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Enamel Research: Mechanisms and Characterization

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450190 Year: Pages: 130 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-019-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Physiology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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The rodent incisor is a good model system to study the molecular and cellular events that are involved in enamel biomineralization. Incisors in rodents continuously erupt during their lifespan, thus allowing the study of all stages of enamel synthesis, deposition, mineralization and maturation in the same tissue section. This model system has provided invaluable insight into the specifics of enamel formation as a basis to understand human pathologies such as amelogenesis imperfect. Furthermore, the rodent incisor allows exploration and understanding of some of the most fundamental mechanisms that govern biomineralization. Enamel is the most mineralized, hardest tissue in the body. It is formed within a unique organic matrix that, unlike other hard tissues such as bone and dentin, does not contain collagen. The formation of enamel can be divided into two main stages: the secretory and maturation stage. During the secretory stage, a highly ordered arrangement of hydroxyapatite crystals is formed under the influence of structural matrix proteins such as amelogenin, ameloblastin and enamelin. During the maturation stage, the organic matrix is removed and hydroxyapatite crystals expand to ultimately yield a functional hard structure consisting of over 96% mineral. Research efforts over the past decades have mainly focused on the secretory stage, providing novel insights into the concept of biomineralization. However, the events that occur during the maturation stage have not been yet explored in detail, likely because the physiological roles of the enamel-forming ameloblasts are more diverse and complex at this stage. Mature ameloblasts are involved in the regulation of calcium transport in large amounts, phosphate and protein fragments in and out of the maturing enamel and provide regulatory mechanisms for the control of the pH. In recent years, increased efforts have been dedicated towards defining the molecular events during enamel maturation. The development of an ever-increasing number of transgenic animal models has clearly demonstrated the essential roles of matrix and non-matrix proteins during enamel formation. Multiple traditional and modern analytical techniques are applied for the characterization of enamel in these animals. The need for this Research Topic therefore stems from new information that has been generated on molecular events during the enamel maturation stage and the development and application of highly advanced analytical techniques to characterize dental enamel. The benefits and limitations of these techniques need to be reviewed and their application standardized for valid comparative studies.

Dental and Periodontal Tissues Formation and Regeneration: Current Approaches and Future Challenges

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199846 Year: Pages: 246 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-984-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Physiology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Sequential and reciprocal interactions between oral epithelial and cranial neural crest-derived mesenchymal cells give rise to the teeth and periodontium. Teeth are vital organs containing a rich number of blood vessels and nerve fibers within the dental pulp and periodontium. Teeth are composed by unique and specific collagenous (dentin, fibrillar cementum) and non-collagenous (enamel) highly mineralized extracellular matrices. Alveolar bone is another collagenous hard tissue that supports tooth stability and function through its close interaction with the periodontal ligament. Dental hard tissues are often damaged after infection or traumatic injuries that lead to the partial or complete destruction of the functional dental and supportive tissues. Well-established protocols are routinely used in dental clinics for the restoration or replacement of the damaged tooth and alveolar bone areas. Recent progress in the fields of cell biology, tissue engineering, and nanotechnology offers promising opportunities to repair damaged or missing dental tissues. Indeed, pulp and periodontal tissue regeneration is progressing rapidly with the application of stem cells, biodegradable scaffolds, and growth factors. Furthermore, methods that enable partial dental hard tissue repair and regeneration are being evaluated with variable degrees of success. However, these cell-based therapies are still incipient and many issues need to be addressed before any clinical application. The understanding of tooth and periodontal tissues formation would be beneficial for improving regenerative attempts in dental clinics. In the present e-book we have covered the various aspects dealing with dental and periodontal tissues physiology and regeneration in 6 chapters:1. General principles on the use of stem cells for regenerating craniofacial and dental tissues2. The roles of nerves, vessels and stem cell niches in tissue regeneration3. Dental pulp regeneration and mechanisms of various odontoblast functions4. Dental root and periodontal physiology, pathology and regeneration5. Physiology and regeneration of the bone using various scaffolds and stem cell populations6. Physiology, pathology and regeneration of enamel using dental epithelial stem cells

Signaling Pathways in Developing and Pathological Tissues and Organs of the Craniofacial Complex

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456116 Year: Pages: 281 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-611-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Physiology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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Head formation requires the well-orchestrated and harmonised development of various tissues and organs within the craniofacial complex. A big variety of signaling pathways are involved in this process by controlling cell proliferation, migration, differentiation, tissue morphogenesis, homeostasis and regeneration. Deregulation and malfunction of these signaling molecules may lead to mild or severe craniofacial pathologies. This eBook is a collection of articles dealing with a variety of important signals involved in the control of developmental and pathological events of craniofacial organs and tissues. These recent advances show the importance of signaling pathways in craniofacial physiology and pathology and generate important new knowledge aiming the development of new pharmaceutical products that mimic and/or block the actions of specific molecules.

Soft and Hard Tissue Regeneration

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ISBN: 9783039283040 / 9783039283057 Year: Pages: 86 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-305-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Dentistry
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
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This special issue entitled “Soft and hard tissue regeneration” will cover both periodontal and implant therapies. Regenerative periodontal treatment goal is to restore functional periodontal support offering a valuable treatment alternative even for teeth with large periodontal destruction, which may be successfully treated and maintained in health for long periods. In most cases where teeth are extracted for periodontal reasons, implant therapy will demand large bone augmentation procedures. Lack of sufficient bone volume may prevent placement of dental implants. In extreme cases, large bone reconstruction is indispensable before implant placement can be performed. Although, most bone grafts are only able to fill and maintain a space, where bone regeneration can occur (“osseoconductive”), the ideal bone graft will also promote osseous regeneration (“osseoinductive”). Several bone augmentation procedures have been described, each, presenting advantages and shortcomings. Success of bone augmentation procedures depends on the presence of bone forming cells, primary wound closure over the augmented area, space creation and maintenance where bone can grow and proper angiogenesis of the grafted area. Factors that influence the choice of the surgical technique are the estimated duration of surgical procedure, its complexity, cost, total estimated length of procedure until the final rehabilitations may be installed and the surgeons’ experience. This special issue will have a definite clinical orientation, and be entirely dedicated to soft and hard tissue regenerative treatment alternatives, both in periodontal and implant therapy, discussing their rationale, indications and clinical procedures. Internationally renowned leading researchers and clinicians will contribute with articles in their field of expertize.

Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Nanomedicine

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ISBN: 9783039216567 / 9783039216574 Year: Pages: 126 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-657-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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[This book focus on the most recent advances related to the design and processing methods of different nanobiomaterials, films, and fibers; surface functionalization strategies, including biological performance assessment and cytocompatibility; and their applications in tissue engineering strategies.]

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