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Early and late selection: Effects of load, dilution and salience

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889192557 Year: Pages: 143 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-255-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-16 15:44:59
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Our visual system is constantly bombarded by a variety of stimuli, of which only a small part is relevant to the task at hand. As a result, goal-directed behavior requires a high degree of selectivity at some point in the processing stream. The precise point at which selection takes place has been the focus of much debate. Early selection advocates argue that the locus of selection is at early stages of processing and that therefore, unattended stimuli are not fully processed. In contrast, late selection theorists argue that attention operates only after stimuli have been fully processed. Evidence supporting both sides has been accumulated over the years and the debate played a central role in the attention literature for decades. Perceptual load theory was put forward as an intermediate solution: the locus of selective attention depends on task requirements. When load is high, selection is early. When load is low, selection is late. This solution has been widely accepted and the early/late debate has been, for the most part, set aside. However, recently, perceptual load theory has been challenged on both theoretical and methodological grounds. It has been argued that it is not load, but rather perceptual dilution salience and other perceptual factors that determine the efficacy of attentional selection, which would call for a reevaluation of the current status of both perceptual load theory and its proposed alternatives, and more broadly, the early/late selection debate. The goal of this Research Topic is to provide an up-to-date overview of both empirical evidence and theoretical views on these key questions.

Microbial Fuel Cells 2018

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ISBN: 9783039215355 9783039215348 Year: Pages: 84 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-534-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Environmental Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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The rapid growth of global energy consumption and simultaneous waste discharge requires more sustainable energy production and waste disposal/recovery technology. In this respect, microbial fuel cell and bioelectrochemical systems have been highlighted to provide a platform for waste-to-energy and cost-efficient treatment. Microbial fuel cell technology has also contributed to both academia and industry through the development of breakthrough sustainable technologies, enabling cross- and multi-disciplinary approaches in microbiology, biotechnology, electrochemistry, and bioprocess engineering. To further spread these technologies and to help the implementation of microbial fuel cells, this Special Issue, entitled “Microbial Fuel Cells 2018”, was proposed for the international journal Energies. This Special Issue mainly covers original research and studies related to the above-mentioned topic, including, but not limited to, bioelectricity generation, microbial electrochemistry, useful resource recovery, system and process design, and the implementation of microbial fuel cells.

Turbulence in River and Maritime Hydraulics

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ISBN: 9783038975946 Year: Pages: 296 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-595-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-03-21 15:50:41
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Understanding of the role of turbulence in controlling transport processes is of paramount importance for the preservation and protection of aquatic ecosystems, the minimization of the deleterious consequences of anthropogenic activity, and the successful sustainable development of river and maritime areas. In this context, the present Special Issue collects 15 papers which provide a representation of the present understanding of turbulent processes and their effects in river and maritime environments. The presented collection of papers is not exhaustive, but it highlights the key priority areas and knowledge gaps in this field of research. The published papers present the state-of-the-art knowledge of complex environmental flows which are useful for researchers and practitioners. The paper contents are an overview of some recent topics of research and an exposure of the current and future challenges associated with these topics.

Keywords

breaking waves --- turbulence invariants --- laboratory experiments --- flow-through system --- tidal inlets --- residence time --- coastal lagoon --- MIKE 3 FM (HD & --- TR) --- MIKE 21 FM (HD) --- dense jet --- current flow --- velocity --- trajectory --- turbulence --- dissipation --- rivers --- meanders --- turbulence --- secondary motion --- prediction --- bedrock canyon --- ADCP --- eddy viscosity --- bed shear stress --- spatial analysis --- smoothed particle hydrodynamics models --- physical modelling --- plunging breaking waves --- vorticity --- turbulent jet --- wave–current interaction --- spectral dissipation --- bottom friction --- numerical model --- hydrodynamic model --- spectral model --- wave attenuation --- energy dissipation --- drag coefficient --- flexible vegetation --- Spartina maritima --- vegetation patch --- wake region --- submerged ratio --- SVF --- channel confluences --- junction angle --- flow deflection zone --- flow retardation zone --- flow separation zone --- numerical modelling --- PANORMUS --- jets --- waves --- turbulence --- mixing --- diffusion --- advection --- river mouth --- flow mixing --- nonlinear shallow water equations --- macrovortices --- sub-grid turbulence --- seabed friction --- flow resistance --- roughness --- gravel-bed rivers --- casting technique --- CFD --- Kelvin–Helmholtz --- billow --- lobe --- cleft --- gravity current --- surface waves --- inclined negatively buoyant jets --- regular waves --- dilution --- sea discharges --- rivers --- maritime areas --- turbulent processes

Solid Phase Extraction: State of the Art and Future Perspectives

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ISBN: 9783039211586 9783039211593 Year: Pages: 176 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-159-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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This book is a collection of 13 innovative papers describing the state of the art and the future perspectives in solid-phase extraction covering several analytical fields prior to the use of gas or liquid chromatographic analysis. New sorptive materials are presented including carbon nanohorn suprastructures on paper support, melamine sponge functionalized with urea–formaldehyde co-oligomers, chiral metal–organic frameworks, UiO-66-based metal–organic frameworks, and fabric phase sorptive media for various applications. Solid-phase extraction can be applied in several formats aside from the conventional cartridges or mini-column approach, e.g., online solid-phase extraction, dispersive solid-phase microextraction, and in-syringe micro-solid-phase extraction can be very helpful for analyte pre-concentration and sample clean-up. Polycyclic musks in aqueous samples, 8-Nitroguanine in DNA by chemical derivatization antibacterial diterpenes from the roots of salvia prattii, perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in aater samples by bamboo charcoal-based SPE, parabens in environmental water samples, benzotriazoles as environmental pollutants, organochlorine pesticide residues in various fruit juices and water samples and synthetic peptide purification are among the applications cited in this collection. All these outstanding contributions highlight the necessity of this analytical step, present the advantages and disadvantages of each method and focus on the green analytical chemistry guidelines that have to be fulfilled in current analytical practices.

Condensed Matter Researches in Cryospheric Science

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ISBN: 9783039213238 9783039213245 Year: Pages: 144 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-324-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 16:10:12
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The cryosphere is very sensitive to climate change, and glaciers represent one of the most important archives of atmospheric composition and its variability. From the Himalaya to the European Alps, the longest mid-latitude mountain chain in the world, lie thousands of glaciers that have collected atmospheric compounds over the last millennia. China and Italy are located at the opposite terminals of this long mountain chain, comprising strategic positions for understanding climate evolution and providing important information for the modeling of future climates. The results presented are highlights of some of the most recent advances in cryospheric studies, especially on the topic of mineral dust and aerosols in the atmosphere. They evidence the complexity of the chemical–physical processes involving solid compounds occurring in glacier, snow, and permafrost environments, covering different aspects such as spatial and temporal trends, as well as the impact of mineral and nonmineral particles. Results also show that recent advances in measurement techniques and source apportionment may be powerful and sophisticated tools to provide novel, high-quality scientific information.

Selected Papers from the 15th Estuarine and Coastal Modeling Conference

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ISBN: 9783039212699 9783039212705 Year: Pages: 432 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-270-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Geography
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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The 15th Estuarine and Coastal Modeling Conference provides a venue for commercial, academic, and government scientists and engineers from around the world to present and discuss the latest results and techniques in applied estuarine and coastal modeling. Prospective authors are invited to submit papers on a wide range of topic areas, including:• Pollutant Transport and Water Quality Prediction• Coastal Response to Climate Change• Modeling Techniques and Sensitivity Studies• Model Assessment• Modeling Specific Estuarine and Coastal Systems• Visualization and Analysis• Wave and Sediment Transport Modeling• Modeling of Chemicals and Floatables• Oil Spill Transport and Fate Modeling• Inverse Methods• Circulation Modeling• Facility Siting and CSO Studies• Data Assimilation• Nowcast/Forecast Modeling Systems• Modeling Systems with Strong Buoyancy Forcing• Modeling of Coupled Systems• Risk Analysis (Nuclear Reactors, Flood Forecasting)

Keywords

British Columbia --- environmental assessment --- marine construction --- circulation --- numerical model --- sediment model --- tidal current --- wind-driven current --- stratification --- initial dilution zone --- property-carrying particle model --- coupled models --- ecosystem simulation --- biophysical modeling --- Sandusky Bay --- Great Lakes --- tides --- tidal datums --- VDatum --- spatially varying uncertainty (SVU) --- north-east Gulf of Mexico --- Brown Passage --- Chatham Sound --- internal tides --- circulation --- numerical model --- stratification --- barotropic --- baroclinic --- Hood Canal --- floating bridge --- Salish Sea --- hydrodynamics --- Finite-Volume Community Ocean Model (FVCOM) --- circulation --- anthropogenic impact --- zone of influence --- Salish Sea model --- ice modeling --- operational forecast --- FVCOM --- CICE --- hydrodynamic modeling --- Great Lakes --- hydrodynamic numerical model --- H3D --- agriculture --- salt wedge --- climate change --- sea level rise --- river discharge --- channel deepening --- tidal constituent database --- ADvanced CIRCulation model (ADCIRC) --- Eastern North Pacific Ocean (ENPAC) --- coastal ocean modeling --- Gulf of Mexico --- operational nowcast and forecast system --- Finite Volume Community Ocean Model --- water level --- temperature --- salinity --- water quality --- model calibration --- estuary --- eutrophication --- CE-QUAL-W2 --- phytoplankton --- algal growth kinetics --- wave energy --- wind forcing --- large-wave hindcast --- multi-level nested-grid modeling --- CFSR --- NARR --- WaveWatch III --- SWAN --- hydrodynamics --- feasibility assessments --- nearshore restoration --- FVCOM --- Puget Sound --- Salish Sea --- numerical model --- sediment transport --- marine --- short-lived radioisotopes --- wave hindcast --- breakwater --- harbor --- estuary --- SWAN --- MIKE21SW --- unstructured grid --- storm surge --- coastal storm --- flooding --- compound events --- estuarine modeling --- lateral circulation --- tidal currents --- momentum balance --- coastal and estuarine modeling --- ADCIRC --- water level time series --- VDatum --- tidal datums --- statistical interpolation --- spatially varying uncertainty --- non-tidal zones --- marine grid population --- Texas --- western Louisiana --- Gulf of Mexico --- ocean modeling --- cloud computing --- data analysis --- geospatial data visualization

Foods of Plant Origin

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ISBN: 9783039285662 / 9783039285679 Year: Pages: 204 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-567-9 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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It is now well accepted that the consumption of plant-based foods is beneficial to human health. Fruits, vegetables, grains, and derived products can be excellent sources of minerals, vitamins, and fiber and usually have a favorable nutrient-to-energy ratio. Furthermore, plant foods are also a rich source of phytochemicals such as polyphenols, carotenoids, and betalains, with potential health benefits for humans. Many epidemiological studies have made a direct link between the consumption of plant foods and health. Human intervention studies have also shown that higher intake/consumption of plant foods can reduce the incidence of metabolic syndrome and other chronic diseases, especially in at-risk populations such as obese people. In addition to its health benefits, plant foods are also used as functional ingredients in food applications such as antioxidants, antimicrobials, and natural colorants. The Special Issue “Foods of Plant Origin” covers biodiscovery, functionality, the effect of different cooking/preparation methods on bioactive (plant food) ingredients, and strategies to improve the nutritional quality of plant foods by adding other food components using novel/alternative food sources or applying non-conventional preparation techniques.

Keywords

functional properties --- orange fleshed sweet potato --- vitamin A --- porridge --- skimmed milk --- durian --- esters --- thioacetals --- thioesters --- volatile compounds --- polyphenols --- propionate --- ‘Ma’afala’ --- Artocarpus altilis --- gluten-free pasta --- underutilized crop --- value-added product --- indigenous crop cultivar --- Cassava --- gari --- retention --- beta-carotene --- vitamin A intake --- Brassica --- stir-frying --- steaming --- boiling --- HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS --- UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS --- sulforaphane --- iberin --- Kakadu plum --- Terminalia ferdinandiana --- antioxidants --- antimicrobial activity --- food preservation --- phytochemicals --- polyphenols --- Australian grown garlic --- Allium sativum L. --- polyphenols --- organosulfur compounds --- antioxidant capacity --- antimicrobial activity --- photo technology --- shelf life --- Capsicum annuum L. --- postharvest quality --- bioactive compounds --- antioxidant activity --- folate --- tropical fruits --- subtropical fruits --- vegetables --- indigenous food --- stable isotope dilution assay --- LC-MS/MS --- Acca sellowiana --- feijoa fruit --- proximate composition --- polyphenols --- vitamins --- minerals --- antimicrobial activity --- Chenopodium quinoa --- bakery products --- DRIs/DRVs (Dietary Reference Intakes/Dietary Reference Values) and AI (Adequate Intake) --- FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) --- EFSA (European Food Safety Authority) --- protein quality --- polyunsaturated fatty acids --- dietary fibre --- mineral availability --- glycaemic index estimation --- Solanum tuberosum L. --- starch --- digestibility --- freeze-drying --- microwave vacuum drying --- conductive hydro-drying --- instant controlled pressure drop --- processing --- Brassica vegetables --- bioactive compounds --- postharvest processing --- kaempferol --- sinigrin --- plant food --- composition --- nutrients --- vitamins --- phytochemicals --- fibre --- processing --- preservation --- functional properties --- health

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