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Tyneside Neighbourhoods

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ISBN: 9781783741908 Year: Pages: 146 DOI: 10.11647/OBP.0084 Language: English
Publisher: Open Book Publishers
Subject: Ethnology
Added to DOAB on : 2017-08-22 11:01:03
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"Nettle’s book presents the results of five years of comparative ethnographic fieldwork in two different neighbourhoods of the same British city, Newcastle upon Tyne. The neighbourhoods are only a few kilometres apart, yet whilst one is relatively affluent, the other is amongst the most economically deprived in the UK. Tyneside Neighbourhoods uses multiple research methods to explore social relationships and social behaviour, attempting to understand whether the experience of deprivation fosters social solidarity, or undermines it. The book is distinctive in its development of novel quantitative methods for ethnography: systematic social observation, economic games, household surveys, crime statistics, and field experiments. Nettle analyses these findings in the context of the cultural, psychological and economic consequences of economic deprivation, and of the ethical difficulties of representing a deprived community. In so doing the book sheds light on one of the main issues of our time: the roles of culture and of socioeconomic factors in determining patterns of human social behaviour. Tyneside Neighbourhoods is a must read for scholars, students, individual readers, charities and government departments seeking insight into the social consequences of deprivation and inequality in the West. Nettle’s book presents the results of five years of comparative ethnographic fieldwork in two different neighbourhoods of the same British city, Newcastle upon Tyne. The neighbourhoods are only a few kilometres apart, yet whilst one is relatively affluent, the other is amongst the most economically deprived in the UK. Tyneside Neighbourhoods uses multiple research methods to explore social relationships and social behaviour, attempting to understand whether the experience of deprivation fosters social solidarity, or undermines it. The book is distinctive in its development of novel quantitative methods for ethnography: systematic social observation, economic games, household surveys, crime statistics, and field experiments. Nettle analyses these findings in the context of the cultural, psychological and economic consequences of economic deprivation, and of the ethical difficulties of representing a deprived community. In so doing the book sheds light on one of the main issues of our time: the roles of culture and of socioeconomic factors in determining patterns of human social behaviour. Tyneside Neighbourhoods is a must read for scholars, students, individual readers, charities and government departments seeking insight into the social consequences of deprivation and inequality in the West. "

The Impact of Sensory; Linguistic and Social Deprivation on Cognition

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453542 Year: Pages: 183 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-354-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:45
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Early experience plays a crucial role in determining the trajectory of cognitive development. For example, early sensory deprivation is known to induce neural reorganization by way of adaptation to the altered sensory experience. Neville and Bavelier’s “compensatory theory’’ hypothesizes that loss of one sense may bring about a sensory enhancement in the remaining modalities. Sensory deprivation will, however, also impact the age of emergence, or the speed of acquisition of cognitive abilities that depend upon sensory inputs. Understanding how a child’s early environment shapes their cognition is not only of theoretical interest. It is essential for the development of early intervention programs that address not just the early deprivation itself, but also the cognitive sequelae of such deprivation. The articles in this e-book all address different aspects of deprivation - sensory, linguistic, and social - and explore the impacts of such deprivation on a wide range of cognitive outcomes. In reading these contributions, it is important to note that sensory, linguistic, and social deprivation are not independent factors in human experience. For example, a child born deaf into a hearing family is likely to experience delays in exposure to natural language, with subsequent limits on their linguistic competence having an effect on social interactions and inclusion: a child raised in environments where social interaction is highly limited is also likely to experience reductions in the quantity and quality of linguistic inputs. Future work will need to carefully examine the complex interactions between the sensory, linguistic and social environments of children raised in atypical or impoverished environments.

Hunger and Public Action

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ISBN: 9780198283652 Year: Pages: 392 DOI: 10.1093/0198283652.001.0001 Language: English
Publisher: Oxford University Press Grant: UNU WIDER
Subject: Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-03 23:56:31
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This book analyses the role of public action in solving the problem of hunger in the modern world. The study is divided into four parts. The first, making extensive use of the concepts of entitlements and capabilities explores the interaction of nutritional, economic, social, and political elements and their influence on hunger and deprivation. The problem of famine prevention is the main focus of the second part, with special attention given to Africa and India. The third part is devoted to the issue of fighting chronic undernourishment and the lessons to be learnt from the policies of China, India, and some other countries. The last part draws together the main themes and concerns of the earlier chapters, and provides an integrated view of the role of public action in eliminating hunger. The study suggests that there is indeed some space for public action in solving the problem of hunger and deprivation. In the case of famine prevention, social security could provide early warning systems and employment provision plans. To fight endemic deprivation, the authors suggest, among other things, that basic health care, elementary education, and food programmes should be looked at.

Energy Poverty

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ISBN: 978331969298 9783319692999 Year: Pages: 125 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-69299-9 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature Grant: FP7 Ideas: European Research Council - 313478
Subject: Electrical and Nuclear Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-20 11:02:19
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EVALUATE is a multi-sited study, involving extensive research across a variety of cities and countries. Focusing primarily on four Central and
Eastern European cities (Budapest, Gdańsk, Prague and Skopje) the project
has undertaken a customized survey with 2435 households, supplemented
with insights from in-depth household interviews, ‘energy diaries’
and energy efficiency audits in the homes of approximately 160 households
living in the four cities. EVALUATE has entailed 195 expert interviews
in a much wider range of sites across the world, as well as an analysis
of micro-data from national and European Union surveys of energy poverty.
It has led to more than 200 dissemination activities, while laying the
basis for the European Energy Poverty Observatory as well as a new
European Co-operation for Science and Technology Action on ‘European
Energy Poverty: Agenda Co-Creation and Knowledge Innovation’

Sex Hormone Receptor Signals in Human Malignancies

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ISBN: 9783039211739 9783039211746 Year: Pages: 152 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-174-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Sex steroids, including androgens, estrogens, and progestogens, are knownto have widespread physiological actions beyond the reproductive systemvia binding to the sex hormone receptors. Meanwhile, emerging evidence hasindicated that sex hormone receptor signals are involved in the outgrowth ofsome malignancies, such as prostate and breast carcinomas, as well as othersthat have not traditionally been considered as endocrine-related neoplasms. ThisSpecial Issue “Sex Hormone Receptor Signals in Human Malignancies” coversvarious aspects of the potential role of sex hormone receptors and related signalsin prostate cancer, breast cancer, and other neoplastic conditions by depictingpromising findings derived from in vitro and in vivo experiments as well as theanalyses of surgical specimens. The current observations described may thusprovide a unique insight into novel or known functions of sex hormone receptorsand related molecules.

Roles and Functions of ROS and RNS in Cellular Physiology and Pathology

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ISBN: 9783039287826 / 9783039287833 Year: Pages: 230 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-783-3 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Pathology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Our common knowledge on oxidative stress has evolved substantially over the years and has been mostly focused on the fundamental chemical reactions and the most relevant chemical species involved in the human pathophysiology of oxidative stress-associated diseases. Thus, reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species (ROS and RNS) were identified as the key players initiating, mediating, and regulating the cellular and biochemical complexity of oxidative stress either as physiological (acting pro-hormetic) or as pathogenic (causing destructive vicious circle) process. The papers published in this particular Special Issue of the Cells demonstrate the impressive pathophysiological relevance of ROS and RNS in a range of contexts, including the relevance of second messengers of free radicals like 4-hydroxynonenal, allowing us to assume that even more detailed mechanisms of their positive and negative effects lie in wait, and should assist in better monitoring of the major modern diseases and the development of advanced integrative biomedicine treatments.

Keywords

human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells --- TRPM2 channel --- ROS --- neuronal cell death --- histamine --- calcium --- endothelial cells --- NADPH-oxidase --- VAS2870 --- von Willebrand factor --- aorta --- relaxation --- reactive oxygen species (ROS) --- oxidative stress --- lipid peroxidation --- acrolein --- 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) --- oxidative burst --- granulocytes --- cancer cells --- growth control --- cancer regression --- hydroxyapatite-based biomaterials --- osteoblast growth --- redox balance --- vitamins --- lipid peroxidation --- 4-hydroxynonenal --- oxidative stress --- oxidative stress --- nuclear factor erythroid 2–related factor 2 --- heme-oxygenase-1 --- macrophages --- plaque vulnerability --- optical coherence tomography --- reactive oxygen species --- free radicals --- DNA damage --- cyclopurines --- DNA and RNA polymerases --- nucleotide excision repair --- LC-MS/MS --- xeroderma pigmentosum --- cancer --- intermittent hypoxia --- mitochondria --- Ca2+, ROS --- antioxidant --- free radicals --- antimicrobial --- toll-like receptors --- cannabidiol --- UV radiation --- keratinocytes --- antioxidants --- inflammation --- intracellular signaling --- Nrf2 --- NF?B --- glucose deprivation --- glutamine deprivation --- viability --- proliferation --- ROS --- NRF2-NQO1 axis --- IMR-90 --- NQO1 transcript variants --- rs1800566 --- TP53 mutation --- oxidative stress --- MFN2 --- mitochondria --- fusion/fission --- oxidative stress --- blood–brain barrier --- bEnd5 --- bEnd.3 --- glutathione --- viability --- free radicals --- redox balance --- cell signaling --- growth --- toxicity --- antioxidants --- oxidative homeostasis --- oxidative metabolism of the cells --- pathophysiology of oxidative stress

Dynamical Models of Biology and Medicine

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9783039212170 9783039212187 Year: Pages: 294 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-218-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Mathematical and computational modeling approaches in biological and medical research are experiencing rapid growth globally. This Special Issue Book intends to scratch the surface of this exciting phenomenon. The subject areas covered involve general mathematical methods and their applications in biology and medicine, with an emphasis on work related to mathematical and computational modeling of the complex dynamics observed in biological and medical research. Fourteen rigorously reviewed papers were included in this Special Issue. These papers cover several timely topics relating to classical population biology, fundamental biology, and modern medicine. While the authors of these papers dealt with very different modeling questions, they were all motivated by specific applications in biology and medicine and employed innovative mathematical and computational methods to study the complex dynamics of their models. We hope that these papers detail case studies that will inspire many additional mathematical modeling efforts in biology and medicine

Keywords

hemodynamic model --- microcirculation load --- liquid-solid-porous media seepage coupling --- 2-combination --- graphical representation --- cell-based vector --- numerical characterization --- phylogenetic analysis --- intraguild predation --- random perturbations --- persistence --- stationary distribution --- global asymptotic stability --- quorum sensing --- chemostat --- mathematical model --- differential equations --- delay --- bifurcations --- dynamical system --- numerical simulation --- predator-prey model --- switched harvest --- limit cycle --- rich dynamics --- algae growth models --- uncertainty quantification --- asymptotic theory --- bootstrapping --- model comparison tests --- Raphidocelis subcapitata --- Daphnia magna --- spotting --- wildfire --- transport equations --- spotting distribution --- obesity --- mechano-electrochemical model --- articular cartilage --- cartilage degeneration --- cartilage loading --- optimal control --- hepatitis B --- delay differential equations (DDE) --- immune response --- drug therapy --- dynamic model --- flocculation --- global stability --- uniform persistence --- epidermis --- mathematical model --- bacterial inflammation --- bacterial competition --- chronic myeloid leukemia --- tyrosine kinase inhibitors --- immunomodulatory therapies --- combination therapy --- equilibrium points --- mathematical modeling --- prostate cancer --- androgen deprivation therapy --- data fitting --- generalized pseudo amino acid composition --- numerical characterization --- phylogenetic analysis --- identification of DNA-binding proteins --- n/a

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