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Measurement at millimeterwave frequencies are prone to parasitic effects which distort the overall results. Especially the use of RF probes introduces unknown distortions, even after the measurement setup is calibrated. This works investigates these distortions based on electromagnetic field simulations of integrated circuits in conjunction with models of the used RF probes. This allows to comprehend the observed distortions and successfully resolve the root of the distortions.
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Continuous casting is an industrial process whereby molten metal is solidified into a semifinished billet, bloom, or slab for subsequent rolling in finishing mills; it is the most frequently used process to cast not only steel, but also aluminium and copper alloys. Since its widespread introduction for steel in the 1950s, it has evolved to achieve improved yield, quality, productivity and cost efficiency. It allows lowercost production of metal sections with better quality, due to the inherently lower costs of continuous, standardized production of a product, as well as providing increased control over the process through automation. Nevertheless, challenges remain and new ones appear, as ways are sought to minimize casting defects and to cast alloys that could originally only be cast via other means. This Special Issue of the journal ""Metals"" consists of 14 research articles that cover many aspects of experimental work and theoretical modelling related to the ongoing development of continuous casting processes.
slab continuous casting  hybrid simulation model  uneven secondary cooling  numerical simulation  molten steel flow  solidification  inclusion motion  inclusion entrapment  billet continuous casting  swirling flow tundish  multiphase flow  heat transfer  mold  continuous casting  numerical simulation  round bloom  continuous casting  final electromagnetic stirring  electromagnetic field  polycrystalline model  pores  inclusions  mechanism  beam blank  crystal  propagation  asymptotic analysis  numerical simulation  continuous casting  air mist spray cooling  continuous casting  heat flux  HTC  secondary cooling  thinslab cast directrolling  austenite grain coarsening  grain growth control  liquid core reduction  secondary cooling  twophase pinning  annular argon blowing  upper nozzle  flow behavior  argon gas distribution  tundish  continuous casting  bulge deformation  thermomechanical coupling  segmented roller  finite element analysis  steel tundish  baffle  flow field  velocity  PIV  multisource information fusion  data stream  continuous casting  roll gap value  prediction  global optimization  support vector regression  variational mode decomposition  empirical mode decomposition  support vector regression  mold level  continuous casting  magnetohydrodynamics  fluid flow  bubbles  inclusions  entrapment  entrainment  heat transfer  solidification  slab mold  continuous casting  n/a
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Image analysis is a fundamental task for extracting information from images acquired across a range of different devices. Since reliable quantitative results are requested, image analysis requires highly sophisticated numerical and analytical methods—particularly for applications in medicine, security, and remote sensing, where the results of the processing may consist of vitally important data. The contributions to this book provide a good overview of the most important demands and solutions concerning this research area. In particular, the reader will find image analysis applied for feature extraction, encryption and decryption of data, color segmentation, and in the support new technologies. In all the contributions, entropy plays a pivotal role.
image retrieval  multifeature fusion  entropy  relevance feedback  chaotic system  image encryption  permutationdiffusion  SHA256 hash value  dynamic index  entropy  keyframes  Shannon’s entropy  sign languages  video summarization  video skimming  image encryption  multipleimage encryption  twodimensional chaotic economic map  security analysis  image encryption  chaotic cryptography  cryptanalysis  chosenplaintext attack  image information entropy  blind image quality assessment (BIQA)  information entropy, natural scene statistics (NSS)  Weibull statistics  discrete cosine transform (DCT)  ultrasound  hepatic steatosis  Shannon entropy  fatty liver  metabolic syndrome  multiexposure image fusion  texture information entropy  adaptive selection  patch structure decomposition  image encryption  timedelay  random insertion  information entropy  chaotic map  uncertainty assessment  deep neural network  random forest  Shannon entropy  positron emission tomography  reconstruction  field of experts  additive manufacturing  3D prints  3D scanning  image entropy  depth maps  surface quality assessment  machine vision  image analysis  Arimoto entropy  freeform deformations  normalized divergence measure  gradient distributions  nonextensive entropy  nonrigid registration  pavement  macrotexture  3D digital imaging  entropy  decay trend  discrete entropy  infrared images  low contrast  multiscale tophat transform  image encryption  DNA encoding  chaotic cryptography  cryptanalysis  image privacy  computer aided diagnostics  colonoscopy  Rényi entropies  structural entropy  spatial filling factor  binary image  Cantor set  Hénon map  Minkowski island  primeindexed primes  Ramanujan primes  Kapur’s entropy  color image segmentation  whale optimization algorithm  differential evolution  hybrid algorithm  Otsu method  image encryption  dynamic filtering  DNA computing  3D Latin cube  permutation  diffusion  fuzzy entropy  electromagnetic field optimization  chaotic strategy  color image segmentation  multilevel thresholding  contrast enhancement  sigmoid  Tsallis statistics  qexponential  qsigmoid  qGaussian  ultrasound images  person reidentification  image analysis  hash layer  quantization loss  Hamming distance  crossentropy loss  image entropy  Shannon entropy  generalized entropies  image processing  image segmentation  medical imaging  remote sensing  security
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Power electronics technology is still an emerging technology, and it has found its way into many applications, from renewable energy generation (i.e., wind power and solar power) to electrical vehicles (EVs), biomedical devices, and small appliances, such as laptop chargers. In the near future, electrical energy will be provided and handled by power electronics and consumed through power electronics; this not only will intensify the role of power electronics technology in power conversion processes, but also implies that power systems are undergoing a paradigm shift, from centralized distribution to distributed generation. Today, more than 1000 GW of renewable energy generation sources (photovoltaic (PV) and wind) have been installed, all of which are handled by power electronics technology. The main aim of this book is to highlight and address recent breakthroughs in the range of emerging applications in power electronics and in harmonic and electromagnetic interference (EMI) issues at device and system levels as discussed in ?robust and reliable power electronics technologies, including fault prognosis and diagnosis technique stability of gridconnected converters and ?smart control of power electronics in devices, microgrids, and at system levels.
energy storage  lithiumion battery  battery management system BMS  battery modeling  state of charge SoC  gridconnected inverter  power electronics  multiobjective optimization  switching frequency  total demand distortion  switching losses  EMI filter  power converter  power density  optimal design  electrical drives  axial flux machines  magnetic equivalent circuit  torque ripple  back EMF  permanentmagnet machines  fivephase permanent magnet synchronous machine  fiveleg voltage source inverter  multiphase space vector modulation  sliding mode control  extended Kalman filter  voltage source inverters (VSI)  voltage control  current control  digital control  predictive controllers  advanced controllers  stability  response time  lithiumion batteries  electric vehicles  battery management system  electric power  dynamic PV model  gridconnected VSI  HFlink MPPT converter  nanocrystalline core  SiC PV Supply  DC–DC converters  multilevel control  renewable energy resources control  electrical engineering communications  microgrid control  distributed control  power system operation and control  variable speed pumped storage system  droop control  vector control  phasor model technique  nine switch converter  synchronous generator  digital signal controller  static compensator, distribution generation  hybrid converter  multilevel converter (MLC)  series active filter  power factor correction (PFC)  fieldprogrammable gate array  particle swarm optimization  selective harmonic elimination method  voltage source converter  plugin hybrid electric vehicles  power management system  renewable energy sources  fuzzy  smart microgrid  fivephase machine  faulttolerant control  induction motor  one phase open circuit fault (1Ph)  adjacent twophase open circuit fault (A2Ph)  voltperhertz control (scalar control)  currentfed inverter  LCLS topology  semiactive bridge  soft switching  voltage boost  wireless power transfer  DC–DC conversion  zerovoltage switching (ZVS)  transient control  DC–DC conversion  bidirectional converter  power factor correction  line frequency instability  one cycle control  nonlinear phenomena  bifurcation  boost converter  converter  ice melting  modular multilevel converter (MMC)  optimization design  transmission line  static var generator (SVG)  hardwareintheloop  floatingpoint  fixedpoint  realtime emulation  field programmable gate array  slim DClink drive  VPI active damping control  total harmonic distortion  cogging torque  realtime simulation  power converters  nonlinear control  embedded systems  high level programing  SHIL  DHIL  4T analog MOS control  high frequency switching power supply  water purification  modulation index  electromagnetic interference  chaotic PWM  DCDC buck converter  CMOS chaotic circuit  triangular ramp generator  spreadspectrum technique  system in package  electric vehicle  wireless power transfer  inductive coupling  coupling factor  phaseshift control  seriesseries compensation  PSpice  fixedfrequency double integral slidingmode (FFDISM)  classD amplifier  Qfactor  GaN cascode  direct torque control (DTC)  composite active vectors modulation (CVM)  permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM)  effect factors  double layer capacitor (DLC) models  energy storage modelling  simulation models  current control loops  dual threephase (DTP) permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs)  space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM)  vector control  voltage source inverter  active rectifiers  singleswitch  analog phase control  digital phase control  wireless power transfer  threelevel boost converter (TLBC)  DClink cascade Hbridge (DCLCHB) inverter  conducting angle determination (CAD) techniques  total harmonic distortion (THD)  threephase bridgeless rectifier  fault diagnosis  fault tolerant control  hardware in loop  compensation topology  electromagnetic field (EMF)  electromagnetic field interference (EMI)  misalignment  resonator structure  wireless power transfer (WPT)  WPT standards  EMI filter  electromagnetic compatibility  AC–DC power converters  electromagnetic interference filter  matrix converters  current source  power density  battery energy storage systems  battery chargers  active receivers  frequency locking  reference phase calibration  synchronization  wireless power transfer  lithiumion batteries  SOC estimator  parameter identification  particle swarm optimization  improved extended Kalman filter  battery management system  PMSG  DClink voltage control  variable control gain  disturbance observer  lithiumion power battery pack  composite equalizer  active equalization  passive equalization  control strategy and algorithm  n/a  commonmode inductor  highfrequency modeling  electromagnetic interference  filter  fault diagnosis  condition monitoring  induction machines  support vector machines  expert systems  neural networks  DCAC power converters  frequencydomain analysis  impedancebased model  Nyquist stability analysis  small signal stability analysis  harmonic linearization  line start  permanent magnet  synchronous motor  efficiency motor  rotor design  harmonics  hybrid power filter  active power filter  power quality  total harmonic distortion  equivalent inductance  leakage inductance  switching frequency modelling  induction motor  current switching ripple  multilevel inverter  cascaded topology  voltage doubling  switched capacitor  nearest level modulation (NLM)  total harmonic distortion (THD)  deadtime compensation  power converters  harmonics  n/a
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Power electronics technology is still an emerging technology, and it has found its way into many applications, from renewable energy generation (i.e., wind power and solar power) to electrical vehicles (EVs), biomedical devices, and small appliances, such as laptop chargers. In the near future, electrical energy will be provided and handled by power electronics and consumed through power electronics; this not only will intensify the role of power electronics technology in power conversion processes, but also implies that power systems are undergoing a paradigm shift, from centralized distribution to distributed generation. Today, more than 1000 GW of renewable energy generation sources (photovoltaic (PV) and wind) have been installed, all of which are handled by power electronics technology. The main aim of this book is to highlight and address recent breakthroughs in the range of emerging applications in power electronics and in harmonic and electromagnetic interference (EMI) issues at device and system levels as discussed in ?robust and reliable power electronics technologies, including fault prognosis and diagnosis technique stability of gridconnected converters and ?smart control of power electronics in devices, microgrids, and at system levels.
energy storage  lithiumion battery  battery management system BMS  battery modeling  state of charge SoC  gridconnected inverter  power electronics  multiobjective optimization  switching frequency  total demand distortion  switching losses  EMI filter  power converter  power density  optimal design  electrical drives  axial flux machines  magnetic equivalent circuit  torque ripple  back EMF  permanentmagnet machines  fivephase permanent magnet synchronous machine  fiveleg voltage source inverter  multiphase space vector modulation  sliding mode control  extended Kalman filter  voltage source inverters (VSI)  voltage control  current control  digital control  predictive controllers  advanced controllers  stability  response time  lithiumion batteries  electric vehicles  battery management system  electric power  dynamic PV model  gridconnected VSI  HFlink MPPT converter  nanocrystalline core  SiC PV Supply  DC–DC converters  multilevel control  renewable energy resources control  electrical engineering communications  microgrid control  distributed control  power system operation and control  variable speed pumped storage system  droop control  vector control  phasor model technique  nine switch converter  synchronous generator  digital signal controller  static compensator, distribution generation  hybrid converter  multilevel converter (MLC)  series active filter  power factor correction (PFC)  fieldprogrammable gate array  particle swarm optimization  selective harmonic elimination method  voltage source converter  plugin hybrid electric vehicles  power management system  renewable energy sources  fuzzy  smart microgrid  fivephase machine  faulttolerant control  induction motor  one phase open circuit fault (1Ph)  adjacent twophase open circuit fault (A2Ph)  voltperhertz control (scalar control)  currentfed inverter  LCLS topology  semiactive bridge  soft switching  voltage boost  wireless power transfer  DC–DC conversion  zerovoltage switching (ZVS)  transient control  DC–DC conversion  bidirectional converter  power factor correction  line frequency instability  one cycle control  nonlinear phenomena  bifurcation  boost converter  converter  ice melting  modular multilevel converter (MMC)  optimization design  transmission line  static var generator (SVG)  hardwareintheloop  floatingpoint  fixedpoint  realtime emulation  field programmable gate array  slim DClink drive  VPI active damping control  total harmonic distortion  cogging torque  realtime simulation  power converters  nonlinear control  embedded systems  high level programing  SHIL  DHIL  4T analog MOS control  high frequency switching power supply  water purification  modulation index  electromagnetic interference  chaotic PWM  DCDC buck converter  CMOS chaotic circuit  triangular ramp generator  spreadspectrum technique  system in package  electric vehicle  wireless power transfer  inductive coupling  coupling factor  phaseshift control  seriesseries compensation  PSpice  fixedfrequency double integral slidingmode (FFDISM)  classD amplifier  Qfactor  GaN cascode  direct torque control (DTC)  composite active vectors modulation (CVM)  permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM)  effect factors  double layer capacitor (DLC) models  energy storage modelling  simulation models  current control loops  dual threephase (DTP) permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs)  space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM)  vector control  voltage source inverter  active rectifiers  singleswitch  analog phase control  digital phase control  wireless power transfer  threelevel boost converter (TLBC)  DClink cascade Hbridge (DCLCHB) inverter  conducting angle determination (CAD) techniques  total harmonic distortion (THD)  threephase bridgeless rectifier  fault diagnosis  fault tolerant control  hardware in loop  compensation topology  electromagnetic field (EMF)  electromagnetic field interference (EMI)  misalignment  resonator structure  wireless power transfer (WPT)  WPT standards  EMI filter  electromagnetic compatibility  AC–DC power converters  electromagnetic interference filter  matrix converters  current source  power density  battery energy storage systems  battery chargers  active receivers  frequency locking  reference phase calibration  synchronization  wireless power transfer  lithiumion batteries  SOC estimator  parameter identification  particle swarm optimization  improved extended Kalman filter  battery management system  PMSG  DClink voltage control  variable control gain  disturbance observer  lithiumion power battery pack  composite equalizer  active equalization  passive equalization  control strategy and algorithm  n/a  commonmode inductor  highfrequency modeling  electromagnetic interference  filter  fault diagnosis  condition monitoring  induction machines  support vector machines  expert systems  neural networks  DCAC power converters  frequencydomain analysis  impedancebased model  Nyquist stability analysis  small signal stability analysis  harmonic linearization  line start  permanent magnet  synchronous motor  efficiency motor  rotor design  harmonics  hybrid power filter  active power filter  power quality  total harmonic distortion  equivalent inductance  leakage inductance  switching frequency modelling  induction motor  current switching ripple  multilevel inverter  cascaded topology  voltage doubling  switched capacitor  nearest level modulation (NLM)  total harmonic distortion (THD)  deadtime compensation  power converters  harmonics  n/a
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