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New Methods for Measuring and Analyzing Segregation

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Book Series: The Springer Series on Demographic Methods and Population Analysis ISSN: 1389-6784 / 2215-1990 ISBN: 9783319413020 9783319413044 Year: Pages: 334 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-41304-4 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Ecology
Added to DOAB on : 2017-11-24 15:00:25
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This book introduces new methods for measuring and analyzing residential segregation. It begins by placing all popular segregation indices in the “difference of group means” framework wherein index scores can be obtained as simple differences of group means on individual-level residential attainments scored from area racial composition. Drawing on the insight that in this framework index scores are additively determined by individual residential attainments, the book shows that the level of segregation in a given city can be equated to the effect of group membership (e.g., race) on individual residential attainments. This unifies separate research traditions in the field by joining the analysis of segregation at the aggregate level with the analysis of residential attainments for individuals. Next it shows how segregation analysis can be extended by using multivariate attainment models to assess the impact of group membership (i.e., the level of segregation for a city) while including controls for other relevant individual characteristics (e.g., income, education, language, nativity, etc.). It then illustrates how one can use these models to quantitatively assess the extent to which segregation traces to impacts of group membership on residential attainments versus other factors such as group differences in income. The book then shows how micro-level attainment models can be used to study macro-level variation in segregation; specifically, by estimating multi-level models of individual residential attainments to assess how the effect of group membership (i.e., segregation index scores) vary with city characteristics. Finally, the book introduces refined versions of popular indices that are free of the vexing problem of upward bias. This improves the quality of segregation measurement directly at the level of individual cases and expanding the number of cases that can be safely included in empirical studies.

H7 A Review of Biophysical Models of Marine Larval Dispersal (Book chapter)

Book title: Oceanography and Marine Biology

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Oceanography and Marine Biology : An Annual Review ISBN: 97803671314150 9780429026379 Year: Pages: 34 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-09-14 11:21:15
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Larval dispersal is arguably the most important but least understood demographic process in the sea. The likelihood of a larva dispersing from its birthplace to successfully recruit in another location is the culmination of many intrinsic and extrinsic factors that operate in early life. Empirically estimating the resulting population connectivity has been immensely difficult because of the challenges of studying and quantifying dispersal in the sea. Consequently, most estimates are based on predictions from biophysical models. Although there is a long history of dispersal modelling, there has been no comprehensive review of this literature. We conducted a systematic quantitative review to address the following questions: (1) Is there any bias in the distribution of research effort based on geographical or taxonomic coverage? (2) Are hydrodynamic models resolving ocean circulation at spatial scales (resolution and extent) relevant to the dispersal process under study? (3) Where, when and how many particles are being tracked, and is this effort sufficient to capture the spatiotemporal variability in dispersal? (4) How is biological and/or behavioural complexity incorporated into Lagrangian particle tracking models. (i.e. are key attributes of the dispersal process well captured.)? Our review confirms strong taxonomic and geographic biases in published work to date. We found that computational ‘effort’ (i.e. model resolution and particle number) has not kept pace with dramatic increases in computer processor speed. We also identified a number of shortcomings in the incorporation of biology, and behaviour specifically into models. Collectively, these findings highlight some important gaps and key areas for improvement of biophysical models that aspire to inform larval dispersal processes. In particular, we suggest the need for greater emphasis on validation of model assumptions, as well as testing of dispersal predictions with empirically derived data.

Chapter 1 Dimensions of European heritage and memory (Book chapter)

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9781138589469 9781138589476 Year: Pages: 27 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Social Sciences --- History
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-02 11:21:08
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This book is a reflection on the politics of heritage in Europe at the present time, in a moment of pluralised conceptions of the political, social and demographic organisation proper to Europe. It is not a book that seeks to survey, define or characterise an enduring ‘European heritage’ as an entity, but rather to explore what heritage does – how it is understood, instrumentalised and what it enables – within what we will argue is a ‘critical’ moment for both identities and geopolitics in Europe.

Europes Population

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9780203975411 9781857281781 9781857281798 9781135369484 9781135369477 9781135369439 Year: DOI: 10.4324/9780203975411 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Geography --- Architecture
Added to DOAB on : 2019-11-08 11:21:25
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First published in 1995. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.

Keywords

total --- fertility --- rate --- southern --- skilled --- international --- migration --- demographic --- transition --- age

Lietuvos demografinė kaita: ką atskleidžia gyventojų surašymai : mokslo studija

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9786094672552 Year: Pages: 284 p. Language: Lithuanian
Publisher: Vytautas Magnus University
Subject: Sociology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-05-29 12:25:31
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Demographic situation of Lithuania has deteriorated for more than two decades and continues to be very difficult. Data of the vital statistics and of various sample surveys are commonly used for an assessment of the demographic situation. Meanwhile, a very rich data of population census of the entire population are employed only rarely. Therefore, this study has several aims. The main aim of the study is to obtain the new knowledge on demographic development of Lithuania using census data and to reveal the impact of long-term historical changes of socio-demographic structures of population and demographic processes on current demographic situation as well as their possible continuity in the future. Other important aim of this study is to draw attention of researchers and public policy-makers to the rich population census data which allow to understand the demographic situation not only on the total population level but also on various socio-demographic segments and in the long-term context of the demographic development. The information basis of this study includes: first, the micro-data of the Lithuanian 2011 population and housing census which have been a major source of the research; second, for the comparative analysis, the micro-data of Lithuanian 2001 population and housing census have been used; third, available and comparable aggregate data of previous censuses (1989, 1979, 1970, 1959, 1923, and 1897), which permit to disclose demographic trends in the long historical perspective, have been analyzed. The study consists of three parts: the first part – “Socio-demographic composition of Lithuanian population” (by the age, education, ethnicity, foreign born population); the second part – “The changes in the demographic processes” (marital behaviour and fertility); and the third part – “The empirical sources and methodology of the study.” [...]

Sustainability of the German Pension Scheme: Employment at Higher Ages and Incentives for Delayed Retirement

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ISBN: 9783731501718 Year: Pages: 141 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000038392 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Business and Management
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-11 12:46:28
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The aging society and threatening old-age poverty are two major political topics in Germany for the next decades. Many modern employment biographies consist of atypical employment and discontinuities; both negatively impact the pension entitlements of the individuals. This work develops an inninnovative approach that offers flexibility to absorb demographic changes as well as labor market developments, without threatening the financial stability of the public pension scheme.

Measuring Public Pension Liabilities in the European Union

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Book Series: Sozialoekonomische Schriften ISBN: 9783631602737 Year: Pages: 324 DOI: 10.3726/b13542 Language: English
Publisher: Peter Lang International Academic Publishing Group
Subject: Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:32:44
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Due to the demographic development, public pension systems in the European Union organized on a pay-as-you-go (PAYG) principle will be forced to either raise contribution rates or taxes, shorten future replacement rates, or enforce a combination of both. In this regard, two important issues have to be addressed: The first issue refers to the question of measuring the public pension liabilities of private households until today. The extent of these liabilities has an impact on the saving behaviour. The second issue refers to the consequences of the demographic development for future retirees and contributors and examines the sustainability of pension schemes by confronting the present value of future pension payments with the present value of future contributions.

Measurement of Trends in Wellbeing, Poverty, and Inequality with Case Studies from Bolivia and Colombia

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Book Series: Goettinger Studien zur Entwicklungsoekonomik / Goettingen Studies in Development Economics ISBN: 9783631613764 Year: Pages: 244 DOI: 10.3726/b13875 Language: English
Publisher: Peter Lang International Academic Publishing Group
Subject: Economics --- Political Science --- Sociology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:32:27
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Reducing poverty and increasing wellbeing in developing countries have become central aims of both the national policy-makers as well as the international community. With the Millennium Development Declaration of 2000, the international community has agreed to focus on poverty reduction and the reduction of deprivation in its many dimensions. This book investigates conceptual and empirical issues on the measurement of trends in wellbeing, poverty, and inequality, illustrated for Bolivia and Colombia. The book contributes significantly to filling data gaps by combining existing data in a new way. Furthermore, it presents an important step forward to focus more on multidimensional outcomes of wellbeing rather than on monetary inputs and to develop tools to monitor the progress in achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).

Bismarck's Institutions

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ISBN: 9783161522727 9783161524974 Year: Language: English
Publisher: Mohr Siebeck Grant: Knowledge Unlatched - 101865
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:33:02
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The decline in birth rates in advanced economies is not a new phenomenon. Between 1880 and 1900 birth rates dropped from 5.5 children per woman to 2.5 children per woman. A further decline from 2.5 to 1.5 or even 1.3 children took much longer – about 80 years. One of the most apparent causes is, however, widely ignored. Beatrice Scheubel tries to fill this gap. According to the so-called Social Security Hypothesis, insurance against the risks of life (i.e. poverty for all sorts of reasons, in particular, age) by the state crowds out all types of private insurance. One of the (vast) different possibilities to privately insure oneself against poverty is having children. That is why it should not be surprising to witness falling birth rates given the sheer magnitude of the welfare state. In this book, Beatrice Scheubel analyses the effects of the first comprehensive system of social security, which was introduced between 1883 and 1891 in Germany.

Asian Century… on a Knife-edge: A 360 Degree Analysis of Asia's Recent Economic Development

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ISBN: 9789811071812 9789811071829 Year: Pages: 335 DOI: 10.1007/978-981-10-7182-9 Language: English
Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan Grant: Asian Century Institute
Subject: Political Science --- Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2018-05-31 18:10:53
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This book delves into the widely held belief that the 21st century will be the "Asian Century" by examining the Asia's rapid economic development in the post-war era and the challenges it faces in forging ahead of world leaders in the West. The impact of the current turbulent global political climate on Asia is critically analyzed, employing a holistic and multidisciplinary approach, combining economic, social, political and geopolitical perspectives. Written in an accessible style, the book offers students, business, government, and civil society players powerful insights on Asia.

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