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Advances in Biogas Desulfurization

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ISBN: 9783039286607 / 9783039286614 Year: Pages: 106 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-661-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- Biotechnology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Global concern about climate change caused by the exploitation of fossil fuels is encouraging the use of renewable energies. For instance, the European Union aims to be climate neutral by 2050. Biogas is an interesting renewable energy source due to its high calorific value. Today, biogas is mainly used for the production of electricity and heat by a combined heat and power engine. However, before its valorization, biogas needs to be desulfurized (H2S removal) to avoid corrosion and sulfur oxides emissions during its combustion. Biogas can be upgraded (CO2 removal) and used as vehicle fuel or injected into the natural gas grid. In the last 15 years, significant advances have occurred in the development of biological desulfurization processes. In this book with five chapters, the reader can find some of the latest advances in the biogas desulfurization and an overview of the state-of-the-art research. Three of them are research studies and two are reviews concerning the current state of biogas desulfurization technologies, economic analysis of alternatives, and the microbial ecology in biofiltration units. Biogas desulfurization is considered to be essential by many stakeholders (biogas producers, suppliers of biogas upgrading devices, gas traders, researchers, etc.) all around the world.

New Concepts in Oxidation Processes

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9783039281602 9783039281619 Year: Pages: 132 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-161-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Environmental Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
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This Special Issue of Catalysts aims to cover the recent progress and novel trends in the field of catalytic oxidation reaction. Topics addressed in this special issue concern the influence of different parameters on catalytic activity at various scales (atomic, laboratory, pilot, or industrial scales), the development of new catalytic materials of environmental or industrial importance, as well as the development of new methods, both microscopic and spectroscopic, to analyze oxidation processes.

Metal Organic Frameworks: Synthesis and Application

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ISBN: 9783039284863 9783039284870 Year: Pages: 198 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-487-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General) --- Inorganic Chemistry
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
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Metal–organic frameworks are among the most promising novel materials. The concept of MOFs was first introduced in 1990. They were actually initially used in catalysis, gas separation, membranes, electrochemical sensors. Later on, they were introduced as SPE sorbents for PAHs (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons) in environmental water samples, then the range expanded to the field of analytical chemistry, both in chromatographic separation and sample preparation, with great success in, e.g., SPE and SPME (Solid Phase Mico-extraction). Since then, the number of analytical applications implementing MOFs as sorbents in sorptive sample preparation approaches is increasing. ?his is reinforced by the fact that, at least theoretically, an infinite number of structures can be designed and synthesized, thus making tuneability one of the most unique characteristics of MOF materials. Moreover, they have been designed in various shapes, such as columns, fibers, and films, so that they can meet more analytical challenges with improved analytical features.Their exceptional properties attracted the interest of analytical chemists who have taken advantage of the unique structures and properties and have already introduced them in several sample pretreatment techniques, such as solid phase extraction, dispersive SPE, magnetic solid phase extraction, solid phase microextraction, stir bar sorptive extraction, etc.

Towards a Sustainable Management of Mine Wastes: Reprocessing, Reuse, Revalorization and Repository

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ISBN: 9783039281749 9783039281756 Year: Pages: 240 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-175-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Mining and Metallurgy
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:08
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The need for efficient and sustainable management methods of mine waste is continuously growing all around the world. These waste products often present serious management problems due to their more or less significant amounts and possible environmental threats. This Special Issue highlights the recent and new trends in sustainable mine waste management techniques. Currently, it is essential to sustainably manage mine waste, considering social, economic, environmental and technical aspects. In this Special Issue, insights related to the following issues are highlighted: the problems around mine waste, the fine characterization of mine waste, the latest available technical and environmental solutions to efficiently manage mine waste, including treatment and processing before disposal and high value element recovery, with the view of moving towards defining effective, low-cost and ecofriendly methods, the recycling of mine waste products as alternative resources in different sectors, and finally laboratory, pilot and/or industrial-scale studies related to these topics of research. Scientists and industry and governance stakeholders have to face these new challenges to find the best management practices for the future.

Keywords

copper tailings dump --- leaching --- pH --- mobility --- chemical species --- attenuation mechanisms --- aquatic systems --- Zgounder mine --- silver --- tailings --- low-grade silver ores --- flotation --- mineralogical characterization --- mine waste --- management --- sustainability --- bibliometric analysis --- systematic review --- valorisation --- mine waste --- soil washing --- heap leaching --- dump leaching --- mine drainage --- remediation --- acid mine drainage --- geographical information systems --- paste pH --- siderite --- multivariate analysis --- spatial mapping --- iron ore tailings --- iron recovery --- concrete composite admixtures --- reuse --- rheology --- microstructure --- flow behavior --- cemented paste backfill --- mixing --- recovering alkali --- Bayer red mud --- reaction kinetics --- magnesium oxide --- hydrotalcite-like compounds --- sustainable development --- tailings management --- industrial ecology --- sustainable resource management --- mining waste --- circular economy --- mine waste --- tailings --- gravity separation --- stamp mill --- historic tailings --- metals --- exploration --- economic potential --- LIBS --- core scanner --- acid mine drainage --- alkaline amendments --- cementitious amendments --- kinetic testing --- Joutel mine --- environmental mineralogy --- exploration --- contaminant --- geochemical behavior --- acid mine drainage --- mine tailings --- sulfides --- gold reprocessing --- desulfurization --- flotation --- kinetic test --- mining and mineral processing waste (MMPW) --- anthropogenic mineral resources (AMR) --- long-term storage --- supergene processes --- environmental damage --- loss and lost profits --- AMR processing --- n/a

Sustainable Utilization of Metals: Processing, Recovery and Recycling

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ISBN: 9783039288854 / 9783039288861 Year: Pages: 388 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-886-1 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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The high demand for advanced metallic materials raises the need for an extensive recycling of metals and such a sustainable use of raw materials. ""Sustainable Utilization of Metals - Processing, Recovery and Recycling"" comprises the latest scientific achievements in efficient production of metals and such addresses sustainable resource use as part of the circular economy strategy. This policy drives the present contributions, aiming on the recirculation of EoL-streams such as Waste Electric and Electronic Equipment (WEEE), multi-metal alloys or composite materials back into metal production. This needs a holistic approach, resulting in the maximal avoidance of waste. Considering both aspects, circular economy and material design, recovery and use of minor metals play an essential role, since their importance for technological applications often goes along with a lack of supply on the world market. Additionally, their ignoble character and low concentration in recycling materials cause an insufficient recycling rate of these metals, awarding them the status of “critical metals”. In order to minimize losses and energy consumption, this issue explores concepts for the optimization concerning the interface between mechanical and thermal pre-treatment and metallurgical processes. Such new approaches in material design, structural engineering and substitution are provided in the chapters.

Keywords

laterites --- scandium --- leaching --- precipitation --- solvent extraction --- manganese --- Zinc --- electrolytic lodes and scrapings --- electrolytic manganese --- metallurgy --- hydrometallurgy --- recycling --- sustainable development --- recycling --- spent catalysts --- zinc --- copper --- Bayan Obo --- REE–Nb–Fe ore --- carbothermal reduction --- kinetics --- NMC batteries --- recycling --- leaching --- solvent extraction --- selective precipitation --- hydrometallurgy --- Bayer process --- trace elements --- vanadium --- gallium --- rare earth elements --- lanthanum --- yttrium --- scandium --- karst bauxite --- bauxite residue --- red mud --- indium --- silver --- jarosite --- recycling --- industrial residue --- process development --- selective extraction --- simultaneous recovery --- pyrometallurgy --- lifetime of steel --- steel scrap --- circulation --- industry sector --- dynamic material flow model --- recycling rate --- material flow analysis --- gold --- copper --- WPCBs --- leaching --- physical separation --- Tin recovery --- steelmaking dust --- zinc recycling --- alkaline leaching --- electric arc furnace --- Li-ion battery --- recycling --- pyrolysis --- microwave assisted pyrolysis --- battery pre-treatment --- super-gravity --- rheorefining --- aluminum alloy --- tramp element --- separation --- jarosite residue --- pyrometallurgy --- circular economy --- slag valorization --- metal recovery --- closed-loop circulation --- environmentally friendly process --- enrichment of Ti --- preparation for recovery --- reduction of Co --- precipitation --- thermal treatment --- hydrometallurgy --- recycling --- cold-bonded briquettes --- blast furnace --- desulfurization --- basic oxygen furnace --- dust --- sludge --- fines --- scandium --- anti-solvent crystallization --- solvent extraction --- precipitation --- ammonium scandium hexafluoride --- chemical equilibrium diagram --- aluminium purification --- iron removal --- intermetallic formation --- polythermal section --- cerium --- flotation --- glass polishing waste --- gravity separation --- leaching --- precipitation --- rare-earths --- recycling --- reuse --- solvent extraction --- neodymium --- dimethyl sulfoxide --- electrodeposition --- bauxite residue --- red mud --- ionic liquids --- scandium recovery --- titanium recovery --- NdFeB magnets --- rare earth elements --- recycling --- recycling potential --- neodymium --- dysprosium --- WPCB --- melting behavior --- flash smelting --- cementation --- copper removal --- cavitation --- pyrolysis --- smartphone --- displays --- halogenation --- indium --- volatilization --- thermodynamics --- recycling --- magnesium --- refining --- recycling --- ultra-high purity --- vacuum distillation --- condensation --- oxygen-depolarized cathodes --- silver leaching --- cryogenic pre-treatment --- negative activation energy --- polishing waste --- rare earths --- waste utilization --- characterization --- leaching --- n/a

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english (3)

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2020 (5)