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Microbial Ecology of Arid Terrestrial Systems

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199693 Year: Pages: 127 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-969-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Water is usually referred to as the ‘Molecule of Life’. It constitutes the most abundant molecule in living (micro)organisms and is also essential for critical biochemical reactions, both for the global functioning and maintenance of Ecosystems (e.g., Photosynthesis) and individual (microbial) cells (e.g., ATP hydrolysis). However, most of Earth’s terrestrial environments present deficiencies in bioavailable water. Arid environments cover around a third of the land’s surface, are found on the six continents and, with the anthropogenic desertification phenomenon, will increase. Commonly defined by having a ratio of precipitation to potential evapotranspiration (P/PET) below 1, arid environments, being either hot or cold, are characterized by scant and erratic plant growth and low densities in macro-fauna. Consequently, these ecosystems are microbially mediated with microbial communities particularly driving the essential Na and C biogeochemical cycles. Due to the relatively simple trophic structure of these biomes, arid terrestrial environments have subsequently been used as ideal ecosystems to capture and model interactions in edaphic microbial communities. To date, we have been able to demonstrate that edaphic microorganisms (i.e., Fungi, Bacteria, Archaea, and Viruses) in arid environments are abundant, highly diverse, different from those of other terrestrial systems (both in terms of diversity and function), and are important for the stability and productivity of these ecosystems. Moreover, arid terrestrial systems are generally considered Mars-like environments. Thus, they have been the favored destination for astro(micro)biologists aiming to better understand life’s potential distribution and adaptation strategies in the Universe and develop terraforming approaches. Altogether, these points demonstrate the importance of significantly improving our knowledge in the microbial community composition (particularly for Fungi, Archaea and Viruses), assembly processes and functional potentials of arid terrestrial systems, as well as their adaptation mechanisms to aridity (and generally to various other environmental stresses). This Research Topic was proposed to provide further insights on the microbial ecology of hot and cold arid edaphic systems. We provide a detailed review and nine research articles, spanning hot and cold deserts, edaphic, rhizospheric, BSC and endolithic environments as well as culture-dependent and -independant approaches.

Jardins au désert : Évolution des pratiques et savoirs oasiens (Jérid tunisien)

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ISBN: 9782709923071 Year: DOI: 10.4000/books.irdeditions.10160 Language: French
Publisher: IRD Éditions
Subject: Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-04 12:05:58
License: OpenEdition Licence for Books

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La présence d'oasis dans le Sahara peut sembler une aberration écologique. Les palmeraies et les jardins qu'elles abritent sont en fait le fruit d'une conquête millénaire qui se poursuit encore aujourd'hui. Ces paysages artificiels, terroirs soigneusement façonnés et entretenus, sont l'archétype des systèmes naturels anthropisés. Cet ouvrage a été réalisé à partir d'enquêtes de terrain menées dans le Jérid tunisien, mais aussi dans le Tassili n'Ajjer (Djanet, Algérie) et l'oued Draa (Zagora, Maroc). Si cette perspective comparative révèle la diversité des pratiques et savoirs oasiens et des relations à l'environnement, elle met aussi en valeur les dynamiques locales qui se déploient au-delà de l'habituel dualisme entre tradition et modernité. Par ailleurs, plusieurs échelles d'étude, de la planche de cultures au jardin et du parcellaire à la palmeraie, permettent de souligner la variété des articulations entre facteurs écologiques, économiques et sociaux. Le Sahara cultivé n'offre pas une mais des natures oasiennes en constante évolution, construites à partir de cette richesse anthropologique.

Les Fins

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ISBN: 9782351593820 9782351595183 Year: Language: French
Publisher: Presses de l’Ifpo
Added to DOAB on : 2015-01-06 16:29:42
License: OpenEdition licence for Books

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Abdel Rahman Mounif (1933-2004) compte sans conteste parmi les grands romanciers arabes du XXe siècle. Il est l'auteur de quinze romans, deux recueils de nouvelles et divers ouvrages de critique littéraire et artistique, d'histoire, de sciences politiques, ou encore d'économie. Paradoxalement, un seul de ses romans (À l'est de la Méditerranée) a été à ce jour traduit en français. Al-Nihâyât (Les Fins) est un roman du désert, espace privilégié de la littérature arabe classique, mais souvent né...

Arid Land Systems: Sciences and Societies

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ISBN: 9783039213474 9783039213481 Year: Pages: 380 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-348-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 16:10:12
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Understanding deserts and drylands is essential, as arid landscapes cover >40% of the Earth and are home to two billion people. Today's problematic environment–human interaction needs contemporary knowledge to address dryland complexity. Physical dimensions in arid zones—land systems, climate and hazards, ecology—are linked with social processes that directly impact drylands, such as land management, livelihoods, and development. The challenges require integrated research that identifies systemic drivers across global arid regions. Measurement and monitoring, field investigation, remote sensing, and data analysis are effective tools to investigate natural dynamics. Equally, inquiry into how policy and practice affect landscape sustainability is key to mitigating detrimental activity in deserts. Relations between socio-economic forces and degradation, agro-pastoral rangeland use, drought and disaster and resource extraction reflect land interactions. Contemporary themes of food security, conflict, and conservation are interlinked in arid environments. This book unifies desert science, arid environments, and dryland development. The chapters identify land dynamics, address system risks and delineate human functions through original research in arid zones. Mixed methodologies highlight the vital links between social and environmental science in global deserts. The book engages with today's topical themes and presents novel analyses of arid land systems and societies.

Keywords

Central Asia --- landscape --- One Belt --- One Road --- Kazakhstan --- Kyrgyzstan --- infrastructure --- environment --- New Silk Road --- drylands --- wind erosion modelling --- drag partition --- aerodynamic roughness --- remote sensing --- computational fluid dynamics --- cellular automata --- remote sensing --- modelling --- coverage --- grass height --- Cuchillas de la Zarca --- Chobe --- forest resources --- ecosystem services --- non-linear change --- protected areas --- disturbance --- drought --- sustainable livelihoods --- ecotone --- dryland --- KAZA --- Southern Africa --- nomadic pastoralism --- spatial migration model --- Afar --- livestock --- fodder demand --- fodder supply --- Asian dust --- human health --- Mongolia --- Japan --- subarctic agriculture --- Greenland --- soil quality index --- farming at its limits --- air temperature increase --- increase of growing season --- dry lake beds --- dust storm emission --- remote sensing --- Gobi Desert region --- communal rangelands --- property rights --- environmental impacts --- policy implementation --- drylands --- arid region --- LUCC --- driving forces --- snow index --- SPOT VGT --- Kashgar Region --- degrading --- tamarind age --- regeneration --- invasive vine --- vegetation survey --- erosion --- rotational grazing --- continuous grazing --- grassland degradation --- case study of nomadic and settlement grazing system --- remote sensing --- Mongolian grassland --- arid area --- land use change --- soil carbon storage --- global carbon balance --- the Shiyang River Basin --- riparian ecosystems --- Sonoran desert --- remote sensing --- land cover/land use --- drip irrigation --- groundwater --- common-pool resource --- water rights --- local farming --- desert reclamation --- desertification --- river basin development --- political ecology --- water --- vegetation response to precipitation --- dust storm outbreak --- cross correlation analysis --- the Hovmoller diagram --- environmental regime shift --- Gobi desert of Mongolia --- climate hazard --- Asia --- drylands --- risk --- drought --- desert --- Central Asia --- Kyrgyzstan --- infrastructure --- environment --- mining --- social movements --- protest --- environmental justice --- subversive clientelism --- China --- Tibetan Plateau --- Sanjiangyuan region --- social–ecological systems --- pastoralism --- partnerships --- co-management --- national parks --- Belt and Road Initiative --- mountains of Central Asia --- pastoralism --- Ethiopia --- South Omo --- Nyangatom --- Jordan River Basin --- water productivity --- Jordan --- Israel --- Palestine --- agriculture --- agricultural water intensity --- decoupling --- water security --- institutional change --- ecosystem services --- economic valuation --- drylands --- absence --- afforestation --- charisma --- China --- conservation --- desertification --- Gobi --- Mongolia

Advances in Groundwater Flow and Solute Transport: Pushing the Hidden Boundary

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ISBN: 9783039210749 9783039210756 Year: Pages: 196 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-075-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- Environmental Technology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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In recent decades, the study of groundwater flow and solute transport has advanced into new territories that are beyond conventional theories, such as Darcy’s law and Fick’s law. The studied media have changed from permeable porous and fractured ones to much less permeable ones, such as clay and shale. The studied pore sizes have also changed from millimetres to micro-meters or even nano-meters. The objective of this Special Issue is to report recent advances in groundwater flow and solute transport that push the knowledge boundary into new territories which include, but are not limited to, flow and transport in sloping aquifer/hillslopes, coupled unsaturated and saturated flow, coupled aquifer-vertical/horizontal/slant well flow, interaction of aquifer with connected and disconnected rivers, non-Darcian flow, anomalous transport beyond the Fickian scheme, and flow and transport in extremely small pore spaces such as shale and tight sandstones. Contributions focusing on innovative experimental, numerical, and analytical methods for understanding unconventional problems, such as the above-listed ones, are encouraged, and contributions addressing flow and transport at interfaces of different media and crossing multiple temporal and spatial scales are of great value

Biochar as Soil Amendment: Impact on Soil Properties and Sustainable Resource Management

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ISBN: 9783039282746 9783039282753 Year: Pages: 252 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-275-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Agriculture (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
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The role of biochar in improving soil fertility is increasingly being recognized and is leading to recommendations of biochar amendment of degraded soils. In addition, biochars offer a sustainable tool for managing organic wastes and to produce added-value products. The benefits of biochar use in agriculture and forestry can span enhanced plant productivity, an increase in soil C stocks, and a reduction of nutrient losses from soil and non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions. Nevertheless, biochar composition and properties and, therefore, its performance as a soil amendment are highly dependent on the feedstock and pyrolysis conditions. In addition, due to its characteristics, such as high porosity, water retention, and adsorption capacity, there are other applications for biochar that still need to be properly tested. Thus, the 16 original articles contained in this book, which were selected and evaluated for this Special Issue, provide a comprehensive overview of the biological, chemicophysical, biochemical, and environmental aspects of the application of biochar as soil amendment. Specifically, they address the applicability of biochar for nursery growth, its effects on the productivity of various food crops under contrasting conditions, biochar capacity for pesticide retention, assessment of greenhouse gas emissions, and soil carbon dynamics. I would like to thank the contributors, reviewers, and the support of the Agronomy editorial staff, whose professionalism and dedication have made this issue possible.

Earth Observation, Remote Sensing and Geoscientific Ground Investigations for Archaeological and Heritage Research

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ISBN: 9783039211937 9783039211944 Year: Pages: 304 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-194-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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This book collects 15 papers written by renowned scholars from across the globe that showcase the forefront research in Earth observation (EO), remote sensing (RS), and geoscientific ground investigations to study archaeological records and cultural heritage.Archaeologists, anthropologists, geographers, remote sensing, and archaeometry experts share their methodologies relying on a wealth of techniques and data including, but not limited to: very high resolution satellite images from optical and radar space-borne sensors, air-borne surveys, geographic information systems (GIS), archaeological fieldwork, and historical maps.A couple of the contributions highlight the value of noninvasive and nondestructive laboratory analyses (e.g., neutron diffraction) to reconstruct ancient manufacturing technologies, and of geological ground investigations to corroborate hypotheses of historical events that shaped cultural landscapes.Case studies encompass famous UNESCO World Heritage Sites (e.g., the Nasca Lines in Peru), remote and yet-to-discover archaeological areas in tropical forests in central America, European countries, south Asian changing landscapes, and environments which are arid nowadays but were probably full of woody vegetation in the past.Finally, the reader can learn about the state-of-the-art of education initiatives to train site managers in the use of space technologies in support of their activities, and can understand the legal aspects involved in the application of EO and RS to address current challenges of African heritage preservation.

Keywords

analytic hierarchy process (AHP) --- archaeology --- predictive model --- tumuli --- remote sensing --- multi-criteria --- Saharan Morocco --- airborne laser scanning --- orthophotographs --- archaeological survey --- field reconnaissance --- Arran --- national archaeological mapping programme --- synthetic aperture radar --- subsurface imaging --- microwave penetration --- archaeology --- arid environments --- remote sensing --- Oman --- e-learning --- Earth observation --- education --- capacity development --- cultural and natural heritage --- UNESCO --- photogrammetry --- RPAS --- UAV --- Peru --- geoglyph Pista --- mapping --- drones --- remote sensing --- free satellite imagery --- GoogleEarth --- Bing Maps --- archaeological fieldwork --- arid environments --- basalt desert --- landscape accessibility --- Harra --- Jordan --- archaeological landscapes --- settlements --- historical maps --- Survey of India --- Archaeological Survey of India --- heritage --- colonial studies --- remote sensing --- historical landscapes --- landscape archaeology --- settlements --- colonial studies --- river morphology --- Indus --- floods --- remote sensing --- satellite --- Sentinel-2 --- surface survey --- Roman archaeology --- Sumerian pottery --- neutron techniques --- neutron diffraction --- chemometric analysis --- Mega El Niño --- pampa of Nazca --- Cuenca Pisco --- Rio Grande de Nazca --- grain-size --- volcaniclastic layer --- stratigraphy --- petrography --- Lidar --- GIS --- Mesoamerica --- Archaeology --- Caves --- Landscape --- Ritual --- Visualization --- Maya --- Belize --- Sacred --- automated detection --- OBIA --- LiDAR --- Difference Map --- field monument --- Burial Mound --- Motte-and-Bailey castle --- Ridge and Furrow --- space law --- disaster and conservation management --- Geographic Information System (GIS) --- international boundaries --- Africa --- Cameroon-Nigeria Mixed Commission --- satellite imagery --- Boundary Demarcation --- international law --- relict boundaries --- Earth Observation --- remote sensing --- optical --- SAR --- drone --- airborne LiDAR --- GIS --- OBIA --- neutron diffraction --- archaeological prospection --- pattern recognition --- archaeometry --- geological mapping

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