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The Global Challenge Posed by the Multiresistant International Clones of Bacterial Pathogens

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452170 Year: Pages: 291 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-217-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-13 14:57:01
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Multiresistant bacterial pathogens pose a serious problem worldwide making the appropriate treatment of patients with healthcare-associated infections a challenge. The spread of antibiotic resistance is either mediated by mobile genetic elements (MGEs) or the dissemination of genetically-related groups of pathogens, “high-risk clonal complexes”. Interestingly most multiresistant healthcare-associated bacteria command just a few dominant international clonal complexes causing infections in various geographical areas. It is of utmost importance to identify the determinants associated with and promoting the spread of antibiotic resistance and the dissemination of these multiresistant pathogens. The Topic comprises mostly of population and epidemiological studies investigating antibiotic resistance mechanisms, MGEs and the impact of antibiotic resistance, and the production of virulence factors on the clonal dynamics of a diverse range of bacterial species. Though, the exploration of the mechanisms governing clonal dynamics and the dissemination of antibiotic resistance will remain a salient issue for a considerable time to come we believe that the papers published in the Topic have usefully contributed to the better understanding of some of the processes involved and supplement papers investigating the “non-bacterial” constituents of clonal mobility, like proper medical practice and compliance with hygienic standards.

Cross-Border Dissemination of Online Content

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Book Series: Schriftenreihe Medienforschung der Landesanstalt für Medien NRW ISBN: 9783748906438 Year: Volume: 81 Pages: 324 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5771/9783748906438 Language: English
Publisher: Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft mbH & Co. KG
Subject: Law
Added to DOAB on : 2020-03-16 09:26:47
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Can the rules of the European Union’s E-Commerce Directive, which date back to the year 2000, continue to be valid with regard to the dissemination of content in view of the constantly evolving online environment and the changing role of platforms as a result of new business models?The relevant legal foundations in this respect at EU and national level are complex, and their interplay is often unclear. The resulting uncertainty about who is responsible and therefore liable for certain content requires a critical review of the current legal framework.This study, conducted by the Institute of European Media Law (EMR) on behalf of the State Media Authority NRW, analyses the current legal framework and reveals ways of enforcing the applicable provisions concerning illegal content. It pays special attention to the need for reform of the E-Commerce Directive in light of the changing role of platforms.Können die Regelungen der bereits im Jahr 2000 verabschiedeten europäischen E-Commerce-Richtlinie angesichts der sich stetig weiterentwickelnden Online-Welt und der auf neuen Geschäftsmodellen beruhenden veränderten Rolle von Plattformen bei der Inhalteverbreitung fortbestehen?Die einschlägigen Rechtsgrundlagen auf EU- und nationaler Ebene sind vielschichtig und das Zusammenspiel oftmals unklar. Die daraus resultierende Unsicherheit darüber, wer für einen Inhalt verantwortlich und daher haftbar ist, erfordert die Überprüfung des geltenden Rechtsrahmens.Die vom Institut für Europäisches Medienrecht (EMR) im Auftrag der Landesanstalt für Medien NRW erstellte Studie analysiert den aktuellen Rechtsrahmen und zeigt rechtliche Gestaltungsmöglichkeiten der Rechtsdurchsetzung bei als rechtswidrig einzustufenden Inhalten auf. Besonderes Augenmerk wird dabei auf den Reformbedarf der E-Commerce-Richtlinie vor dem Hintergrund der sich wandelnden Rolle von Plattformen gelegt.

Communities and knowledge production in archaeology

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9781526134554 9781526134561 Year: Language: English
Publisher: Manchester University Press Grant: Knowledge Unlatched - 102763
Subject: Archaeology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-02-20 11:21:03
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The dynamic processes of knowledge production in archaeology and elsewhere in the humanities and social sciences are increasingly viewed as the collaborative effort of groups, clusters and communities of researchers rather than the isolated work of so-called ‘instrumental’ actors. Shifting focus from the individual scholar to the wider social contexts of her work and the dynamic creative processes she participates in, this volume critically examines the importance of informal networks and conversation in the creation of knowledge about the past. Engaging with theoretical approaches such as the sociology and geographies of knowledge and Actor-Network Theory (ANT), and using examples taken from different archaeologies in Europe and North America from the seventeenth to the mid-twentieth century, the book caters to a wide readership, ranging from students of archaeology, anthropology, classics and science studies to the general reader.

Open Access in Theory and Practice

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ISBN: 9780367227852 Year: Pages: 256 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Information theory
Added to DOAB on : 2020-07-08 23:59:13
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"Open Access in Theory and Practice investigates the theory-practice relationship in the domain of open access publication and dissemination of research outputs. Drawing on detailed analysis of the literature and current practice in OA, as well as data collected in detailed interviews with practitioners, policymakers, and researchers, the book discusses what constitutes “theory”, and how the role of theory is perceived by both theorists and practitioners. Exploring the ways theory and practice have interacted in the development of OA, the authors discuss what this reveals about the nature of the OA phenomenon itself and the theory-practice relationship. Open Access in Theory and Practice contributes to a better understanding of OA and, as such, should be of great interest to academics, researchers, and students working in the fields of information science, publishing studies, science communication, higher education policy, business, and economics. The book also makes an important contribution to the debate of the relationship between theory and practice in information science, and more widely across different fields of the social sciences and humanities."

Between Creed, Rhetoric Façade, and Disregard

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Book Series: Forschungsergebnisse der Wirtschaftsuniversitaet Wien ISBN: 9783631619681 Year: Pages: 257 Language: English
Publisher: Peter Lang International Academic Publishing Group
Subject: Business and Management --- Sociology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:32:59
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Applying the theoretical lens of organizational institutionalism, this study analyzes the spread of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in the Austrian corporate world. The objectives are threefold: First, to explore the institutional framework in place; second, to explain the dissemination of CSR in terms of adopters’ characteristics and field-level pressures; and third, to understand the structuring dimensions of meaning within the CSR discourse. The findings demonstrate that a specific sub-population is more inclined to espouse commitment to CSR policies. Against the background of an ambiguous nature and definition of CSR, this study also shows how actor categories and divergent thematic embeddings serve as a basis for the concept’s theorization, and elaborates on a distinct constellation of empirical sub-discourses.

A research handbook for patient and public involvement researchers

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9781526136527 Year: Pages: 145 Language: English
Publisher: Manchester University Press
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Psychiatry --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:10
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This handbook is written for patients and members of the public who want to understand more about the approaches, methods and language used by health-services researchers. Patient and public involvement (PPI) in research is now a requirement of most major health-research programmes, and this book is designed to equip these individuals with the knowledge and skills necessary for meaningful participation. Edited by award-winning mental-health researchers, the book has been produced in partnership with mental-health-service users and carers with experience of research involvement. It includes personal reflections from these individuals alongside detailed information on quantitative, qualitative and health-economics research methods, and comprehensively covers all the basics needed for large-scale health research projects: systematic reviews; research design and analysis using both qualitative and quantitative approaches; health economics; research ethics; impact and dissemination. This book was developed during a five-year research programme funded by the UK’s National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) called Enhancing the Quality of User Involved Care Planning in Mental Health Services (EQUIP). The handbook clearly outlines research practices, and gives an insight into how public and patient representatives can be involved in them and shape decisions. Each chapter ends with a reflective exercise, and there are also some suggested sources of additional reading. People who get involved in health research as experts from experience now have a textbook to support their research involvement journey.

Data Journeys in the Sciences

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783030371777 Year: Pages: 412 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-37177-7 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-07-15 23:58:32
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This groundbreaking, open access volume analyses and compares data practices across several fields through the analysis of specific cases of data journeys. It brings together leading scholars in the philosophy, history and social studies of science to achieve two goals: tracking the travel of data across different spaces, times and domains of research practice; and documenting how such journeys affect the use of data as evidence and the knowledge being produced. The volume captures the opportunities, challenges and concerns involved in making data move from the sites in which they are originally produced to sites where they can be integrated with other data, analysed and re-used for a variety of purposes. The in-depth study of data journeys provides the necessary ground to examine disciplinary, geographical and historical differences and similarities in data management, processing and interpretation, thus identifying the key conditions of possibility for the widespread data sharing associated with Big and Open Data. The chapters are ordered in sections that broadly correspond to different stages of the journeys of data, from their generation to the legitimisation of their use for specific purposes. Additionally, the preface to the volume provides a variety of alternative “roadmaps” aimed to serve the different interests and entry points of readers; and the introduction provides a substantive overview of what data journeys can teach about the methods and epistemology of research.

Circulating Tumor Cells: Finding Rare Events for A Huge Knowledge of Cancer Dissemination

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ISBN: 9783039286980 / 9783039286997 Year: Pages: 366 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-699-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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The analysis of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) as a real-time liquid biopsy approach can be used to obtain new insights into metastasis biology, and as companion diagnostics to improve the stratification of therapies and to obtain insights into the therapy-induced selection of cancer cells. In this book, we will cover all the different facets of CTCs to assemble a huge corpus of knowledge on cancer dissemination: technologies for their enrichment, detection, and characterization; their analysis at the single-cell level; their journey as CTC microemboli; their clinical relevance; their biology with the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT); their stem-cell properties; their potential to initiate metastasis at distant sites; their ex vivo expansion; and their escape from the immune system.

Keywords

circulating tumor cells --- circulating tumor DNA --- liquid biopsy --- metastatic colorectal cancer --- FOLFIRINOX --- circulating tumor cells --- CTC --- liquid biopsy --- CTM --- CTMat --- CTC biology --- CTC capture technology --- metastasis --- circulating tumor cells (CTCs) --- hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) --- castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) --- epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) --- fibronectin --- integrin B1 --- SLUG --- major histocompatibility complex class I (MHCI) --- immunomodulation --- bone marrow --- melanoma --- disseminated tumor cells --- solid cancers --- single-cell analysis --- enrichment and detection technologies --- flow cytometry --- tumor stem cells --- HMB-45 --- CD133 --- locally advanced rectal cancer --- circulating tumor cells --- RAD23B --- thymidylate synthase --- chemoradioresistance --- liquid biopsy --- circulating tumor cells --- epithelial–mesenchymal transition --- stem cells --- early breast cancer --- prostate cancer (PCa) --- circulating tumor cells (CTC) --- liquid biopsy --- circulating tumor cells --- metastasis --- xenograft models --- breast cancer --- prostate cancer --- CTC --- AR --- AR-V7 --- ctRNA --- exosome --- circulating tumor cells --- hematological cells --- neutrophils --- platelets --- liquid biopsy --- circulating tumor cells --- melanoma --- liquid biopsy --- EPISPOT --- CellSearch® --- liquid biopsy --- CTCs --- immune checkpoint inhibitors --- PD-L1 expression --- NSCLC --- small-cell lung carcinoma --- circulating tumor cells --- microfluidics --- gene expression analysis --- synaptophysin --- chromogranin A --- rovalpituzumab tesirine --- leukocyte-derived extracellular vesicles --- immunofluorescence imaging --- EpCAM enrichment --- CellSearch --- EasyCount slides --- ACCEPT --- CTC --- heterogeneity --- liquid biopsy --- liquid surgery --- clinical utility --- circulating tumor cells (CTCs) --- glioma --- biomarker --- rVAR2 --- malaria --- enrichment and detection technologies --- prostate cancer --- biomarkers --- circulating tumor cells --- androgen receptor --- ARV7 --- abiraterone --- enzalutamide --- metastasis --- tumor-initiating cells (TICs) --- circulating tumor cells (CTCs) --- CTC-derived xenografts --- CTC-derived ex vivo models --- cerebrospinal liquid biopsy --- in vivo flow cytometry --- tumor biomarkers --- circulating tumor cells --- ctDNA --- miRNA --- exosomes --- emboli --- targeted therapy --- circulating tumor cells --- tumor cell dissemination --- immune system --- microbiome --- circulating tumor cells (CTCs) --- clinical trials --- breast cancer --- CTC-based treatment decisions --- circulating tumour cells --- colorectal cancer --- colorectal surgery --- microsatellite instability --- microfluidics --- immunophenotyping --- fish --- liquid biopsy --- circulating leukemia cells --- circulating plasma cells --- n/a

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