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Cosmic Plasmas and Electromagnetic Phenomena

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ISBN: 9783039214655 / 9783039214662 Year: Pages: 264 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-466-2 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Physics (General) --- Astronomy (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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During the past few decades, plasma science has witnessed a great growth in laboratory studies, in simulations, and in space. Plasma is the most common phase of ordinary matter in the universe. It is a state in which ionized matter (even as low as 1%) becomes highly electrically conductive. As such, long-range electric and magnetic fields dominate its behavior. Cosmic plasmas are mostly associated with stars, supernovae, pulsars and neutron stars, quasars and active galaxies at the vicinities of black holes (i.e., their jets and accretion disks). Cosmic plasma phenomena can be studied with different methods, such as laboratory experiments, astrophysical observations, and theoretical/computational approaches (i.e., MHD, particle-in-cell simulations, etc.). They exhibit a multitude of complex magnetohydrodynamic behaviors, acceleration, radiation, turbulence, and various instability phenomena. This Special Issue addresses the growing need of the plasma science principles in astrophysics and presents our current understanding of the physics of astrophysical plasmas, their electromagnetic behaviors and properties (e.g., shocks, waves, turbulence, instabilities, collimation, acceleration and radiation), both microscopically and macroscopically. This Special Issue provides a series of state-of-the-art reviews from international experts in the field of cosmic plasmas and electromagnetic phenomena using theoretical approaches, astrophysical observations, laboratory experiments, and state-of-the-art simulation studies.

Polyamine Metabolism in Disease and Polyamine-Targeted Therapies

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ISBN: 9783039211524 / 9783039211531 Year: Pages: 240 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-153-1 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Polyamines are ubiquitous polycations essential for all cellular life. The most common polyamines in eukaryotes, spermine, spermidine, and putrescine, exist in millimolar intracellular concentrations that are tightly regulated through biosynthesis, catabolism, and transport. Polyamines interact with, and regulate, negatively charged macromolecules, including nucleic acids, proteins, and ion channels. Accordingly, alterations in polyamine metabolism affect cellular proliferation and survival through changes in gene expression and transcription, translation, autophagy, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. Dysregulation of these multifaceted polyamine functions contribute to multiple disease processes, thus their metabolism and function have been targeted for preventive or therapeutic intervention. The correlation between elevated polyamine levels and cancer is well established, and ornithine decarboxylase, the rate-limiting biosynthetic enzyme in the production of putrescine, is a bona fide transcriptional target of the Myc oncogene. Furthermore, induced polyamine catabolism contributes to carcinogenesis that is associated with certain forms of chronic infection and/or inflammation through the production of reactive oxygen species. These and other characteristics specific to cancer cells have led to the development of polyamine-based agents and inhibitors aimed at exploiting the polyamine metabolic pathway for chemotherapeutic and chemopreventive benefit. In addition to cancer, polyamines are involved in the pathologies of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s, parasitic and infectious diseases, wound healing, ischemia/reperfusion injuries, and certain age-related conditions, as polyamines are known to decrease with age. As in cancer, polyamine-based therapies for these conditions are an area of active investigation. With recent advances in immunotherapy, interest has increased regarding polyamine-associated modulation of immune responses, as well as potential immunoregulation of polyamine metabolism, the results of which could have relevance to multiple disease processes. The goal of this Special Issue of Medical Sciences is to present the most recent advances in polyamine research as it relates to health, disease, and/or therapy.

Keywords

polyamine transport inhibitor --- Drosophila imaginal discs --- difluoromethylorthinine --- DFMO --- polyamine --- cancer --- metabolism --- difluoromethylornithine --- polyamine transport inhibitor --- pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma --- curcumin --- diferuloylmethane --- ornithine decarboxylase --- polyamine --- NF-?B --- chemoprevention --- carcinogenesis --- polyphenol --- ornithine decarboxylase --- polyamines --- untranslated region --- polyamines --- ?-difluoromethylornithine --- polyamine transport system --- melanoma --- mutant BRAF --- spermine --- spermidine --- putrescine --- polyamine metabolism --- mast cells --- eosinophils --- neutrophils --- M2 macrophages --- airway smooth muscle cells --- Streptococcus pneumoniae --- polyamines --- pneumococcal pneumonia --- proteomics --- capsule --- complementation --- metabolism --- cadaverine --- polyamines --- ornithine decarboxylase --- difluoromethylornithine --- eflornithine --- DFMO --- African sleeping sickness --- hirsutism --- colorectal cancer --- neuroblastoma --- aging --- atrophy --- autophagy --- oxidative stress --- polyamines --- skeletal muscle --- spermidine --- spermine oxidase --- transgenic mouse --- immunity --- T-lymphocytes --- B-lymphocytes --- tumor immunity --- metabolism --- epigenetics --- autoimmunity --- polyamines --- ornithine decarboxylase --- polyamine analogs --- spermidine/spermine N1-acetyl transferase --- spermine oxidase --- bis(ethyl)polyamine analogs --- breast cancer --- MCF-7 cells --- transgenic mice --- polyamines --- MYC --- protein synthesis in cancer --- neuroblastoma --- protein expression --- antizyme 1 --- ornithine decarboxylase --- CRISPR --- human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) --- cell differentiation --- DFMO --- ornithine decarboxylase --- osteosarcoma --- polyamines --- polyamines --- polyamine metabolism --- antizyme --- antizyme inhibitors --- ornithine decarboxylase --- Snyder-Robinson Syndrome --- spermine synthase --- X-linked intellectual disability --- polyamine transport --- spermidine --- spermine --- transglutaminase

Asymmetric Planetary Nebulae VII

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ISBN: 9783038976400 Year: Pages: 204 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-641-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Physics (General) --- Astronomy (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-03-21 14:08:22
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This book contains the best and most up-to-date contributions in the field of late stage stellar evolution, as presented at the APNVII conference in Hong Kong in December 2017. A total of 60 scientists from 20 countries gathered to present, listen, interact and discuss the most current issues and problems in planetary nebulae and related objects research. The emphasis of this influential series of meetings, which was the seventh occasion over the last 20 years, has always been on the hypothesized and observed physical shaping mechanisms of the ejected nebulae that have such wonderful and intriguing forms. This special Galaxies conference issue of fully refereed contributions brings together a representative compilation of the meeting presentations in paper form. It captures the current “snap shot” status of this research field in some real sense. Such proceedings are well received and can be used as a reference material by both participants and all others working in the field for years to come.

Keywords

planetary systems --- planetary nebulae --- stars: binaries --- stars: AGB and post-AGB --- stars: variables: general --- stars: abundances --- stars: AGB and post-AGB --- stars: atmospheres --- stars: individual: WD 0044–121 --- stars: individual: WD 2134+25 --- stars: individual: WD 1751+106 --- planetary nebulae --- asymptotic giant branch stars --- mass loss --- infra-red --- planetary nebulae --- integral field spectroscopy --- stellar evolution --- binarity --- planetary nebulae --- stellar mass loss --- stellar evolution --- planetary nebulae --- circumstellar dust --- planetary nebulae --- mass-loss --- stellar evolution --- X-rays --- stellar evolution --- late stage stellar evolution --- binarity: transients: planetary nebulae --- planetary nebulae --- stars: AGB and post-AGB --- late stage stellar evolution --- planetary nebulae --- stars: binaries --- central stars of planetary nebulae --- proto-planetary nebulae --- binaries: spectroscopic --- stars: atmospheres --- stars: abundances --- supernovae --- late stage stellar evolution --- planetary nebulae --- binarity --- stellar evolution --- AGB and post-AGB stars --- circumstellar matter --- winds and outflows --- mass-loss --- jets --- binaries: close --- stars: AGB and post-AGB --- stars: winds, outflows --- ISM: jets and outflows --- binary stars --- post-AGB --- discs --- planetary nebula --- X-ray --- stellar evolution --- AGB stars --- post-AGB stars --- planetary nebulae --- planetary nebulae --- fullerenes --- planetary nebulae --- AGB and post-AGB stars --- binarity --- accretion disks --- jets --- mass-loss --- circumstellar matter --- (sub)millimeter interferometry --- ultraviolet radiation, X-rays --- infrared interferometry --- AGB stars --- stellar evolution --- observations --- aperture masking --- planetary nebulae --- binarity --- abundances --- stellar evolution --- post-AGB stars --- pre-PN hydrodynamic models --- planetary nebulae: Common Envelope --- planetary nebulae: individual (OH231+8+04.2) --- astrochemistry --- planetary nebulae --- UIE bands --- normal modes --- displacement vectors --- late-stage stellar evolution --- planetary nebulae --- multi-wavelength photometry --- radial velocity --- stellar evolution --- pulsation --- shock wave --- late stage stellar evolution --- planetary nebulae --- theory and observation --- planetary nebulae --- AGB and post-AGB --- interstellar medium --- radio continuum --- winds --- outflows --- dust --- extinction --- ISM: abundances --- planetary nebulae: individual (NGC 6781)

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