes. This includes fundamental understanding, experimental investigation, pilot plant trials, industrial applications and big data utilization in the improvement and optimization of existing processes, and research and development in transformative technologies. It is hoped that the creation of this special issue as a scientific platform will help drive the iron and steel community to build a sustainable steel industry.

Keywords

ironmaking --- microwaves --- carbothermal reduction --- iron oxides --- emission spectrum --- ore-carbon briquette --- CO–CO2 atmosphere --- simulation --- re-oxidation --- reduction --- electroslag cladding --- high speed steel --- ductile cast iron --- composite roll --- bonding interface --- high-phosphorus iron ore --- fluorapatite --- carbothermal reduction --- vaporization dephosphorization --- iron ore pellets --- compressive strength (CS) --- prediction model --- artificial neural network --- principal component analysis --- crystallization behaviors --- crystallization rate --- anosovite crystals --- silicate crystals --- titanium slag --- blast furnace --- copper stave --- hydrogen attack --- slag crust --- heat-affected zone --- high heat input welding --- Ca deoxidation --- inclusion control --- intragranular acicular ferrite --- concentrate --- iron ore --- agglomerate --- structure --- phase analysis --- Mg deoxidation --- inclusions --- Al addition --- high-heat-input welding --- heat-affected zone --- toughness --- shot peening --- Barkhausen noise --- crystallite size --- carbon composite pellet --- direct reduction --- shrinkage --- kinetics --- rotary hearth furnace --- hydrogen plasma --- smelting reduction --- HPSR --- iron oxide --- plasma arc --- ionization degree --- sulfur distribution ratio --- liquid area --- carbon-saturated iron --- phosphate capacity --- sulfide capacity --- phosphorus distribution ratio --- sulfur distribution ratio --- evaluation of coupling relationship --- secondary refining process, CaO–based slags --- iron sulfate --- TG analysis --- thermal treatment --- iron oxide --- kinetics --- activation energy --- high-aluminum iron ore --- synergistic reduction --- high-manganese iron ore --- hercynite --- fayalite --- flow velocity --- casting speed --- gas flow rate --- flow pattern --- continuous casting --- Cr recovery --- self-reduction briquette --- reaction mechanism --- mold flux --- low fluorine --- internal crack --- surface roughness --- slag film --- vanadium titano-magnetite --- gas-based reduction --- carbon monoxide --- hydrogen --- and nitrogen --- kinetics --- pellet size --- liquid steel --- non-contact measurement --- oxides --- steel-making --- blast furnace --- solid flow --- cold experiment --- direct element method --- Wilcox–Swailes coefficient --- viscosity --- BaO --- CaO/Al2O3 ratio --- modified NPL model --- ultrafine particles exposure --- steelmaking factory --- chemical composition --- devolatilization --- torrefied biomass --- bio-coal --- volatile matter --- iso-conversional method --- Al-TRIP steel --- surface depression --- cracks --- non-metallic inclusion --- mold flux --- reactivity --- hot metal pre-treatment --- desiliconisation --- dephosphorisation --- solid and gaseous oxygen --- fork --- flat steel --- inclusions --- 33MnCrTiB --- slag --- carbon dioxide --- injection --- blast furnace --- converter --- combustion --- oxygen steelmaking --- refining kinetics --- slag formation --- penetration theory --- oxygen blast furnace --- COREX --- static process model --- integrated steel plant --- material flow --- energy consumption --- CO2 emissions --- oil-pipeline steel --- Ca-treatment --- non-metallic inclusions --- electrolytic extraction --- corrosion --- n/a

Machining—Recent Advances, Applications and Challenges

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ISBN: 9783039213771 / 9783039213788 Year: Pages: 554 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-378-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 16:10:12
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The Special Issue Machining—Recent Advances, Applications and Challenges is intended as a humble collection of some of the hottest topics in machining. The manufacturing industry is a varying and challenging environment where new advances emerge from one day to another. In recent years, new manufacturing procedures have retained increasing attention from the industrial and scientific community. However, machining still remains the key operation to achieve high productivity and precision for high-added value parts. Continuous research is performed, and new ideas are constantly considered. This Special Issue summarizes selected high-quality papers which were submitted, peer-reviewed, and recommended by experts. It covers some (but not only) of the following topics: High performance operations for difficult-to-cut alloys, wrought and cast materials, light alloys, ceramics, etc.; Cutting tools, grades, substrates and coatings. Wear damage; Advanced cooling in machining: Minimum quantity of lubricant, dry or cryogenics; Modelling, focused on the reduction of risks, the process outcome, and to maintain surface integrity; Vibration problems in machines: Active and passive/predictive methods, sources, diagnosis and avoidance; Influence of machining in new concepts of machine–tool, and machine static and dynamic behaviors; Machinability of new composites, brittle and emerging materials; Assisted machining processes by high-pressure, laser, US, and others; Introduction of new analytics and decision making into machining programming. We wish to thank the reviewers and staff from Materials for their comments, advice, suggestions and invaluable support during the development of this Special Issue.

Keywords

dry-cutting --- concrete --- segmented diamond blade --- topography --- diameter variation --- weight loss --- in situ estimation --- SACE-drilled hole depth --- spark-assisted chemical engraving --- glass machining --- computer vision --- electrochemical discharge machining --- butt weld joint --- fatigue --- crack growth rate --- weld reinforcement --- cooling rate --- artificial neutral network --- cutting parameters --- magnesium alloys --- optimization --- prime machining costs --- surface roughness --- electropulsing --- machinability --- chip compression ratio --- current density --- specific cutting energy --- cutting edge microgeometry --- residual stress --- finite element model --- cutting edge preparation --- Inconel 718 --- stiffness properties --- parameter identification --- connections --- machine tool --- response surface methodology --- design of experiments --- modal testing --- plastic zone --- fracture mechanism --- steel sheet --- cutting process --- Huber–Mises stress --- finite element method --- microscopic analysis --- PVD Ti0.41Al0.59N/Ti0.55Al0.45N coating --- cutting temperature --- Inconel 718 --- cutting tool wear --- secondary adhesion wear --- turning --- machining --- aluminium --- flank super abrasive machining (SAM) --- flank milling --- Inconel® 718 --- roughness --- residual stress --- machine vision --- on-machine monitoring --- tool insert condition --- computer numerical control --- turning machine tools --- multi-beam laser --- heat transfer analysis --- fast simulation --- GPU --- analytic solution --- minimum quantity lubrication --- surface grinding --- multi-objective optimization --- grey relational analysis --- surface topography --- sustainable machining --- Gamma-TiAl --- superalloys --- slight materials --- drilling --- titanium aluminides --- additive manufacturing --- single point incremental sheet forming --- residual stresses --- X-ray diffraction --- ultra-precision machining --- slow tool servo --- surface topography --- simulation --- microlens array --- sinusoidal grid --- Milling stability --- variable pitch --- chatter --- self-excitation --- milling --- ceramics --- ductile machining --- PCD --- corner radius --- material removal rate --- adhesive --- machining --- modelling --- dry --- CFRP/UNS A92024 --- induction assisted milling --- tool wear --- taguchi method --- cutting tool --- machining temperatures at two deformation zones --- force–temperature correlation through analytical modeling --- high computational efficiency --- real-time prediction --- hybrid stacks drilling --- minimum quantity lubrication --- hole quality --- tool wear --- WEDM --- EN 31 steel --- surface roughness --- fractal dimension --- ANN --- GA --- cryogenic machining --- cutting tool --- cutting geometry --- titanium --- power consumption --- material-removal rate --- specific energy consumption --- grain density --- modeling --- shape memory alloy --- superelastic nitinol --- WEDM --- heat transfer search algorithm --- DSC test --- shape memory effect --- dish angle --- trochoidal step --- response surface methodology --- surface roughness --- desirability approach --- tool wear --- trochoidal milling --- titanium alloy --- chip morphology --- thin-wall machining --- chatter --- vibration --- deflection --- damping --- prediction --- workholding --- fixture --- dynamic --- stability --- titanium alloys --- machining --- turning --- machinability --- tool wear --- laser-assisted machining --- Taguchi method --- optimal machining conditions --- machining characteristic --- milling --- the cutting force components --- vibrations --- magnesium alloys --- artificial neural networks

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