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Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Proceedings of the INFN-LNF 2018 Conference

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ISBN: 9783039219681 9783039219698 Year: Pages: 90 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-969-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:20:03
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The results presented in this volume highlight some of the most recent advances in nanoscience and nanotechnology studies, from both the physical and chemical point of view, with an eye also to possible engineering applications. These studies demonstrate directly how effective, and at the same time stimulating is implementing the “cross-fertilization” procedure. Indeed, multidisciplinary research allows one to catch more easily the analogies inherent different areas of science, as well as to take advantage and optimize different methods and techniques, often borrowed from other research areas.In the present Special Issue, we included six published papers. The latter contributions, on the one hand, are developed at the theory level and, on the other hand, show experimental results on the realization and experimental characterization of nanostructured systems, suitable for yielding progress towards the realization of systems and devices, that can ultimately lead to industrial applications. The results show that recent scientific research advances in these areas may provide important steps in the direction of fostering innovation and technological development.

Superhydrophobic Coatings for Corrosion and Tribology

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ISBN: 9783039217847 9783039217854 Year: Pages: 166 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-785-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-07 09:08:26
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Superhydrophobic surfaces, with a water contact angle >150°, have attracted both academic and industrial interest due to their wide range of applications, such as water proofing, anti-fogging, antifouling, anti-icing, fluidic drag reduction and anti-corrosion. Currently the majority of superhydrophobic coatings are created using organic chemicals with low surface energy. However, the lack of mechanical strength and heat resistance prevents the use of these coatings in harsh environments. Quality superhydrophobic coatings developed using inorganic materials are therefore highly sought after. Ceramics are of particular interest due to their high mechanical strength, heat and corrosion resistance. Such superhydrophobic coatings have recently been successfully fabricated using a variety of ceramics and different approaches, and have shown the improved wear and tribocorrosion resistance properties. This Special Issue focuses on the recent developments in the fabrication of superhydrophobic coatings and their robustness against corrosion and wear resistance, but the original work on other properties of superhydrophobic coatings are also welcome. In particular, the topics of interest include, but are not limited to: Robust superhydrophobic coatings; Coatings with super-wettability in multifunctional applications; Wetting effects on corrosion and tribology; Hierarchical Coating for wetting and modelling.

Tribology and Surface Engineering

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ISBN: 9783039280841 9783039280858 Year: Pages: 174 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-085-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-30 16:39:46
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Advances in Hydrometallurgy

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ISBN: 9783039289394 / 9783039289400 Year: Pages: 188 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-940-0 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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The development of new technologies and the increasing demand for mineral resources from emerging countries are responsible for significant tensions in the pricing of non-ferrous metals. Some metals have become strategic and critical because they are used in many technological applications such as flat panel TVs (indium), solar panel cells (indium), lithium-ion batteries for electric vehicles (lithium, cobalt), magnets (rare earth elements, such as neodymium and dysprosium), scintillators (rare earths), and aviation and medical applications (titanium); their availabilities remain limited. The secured supply of these metals is crucial to continue producing and exporting these technologies, and because the specific properties of these metals make them essential and difficult to substitute for a given industrial application. Hydrometallurgy have the advantages of being able to process low-grade ores, to allow better control of co-products, and have a lower environmental impact providing that the hydrometallurgical route is optimized and cheap. The need to develop sustainable, efficient, and cheap processes to extract metals from complex and poor polymetallic matrices is real. The aim of this book was to highlight recent advances related to hydrometallurgy to face new challenges in metal production.

Design and Development of Nanostructured Thin Films

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ISBN: 9783039287383 / 9783039287390 Year: Pages: 386 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-739-0 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Due to their unique size-dependent physicochemical properties, nanostructured thin films are used in a wide range of applications from smart coating and drug delivery to electrocatalysis and highly-sensitive sensors. Depending on the targeted application and the deposition technique, these materials have been designed and developed by tuning their atomic-molecular 2D- and/or 3D-aggregation, thickness, crystallinity, and porosity, having effects on their optical, mechanical, catalytic, and conductive properties. Several open questions remain about the impact of nanomaterial production and use on environment and health. Many efforts are currently being made not only to prevent nanotechnologies and nanomaterials from contributing to environmental pollution but also to design nanomaterials to support, control, and protect the environment. This Special Issue aims to cover the recent advances in designing nanostructured films focusing on environmental issues related to their fabrication processes (e.g., low power and low cost technologies, the use of environmentally friendly solvents), their precursors (e.g., waste-recycled, bio-based, biodegradable, and natural materials), their applications (e.g., controlled release of chemicals, mimicking of natural processes, and clean energy conversion and storage), and their use in monitoring environment pollution (e.g., sensors optically- or electrically-sensitive to pollutants)

Keywords

InAlN --- nanospiral --- metamaterial --- sputtering --- chirality --- microparticle deposition --- self-assembly --- homogeneity --- monomer synthesis --- mask --- hazardous organic solvents --- photonic nanostructures --- self-assembly --- polymer nanoparticles --- biomimetic solvent sensors --- iridescence --- mesoporous --- Al2O3 --- MgO --- poly(dimethylacrylamide) --- hydrogel --- thin film --- spin coating --- SEM --- FIB --- Kr physisorption --- hydrogenated amorphous carbon films --- metallic nanoparticles --- hybrid deposition system --- nanoscratch --- nanocomposites --- aqueous dispersion --- carbon nanotube --- graphene oxide --- ink --- rod coating --- electrical conductivity --- optical transmittance --- mechanical flexibility --- silk sericin --- agarose --- lysozyme --- composite gel --- wound dressing --- nanofiber --- lamination --- water filtration --- CdTe --- self-catalysed --- wires --- Mg alloy --- LDH --- corrosion --- deposition --- coating --- ReB2/TaN multilayers --- modulation structure --- first-principles calculation --- interfacial model --- adsorption energy --- interfacial energy --- biomaterial --- biomedical --- nanofibers --- scaffolds --- reinforced --- hybrid material --- thermal analysis --- nanofibrous membranes --- light trapping --- silicon thin film --- photovoltaics --- polystyrene sphere assisted lithography --- nanostructured back reflectors --- Raman scattering --- quantum confinement --- electron–phonon coupling --- polar semiconductors --- zinc oxide --- metal-organic framework --- microscopy --- thin films --- powders --- electrodeposition --- platinum --- highly oriented pyrolytic graphite --- 2D growth --- barrier material --- nanocoating of SiOx --- polymeric matrix --- plasma deposition --- PVD --- PA-PVD --- PECVD --- permeation --- CERAMIS® --- SorpTest --- iron oxides --- FeO --- Fe3O4 --- ultrathin films --- epitaxial growth --- platinum --- ruthenium --- symmetry --- LEEM --- LEED --- XPEEM --- electrodeposition --- platinum --- highly oriented pyrolytic graphite --- 2D growth --- thin films --- TiO2NPs --- AuNPs --- photocatalysis --- mercury vapors adsorbing layer --- PAS device --- iron oxides --- ultrathin films --- silver --- epitaxial growth --- structural characterization --- STM --- LEED --- XPS --- DFT --- model system --- Pt thin deposits --- galvanic displacement --- UPD --- SLRR --- electrocatalysis --- nanostructured films --- birefringence --- nanocrystalline cellulose --- Mueller matrix --- vanadium dioxide --- post-treatment --- plasma irradiation --- luminous transmittance --- phase transition performance --- electrospinning deposition --- chemosensor --- nanocomposite conductive polymers --- polyhydroxibutyrate --- polystyrene --- H2TPP --- VOCs selectivity --- mesoporous graphene --- thin film --- nanostructure --- CaxCoO2 --- sputtering --- phase transformation --- Ge surface engineering --- La2O3 passivation layer --- atomic layer deposition --- electrical properties

Electrochemical Surface Science: Basics and Applications

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ISBN: 9783039216420 9783039216437 Year: Pages: 398 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-643-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General) --- Inorganic Chemistry
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Electrochemical surface science (EC-SS) is the natural advancement of traditional surface science (where gas–vacuum/solid interfaces are studied) to liquid (solution)/electrified solid interfaces. Such a merging between two different disciplines—i.e., surface science (SS) and electrochemistry—officially advanced ca. three decades ago. The main characteristic of EC-SS versus electrochemistry is the reductionist approach undertaken, inherited from SS and aiming to understand the microscopic processes occurring at electrodes on the atomic level. A few of the exemplary keystone tools of EC-SS include EC-scanning probe microscopies, operando and in situ spectroscopies and electron microscopies, and differential EC mass spectrometry (DEMS). EC-SS indirectly (and often unconsciously) receives a great boost from the requirement for rational design of energy conversion and storage devices for the next generation of energetic landscapes. As a matter of fact, the number of material science groups deeply involved in such a challenging field has tremendously expanded and, within such a panorama, EC and SS investigations are intimately combined in a huge number of papers. The aim of this Special Issue is to offer an open access forum where researchers in the field of electrochemistry, surface science, and materials science could outline the great advances that can be reached by exploiting EC-SS approaches. Papers addressing both the basic science and more applied issues in the field of EC-SS and energy conversion and storage materials have been published in this Special Issue.

Keywords

electrosynthesis --- switchable surfaces --- alkoxyamine surfaces --- redox monolayers --- porphyrins --- self-assembly --- surface nanostructures --- in situ EC-STM --- metal-electrolyte interface --- potential-dependent structures --- combined non-covalent control --- ECALE --- CdS --- silver single crystals --- alkanthiols --- SAMs --- EQCM --- AES --- polypyrrole --- diazonium salts --- flexible ITO --- adhesion --- redox properties --- X-ray absorption spectroscopy --- energy dispersive --- quick-XAS --- FEXRAV --- free electron laser --- electrochemistry --- photoelectrochemistry --- photochemistry --- pump &amp --- probe --- oxygen evolution reaction --- water splitting --- iridium --- thin-films --- spin-coating --- model systems --- electrocatalysts --- oxygen evolution reaction --- iridium --- nickel --- electrodeposition --- model catalyst --- water oxidation --- CO oxidation --- DFT --- hydrogen adsorption --- Pt–Ru catalysts --- ordered mesoporous carbons --- graphitization --- CO oxidation --- methanol oxidation --- direct methanol fuel cells --- electrocatalysis --- catalysts --- methanol oxidation reaction --- graphene --- DMFC --- Pt --- SOFC --- cathode --- XAFS --- in situ --- cobalt oxide --- water oxidation --- photo-electrochemistry --- hydroxyl radical --- electro-oxidation --- Lead OPD --- surface alloy --- XPS --- UPS --- EF-PEEM --- ORR --- Platinum --- PVDF --- PEMFC --- in situ ambient pressure XPS --- hard X rays --- photoelectron simulations --- solid/liquid interface --- TiO2 --- APTES --- Cu(111) --- electrochemical interface --- in-situ X-ray diffraction --- carbon nanofiber --- porous fiber --- electrospinning --- mesopore --- micropore --- porogen --- ammonia activation --- surface area --- methanol oxidation --- platinum single crystals --- pH and concentration effects --- adsorbed OH --- reduced graphene oxide --- electrophoretic deposition --- surface chemistry --- click chemistry --- gold --- palladium --- bimetallic alloy --- carbon nanofibers (CNFs) --- cyclic voltammetry (CV) --- Surface Modification --- Blackening of Steel --- Magnetite --- Corrosion Protection --- Auger-Electron Spectroscopy --- Ordered mesoporous carbon --- nitrogen doping --- cobalt-based electrocatalyst --- bifunctional oxygen electrode --- solvothermal method --- underpotential deposition (upd) --- Au --- Pt --- Pd --- nanoparticles --- cyclic voltammetry --- electrocatalysis --- operando --- near ambient pressure XPS --- scanning photoelectron microscopy --- solid oxide fuel cells --- surface science --- electrodeposited alloys --- CO electro-oxidation --- Pt single-crystal electrodes --- potential cycling --- potential stepping --- surface reconstruction --- electrocatalysis --- oxygen reduction --- ORR --- gas diffusion electrode --- platinum --- fuel cells --- thin-films --- benchmarking --- mass transport --- formic acid oxidation --- Au nanocrystals --- Pd thin films --- electrocatalysis --- d-band theory --- polymer --- silicon nanoparticles --- EPR spectroscopy --- photoconversion --- n/a

Sustainable Utilization of Metals: Processing, Recovery and Recycling

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ISBN: 9783039288854 / 9783039288861 Year: Pages: 388 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-886-1 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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The high demand for advanced metallic materials raises the need for an extensive recycling of metals and such a sustainable use of raw materials. ""Sustainable Utilization of Metals - Processing, Recovery and Recycling"" comprises the latest scientific achievements in efficient production of metals and such addresses sustainable resource use as part of the circular economy strategy. This policy drives the present contributions, aiming on the recirculation of EoL-streams such as Waste Electric and Electronic Equipment (WEEE), multi-metal alloys or composite materials back into metal production. This needs a holistic approach, resulting in the maximal avoidance of waste. Considering both aspects, circular economy and material design, recovery and use of minor metals play an essential role, since their importance for technological applications often goes along with a lack of supply on the world market. Additionally, their ignoble character and low concentration in recycling materials cause an insufficient recycling rate of these metals, awarding them the status of “critical metals”. In order to minimize losses and energy consumption, this issue explores concepts for the optimization concerning the interface between mechanical and thermal pre-treatment and metallurgical processes. Such new approaches in material design, structural engineering and substitution are provided in the chapters.

Keywords

laterites --- scandium --- leaching --- precipitation --- solvent extraction --- manganese --- Zinc --- electrolytic lodes and scrapings --- electrolytic manganese --- metallurgy --- hydrometallurgy --- recycling --- sustainable development --- recycling --- spent catalysts --- zinc --- copper --- Bayan Obo --- REE–Nb–Fe ore --- carbothermal reduction --- kinetics --- NMC batteries --- recycling --- leaching --- solvent extraction --- selective precipitation --- hydrometallurgy --- Bayer process --- trace elements --- vanadium --- gallium --- rare earth elements --- lanthanum --- yttrium --- scandium --- karst bauxite --- bauxite residue --- red mud --- indium --- silver --- jarosite --- recycling --- industrial residue --- process development --- selective extraction --- simultaneous recovery --- pyrometallurgy --- lifetime of steel --- steel scrap --- circulation --- industry sector --- dynamic material flow model --- recycling rate --- material flow analysis --- gold --- copper --- WPCBs --- leaching --- physical separation --- Tin recovery --- steelmaking dust --- zinc recycling --- alkaline leaching --- electric arc furnace --- Li-ion battery --- recycling --- pyrolysis --- microwave assisted pyrolysis --- battery pre-treatment --- super-gravity --- rheorefining --- aluminum alloy --- tramp element --- separation --- jarosite residue --- pyrometallurgy --- circular economy --- slag valorization --- metal recovery --- closed-loop circulation --- environmentally friendly process --- enrichment of Ti --- preparation for recovery --- reduction of Co --- precipitation --- thermal treatment --- hydrometallurgy --- recycling --- cold-bonded briquettes --- blast furnace --- desulfurization --- basic oxygen furnace --- dust --- sludge --- fines --- scandium --- anti-solvent crystallization --- solvent extraction --- precipitation --- ammonium scandium hexafluoride --- chemical equilibrium diagram --- aluminium purification --- iron removal --- intermetallic formation --- polythermal section --- cerium --- flotation --- glass polishing waste --- gravity separation --- leaching --- precipitation --- rare-earths --- recycling --- reuse --- solvent extraction --- neodymium --- dimethyl sulfoxide --- electrodeposition --- bauxite residue --- red mud --- ionic liquids --- scandium recovery --- titanium recovery --- NdFeB magnets --- rare earth elements --- recycling --- recycling potential --- neodymium --- dysprosium --- WPCB --- melting behavior --- flash smelting --- cementation --- copper removal --- cavitation --- pyrolysis --- smartphone --- displays --- halogenation --- indium --- volatilization --- thermodynamics --- recycling --- magnesium --- refining --- recycling --- ultra-high purity --- vacuum distillation --- condensation --- oxygen-depolarized cathodes --- silver leaching --- cryogenic pre-treatment --- negative activation energy --- polishing waste --- rare earths --- waste utilization --- characterization --- leaching --- n/a

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