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A Conversation about Healthy Eating

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ISBN: 9781911576754 Year: Pages: 248 DOI: 10.14324/111.9781911576754 Language: English
Publisher: UCL Press Grant: European Research Council (ERC) - 2011-AdG-295486
Subject: Biology --- Public Health
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-21 11:02:05
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What constitutes a healthy diet? Mainstream media and advertisers would like you to think that the answer to this question is complicated and controversial. But science, fortunately, tells us otherwise. A Conversation about Healthy Eating brings together all the relevant science about healthy eating in one place, and it’s exactly that – a conversation; an informal discussion between a scientist and a friend about their eating habits, keeping the science firmly rooted in everyday life. The conversation moves from topics such as metabolism and digestion to gut bacteria, hormones, neuroscience and the immune system. All of these concepts are explained in accessible terms to help you understand the roles they play in maintaining a healthy diet. The conversation leads to the conclusion that staying lean and healthy simply requires avoiding the overconsumption of processed foods. While this is, of course, easier said than done, science also provides clear recommendations for how you can adapt your environment and lifestyle to make it possible. Rather than simply presenting you with the principles of healthy eating, this book will help you to develop a comprehensive understanding of the science behind the principles, including the evolutionary facts that affect the way we eat today. This understanding will allow you to ignore the noise in the media and to move forward with a healthy lifestyle that work for you.

Keywords

diet --- neuroscience --- food --- eating

Nutritional influences on human neurocognitive functioning

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193363 Year: Pages: 153 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-336-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:32
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‘You are what you eat’. It’s a saying that we’ve all heard time and time again. The notion that good nutrition is essential for adequate growth and sound physical wellbeing is very well established. Further, in recent years, there has been an overwhelming increase in research dedicated to better understanding how nutritional factors influence cognition and behaviour. For example, several studies have suggested that higher foetal exposure to omega-3 fatty acids and B vitamins such as folate promotes neurodevelopment. B vitamins may also play a role in neurocognitive functioning in later life, with some suggestion that lower vitamin B levels are associated with increased risk of dementia (although randomised controlled trials investigating B vitamin supplementation as a cognitive enhancer in the elderly have provided inconclusive evidence as to the benefits of such therapy for dementia). In fact, the nutritional underpinnings of Alzheimer’s disease and other disorders of cognitive ageing is becoming a much researched topic. In addition, consumption of several other foods has been found to convey more acute cognitively enhancing effects. For example, ingestion of carbohydrates (e.g. glucose), caffeine, resveratrol and several ‘nutraceutical’ herbal extracts has been associated with short-term improvements in cognitive performance. Beyond specific micronutrients and macronutrients, the current literature seems to support anecdotal evidence that consumption of a balanced breakfast is crucial to various measures of school performance, including attention in the classroom. What is clear from this emerging literature is that the relationship between nutritional status and neurocognitive functioning at various stages of the lifespan is complex. An aim of this Research Topic is to bring together some recent empirical findings, reviews and commentaries of the literature to date and opinion pieces relating to future directions for this burgeoning field.

Paleonutrition

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9780816527946 9780816539222 Year: DOI: 10.2458/azu_uapress_9780816539222 Language: English
Publisher: University of Arizona Press Grant: Knowledge Unlatched - 102403
Subject: Ethnology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-11 11:21:04
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The study of paleonutrition provides valuable insights into shifts and changes in human history. This is the most comprehensive book on the topic. Intended for students and professionals, it describes the nature of paleonutrition studies, reviews the history of research, discusses methodological issues in the reconstruction of prehistoric diets, presents theoretical frameworks frequently used in research, and showcases examples in which analyses have been successfully conducted on prehistoric individuals, groups, and populations. It offers an integrative approach to understanding state-of-the-art anthropological dietary, health, and nutritional assessments. The most recent and innovative methods used to reconstruct prehistoric diets are discussed, along with the major ways in which paleonutrition data are recovered, analyzed, and interpreted. The book includes five contemporary case studies that illustrate the mutually beneficial linkages between ethnography and archaeology.

Forests and Food : Addressing hunger and nutrition across sustainable landscapes

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9782821876118 Language: English
Publisher: Open Book Publishers
Subject: Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-06 13:15:39
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As population estimates for 2050 reach over 9 billion, issues of food security and nutrition have been dominating academic and policy debates. A total of 805 million people are undernourished worldwide and malnutrition affects nearly every country on the planet. Despite impressive productivity increases, there is growing evidence that conventional agricultural strategies fall short of eliminating global hunger, as well as having long-term ecological consequences. Forests can play an important role in complementing agricultural production to address the Sustainable Development Goals on zero hunger. Forests and trees can be managed to provide better and more nutritionally-balanced diets, greater control over food inputs–particularly during lean seasons and periods of vulnerability (especially for marginalised groups)–and deliver ecosystem services for crop production. However forests are undergoing a rapid process of degradation, a complex process that governments are struggling to reverse. Forests have huge potential to reduce global hunger and malnutrition. Forests and Food provides the evidence and insights necessary for harnessing that power. This timely volume is essential reading for researchers, students, NGOs and governments around the globe.

Keywords

food culture --- safety --- diet --- sustainability --- forests

Health Benefits of Mediterranean Diet

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039214938 9783039214945 Year: Pages: 274 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-494-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Social Sciences --- Sociology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Growing evidence shows that a dietary pattern inspired by Mediterranean dietprinciples is associated with numerous health benefits. A Mediterranean-typediet has been demonstrated to exert a preventive effect toward cardiovasculardiseases, in both Mediterranean and non-Mediterranean populations. Part ofthese properties may depend on a positive action toward healthier metabolism,decreasing the risk of diabetes and metabolic-syndrome-related conditions.Some studies also suggested a potential role in preventing certain cancers. Finally,newer research has showed that a higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet isassociated with a lower risk of cognitive decline, depression, and other mentaldisorders. Overall, a better understanding of the key elements of this dietarypattern, the underlying mechanisms, and targets, are needed to corroboratecurrent evidence and provide insights on new and potential outcomes.ThisSpecial Issue welcomes original research and reviews of literature concerningthe Mediterranean diet and various health outcomes:Observational studies onestablished nutritional cohorts (preferred), case-control studies, or populationsample on the association with non-communicable diseases;Level of evidenceon the association with human health, including systematic reviews and metaanalyses;Evaluation of application of Mediterranean diet principles in non-Mediterranean countries;Description of mechanisms of action, pathways, andtargets at the molecular level, including interaction with gut microbiota.

Keywords

Mediterranean diet --- dietary intervention --- diet --- nutrition --- translation --- non-alcoholic fatty liver disease --- cardiovascular disease --- Mediterranean diet --- physical activity --- self-concept --- socioeconomic factors --- Mediterranean diet --- diabetes --- cardiovascular risk --- glucose control --- plasma lipids --- relative Mediterranean diet score --- Mediterranean diet --- questionnaire --- children --- adolescents --- obesity --- Mediterranean diet --- athletes --- Spain --- dietary intake --- catechins --- resveratrol --- olive oil --- wine --- BMI --- Mediterranean diet --- barriers --- dietary change --- childbearing age --- diet quality --- depressive symptoms --- risk factors --- epidemiology --- immune system --- prevention --- hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal-HPA axis --- Mediterranean diet --- motivational climate --- sports --- university students --- Mediterranean diet --- metabolomics --- microbiome --- Mediterranean diet --- DNA damage --- DNA repair --- telomere length --- dietary intervention study --- Mediterranean diet --- sleep quality --- cognitive decline --- dementia --- weight status --- mental health --- obesity --- cohort --- Italy --- Mediterranean diet --- quality of life --- mental health --- fruit --- vegetable --- dairy --- nuts --- fish --- whole-grain --- food groups --- Mediterranean diet --- pregnancy --- offspring --- child health --- Mediterranean diet --- Mediterranean diet pyramid --- noncommunicable diseases --- Mediterranean Diet --- public health policy --- childhood obesity --- healthy lifestyle --- health communication --- n/a

Model organisms in inflammation and cancer

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193707 Year: Pages: 83 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-370-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Internal medicine --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-19 16:29:12
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A link between inflammation and cancer was initially made by Rudolf Virchow back in the 19th century. Nowadays many cancers are considered dependent on inflammatory responses to microbial and damaged-self stimuli and both arms of immunity, innate and adaptive, are playing a role in promoting cancer. Moreover, besides environmental factors, opportunistic pathogens contribute to inflammation and cancer. Nevertheless, microbial influence on chronic disease is sometimes difficult to discern, especially in the context of polymicrobial communities, such as those found in the digestive tract. In this light, model organisms provide important insights into immune and growth signals that promote cancer, and suggest therapies that will selectively target potentially harmful microbes or modulate host responses. A number of review and opinion articles in this series address novel aspects and paradigms of the interactions between the microbiota and the host in relation to inflammation and cancer.

Keywords

Drosophila --- human --- mouse --- innate immunity --- microbiota --- Hologenome --- diet --- aging

Nutrition and prevention of Alzheimer's disease

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197194 Year: Pages: 76 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-719-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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Altered metabolism is known to be associated with a higher incidence of Alzheimer´s disease (AD). Diabetes type 2, obesity, and metabolic syndrome are considered risk factors for the development of dementias, including AD. These metabolic diseases may have a genetic predisposition, but most of them are caused by environmental factors and life-style. Most research has focused on the effect of a high-fat diet (HFD) and sweetened beverages that induce obesity. Importantly, a HFD can also trigger oxidative stress, neuro-inflammation and cognitive decline. Less is known, however, about beneficial effects of diet on cognition, such as slowing the progression or preventing AD by ingesting whole fruits, vegetables, fish and oil. It is important to highlight the difference between vitamin/mineral supplements and whole food, as it appears that the former are clinically ineffective, while multiple ingredients in the latter act synergistically to improve cognition. As AD is a disease of slow progression, therapies should start several decades before clinical symptoms can be observed; one strategy can be the ingestion of healthy food in those subjects with one or more risk factors (genetic, environmental, life-style) already in their 40s, just when some brain metabolic disturbances start to develop. This dietary therapy can overcome the increased reactive oxygen species, protein deposition and synaptic failure, characteristic of AD. This research topic will cover a range of research articles, case studies, opinion and mini-reviews, all focused on describing the damaging effects of an industrial diet on cognition as well as on highlighting the beneficial effects of a healthy diet to prevent AD. We believe that we still have time to fight against the negative impact of our industrialized cultures, and adopt better eating habits, increase exercise and slow down our life style to prevent increasing dementia in the aging population. Also, all these topics has been a product of intensives investigations, with a great life hope, and we hope you all enjoy reading this e-book.

Keywords

Cognition --- Diet --- Vitamins --- Minerals --- Functional Food --- Dementia --- Aging --- biomarkers --- diagnosis

Nutrition in Pregnancy: Volume I

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038423676 9783038423669 Pages: XX, 342 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Internal medicine --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2017-04-28 10:00:32
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Maternal nutrition during pregnancy is of considerable interest to women, their partners and their health care professionals. In developing countries, maternal undernutrition is a major concern. However, with the increased prevalence of abundant high calorie diets, their impact upon pregnancy outcome is of concern. In addition to the amount of nutrition available and its macronutrient composition within a diet, there is emerging evidence highlighting important roles for the lesser studied micronutrients. Added to this complexity is the distinction between maternal and fetal nutrition and the impact the placenta plays in nutrient metabolism and overall nutrient supply to the fetus. Together, these many variables contribute to placental development and function, fetal growth, and, where placental/fetal nutrition and growth is compromised, through poor maternal diet, and/or diet induced alterations in placental metabolism, the impact is dramatic and can lead to lifelong implications for the offspring. This Special Issue book aims to highlight research in many of these areas.

Nutrition in Pregnancy - Volume II

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038423690 9783038423683 Year: Pages: XX, 270 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-04-28 10:21:23
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Maternal nutrition during pregnancy is of considerable interest to women, their partners and their health care professionals. In developing countries, maternal undernutrition is a major concern. However, with the increased prevalence of abundant high calorie diets, their impact upon pregnancy outcome is of concern. In addition to the amount of nutrition available and its macronutrient composition within a diet, there is emerging evidence highlighting important roles for the lesser studied micronutrients. Added to this complexity is the distinction between maternal and fetal nutrition and the impact the placenta plays in nutrient metabolism and overall nutrient supply to the fetus. Together, these many variables contribute to placental development and function, fetal growth, and, where placental/fetal nutrition and growth is compromised, through poor maternal diet, and/or diet induced alterations in placental metabolism, the impact is dramatic and can lead to lifelong implications for the offspring. This Special Issue book aims to highlight research in many of these areas.

Impact of Diet on Learning, Memory and Cognition

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452286 Year: Pages: 117 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-228-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-13 14:57:01
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Changes in food composition and availability have contributed to the dramatic increase in obesity over the past 30-40 years in developed and, increasingly, in developing countries. The modern diet now contains many foods that are rich in saturated fat and refined sugar. People who eat excessive amounts of this diet are not only likely to become overweight, even obese, develop metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, some forms of cancer, but also undergo a more rapid rate of normal age-related cognitive decline and more rapid progression of neurological diseases such as dementia. A central problem is why people persist in consuming this diet in spite of its adverse health effects and when alternative food choices are available. As high fat / high sugar foods are inherently rewarding, eating for pleasure, like taking psychoactive drugs, can modulate reward neurocircuitry, causing changes in responsiveness to reward-predicting stimuli and incentive motivation. Indeed, the excessive ingestion in modern societies and the resulting obesity epidemic may be viewed as a form of food addiction. Thus, a diet high in palatable foods is proposed to impact upon reward systems in the brain, modulating appetitive learning and altering reward thresholds. Impairments in other forms of cognition have been associated with obesity, and these have a rapid onset. The hippocampus appears to be particularly vulnerable to the detrimental effects of high fat and high sugar diets. Recent research has shown that as little as one week of exposure to a high fat, high sugar diet leads to impairments in place but not object recognition memory in the rat. Excess sugar alone had similar effects, and the detrimental effects of diet consumption was linked to increased inflammatory markers in the hippocampus, a critical region involved in memory. Furthermore, obesity-related inflammatory changes have also been described in the human brain that may lead to memory impairments. These memory deficits may contribute to pathological eating behaviour through changes in the amount consumed and timing of eating. The aim of this eBook is to present up-to-date information about the impact of diet and diet-induced obesity on reward driven learning, memory and cognition, encompassing both animal and human literature, and also potential therapeutic targets to attenuate such deficits.

Keywords

Diet --- Obesity --- Memory --- Cognition --- Famine --- Fat --- Sugar --- Behavior --- Neurodevelopment

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