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Rietveld Refinement in the Characterization of Crystalline Materials

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ISBN: 9783038975274 9783038975281 Year: Pages: 88 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-528-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemistry (General) --- Analytical Chemistry
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-28 10:16:11
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This Special Issue serves as a crystallographic forum covering various aspects of material science that have in common the use of the powerful Rietveld method in the analysis of the powder XRD patterns of investigated compounds.

Advances in Cholesteric Liquid Crystals

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ISBN: 9783039282289 9783039282296 Year: Pages: 122 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-229-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemistry (General) --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:08
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With their helical structure, cholesteric liquid crystals figure prominently in liquid crystal science. The selective reflection of light is their flagship property, and they offer a myriad of applications as advanced optical materials with multiscale properties. The cholesteric structure is also a ubiquitous design in the animal and plant kingdoms. This book contains eight contributions on fundamental investigations about defects, textures and structures of cholesteric materials, and experimental studies aimed at applications such as temperature sensors, head-up displays for improving automobile driving safety, or smart windows.

Electrospun and Electrosprayed Formulations for Drug Delivery

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ISBN: 9783038979128 9783038979135 Year: Pages: 190 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-913-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 10:09:00
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This book is comprised of important reviews and cutting-edge original research papers concerning electrospun and electrosprayed formulations in drug delivery. Electrospinning and electrospraying have, in recent years, attracted increasing attention in the pharmaceutical sector, with research in the area advancing rapidly. It is now possible to prepare extremely complex systems using multi-fluid processes, and to increase production rates to an industrial scale. Electrospun formulations can be produced under GMP conditions and are in clinical trials. In this volume, we explore a range of topics around electrospinning and electrospraying in controlled drug delivery. Four reviews cover the exciting potential of cyclodextrin-containing fibers and the many potential biomedical applications of electrospun fibers. The use of electrospinning to prepare amorphous systems and improve the dissolution rate and solubility of poorly soluble active ingredients is addressed, and the possibilities of such materials in tissue engineering are comprehensively covered. The six original research papers cover the effect of molecular properties on API release from Eudragit-based electrospun fibers; ferulic acid solid dispersions; electrospun medicines to treat psoriasis; scale up of electrospinning and its use to produce low-dose tablets; transepithelial permeation of drugs released from electrospun fibers, and the possibilities for the synergistic chemophotothermal treatment of cancer.

In-Cell NMR Spectroscopy: Biomolecular Structure and Function

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ISBN: 9783039282548 / 9783039282555 Year: Pages: 152 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-255-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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This Special Issue examines state-of-the-art in-cell NMR spectroscopy as it relates to biological systems of increasing complexity. The compendia of research and recent innovations from prominent laboratories in the field of solid state and solution in-cell NMR spectroscopy, metabolomics and technology development are presented. The work establishes in-cell NMR spectroscopy as the premier method for determining the structures and interaction capabilities of biological molecules at high resolution within the delicately intricate interior of living cells, and the means of utilizing cells as living laboratories to directly assess the effects of exogenous and endogenous stimuli on cell physiology.]

Materials for Nuclear Waste Immobilization

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ISBN: 9783039218462 9783039218479 Year: Pages: 220 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-847-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-30 16:39:46
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The book outlines recent advances in nuclear wasteform materials including glasses, ceramics and cements and spent nuclear fuel. It focuses on durability aspects and contains data on performance of nuclear wasteforms as well as expected behavior in a disposal environment.

Polymeric Foams

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ISBN: 9783039216321 9783039216338 Year: Pages: 322 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-633-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- Chemical Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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Advances in nanotechnology have boosted the development of more efficient materials, with emerging sectors (electronics, energy, aerospace, etc.) demanding novel materials to fulfill the complex technical requirements of their products. This is the case of polymeric foams, which may display good structural properties alongside functional characteristics through a complex composition and (micro)structure in which a gas phase is combined with rigid ones, mainly based on nanoparticles, dispersed throughout the polymer matrix. In recent years, there has been an important impulse in the development of nanocomposite foams, extending the concept of nanocomposites to the field of cellular materials. This, alongside developments in new advanced foaming technologies which have allowed the generation of foams with micro, sub-micro, and even nanocellular structures, has extended the applications of more traditional foams in terms of weight reduction, damping, and thermal and/or acoustic insulation to novel possibilities, such as electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding. This Special Issue, which consists of a total of 22 articles, including one review article written by research groups of experts in the field, considers recent research on novel polymer-based foams in all their aspects: design, composition, processing and fabrication, microstructure, characterization and analysis, applications and service behavior, recycling and reuse, etc.

Keywords

grey relational analysis --- multi-objective particle swarm optimization --- acoustic performances --- Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer --- polyurethane foam composites --- DOPO --- itaconic acid --- ethyl cellulose --- phenolic foams --- composites --- adjacent façade --- PUR --- energy conservation --- heat transfer --- burning characteristic --- semi-rigid polyurethane foams --- aluminum microfibers --- quasi-static compression tests --- mechanical properties --- energy absorption capability --- foams --- polyamide --- crystalline --- thermal conductivity --- mechanical property --- functional --- biomaterials --- composites --- EMI --- cellulose foam --- polypropylene --- foaming quality --- impact property --- intrinsic toughness --- flame-retardant ABS microcellular foams --- phosphorus flame retardants --- MuCell® injection-molding foaming --- graphene oxide --- rigid polyurethane foam --- thermogravimetric analysis --- activation energies --- extrusion foaming --- super critical CO2 --- lignin --- sound absorption coefficient --- mechanical property --- Pluronic --- surfactants --- foams --- SANS --- multilayers --- epoxy composite foam adhesive --- core–shell rubber --- impact wedge–peel test --- automobile structural adhesives --- flame retardancy --- foams --- phosphorus --- ternary synergistic effect --- polypropylene --- fluoelastomer --- scCO2 foaming --- heterogeneous nucleation --- polypropylene --- cellulose nanofiber --- foam injection molding --- mechanical properties --- polystyrene foams --- 1,3,5-benzene-trisamides --- cell nucleation --- foam extrusion --- foam morphology --- supramolecular additives --- thermal insulation --- compression properties --- piezoelectric --- functional foam --- piezocomposite --- PZT --- expandable microspheres --- permittivity --- polyetherimide foams --- graphene --- multifunctional foams --- ultrasonication --- scCO2 --- electrical conductivity --- polymer waste --- polyurethane foam --- leaching test --- microstructure --- absorbent PMI foam --- metallic tube --- electromagnetic wave absorption --- mechanical properties --- failure mechanism --- polymers --- foams --- shock compression --- equation of state --- epoxy --- foams --- expandable microspheres --- graphene --- nanotubes --- conductivity --- syntactic foams --- n/a

Processing-Structure-Properties Relationships in Polymers

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ISBN: 9783039218806 9783039218813 Year: Pages: 400 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-881-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-07 09:08:26
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This collection of research and review papers is aimed at depicting the state of the art on the possible correlations between processing variables, obtained structure and special properties which this structure induces on the plastic part. The extraordinary capacity of plastics to modify their properties according to a particular structure is evidenced for several transformation processes and for many applications. The final common goal is to take profit of this peculiar capacity of plastics by inducing, through a suitable processing, a specific spatial organization.

Keywords

carbon nanotube --- homogeneous dispersion --- ethylene vinyl acetate --- mechanical performance --- electrical conductivity --- microencapsulation --- melamine polyphosphate --- polyurethane --- composite --- flame retardant --- biodegradable nanofibers --- PLGA --- collagen --- epinephrine --- lidocaine --- polyimide film --- linear coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) --- copper clad laminate --- structure and properties --- polymorphism --- isotactic polypropylene --- deformation --- phase transitions --- uniaxial compression --- uniaxial tensile deformation --- temperature --- in situ X-ray --- cavitation --- indentation --- Harmonix AFM --- polymer morphology --- mechanical properties --- ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) --- microcellular injection molding --- supercritical fluid --- supercritical N2 --- supercritical CO2 --- tissue engineering and regenerative medicine --- bioresorbable polymers --- 3D printing/additive manufacturing --- fused filament fabrication/fused deposition modelling --- degradation --- physicochemical characterization --- polycaprolactone --- layered double hydroxides --- ionic liquids --- PLA --- reactive blending --- biobased films --- graphene --- nanoreinforcement --- curing rate --- epoxy microstructure --- fatigue --- composites --- critical gel --- poly(lactic acid) --- carbon black --- graphite --- polymer blend --- poly(ethylene terephthalate) --- intrinsic viscosity --- polyolefin --- compatibilizer --- isotactic polypropylene --- stress-induced phase transitions --- structural analysis --- X-ray diffraction --- polyoxymethylene (POM) --- octakis[(3-glycidoxypropyl)dimethylsiloxy]octasilsesquioxane (GPOSS) --- composites --- morphology --- mechanical properties --- conductive filler --- orientation --- conductive polymer composites --- foam --- model --- PLLA --- bioresorbable vascular scaffolds --- stretch blow molding --- biaxial elongation --- SAXS --- WAXS --- microfibrillar composites --- crystalline morphology --- crystallinity --- mechanical properties --- crystallisation --- morphology --- nanoparticles --- shear --- flow --- orientation --- poly(?-caprolactone) --- polyvinyl butyral --- hydrophobicity --- contact angle --- polypropylene --- atomic force microscopy --- injection molding --- mold temperature evolution --- polycaprolactone --- ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene --- incremental forming --- SPIF --- XRD --- chain orientation --- temperature sensitive --- gel --- controllable gas permeability --- breathable film --- polymer composite --- processing --- polyamide 6 --- compression molding --- polymorphism --- polyamide 6 --- injection molding --- polymorphism --- humidity --- mechanical properties

Compact Stars in the QCD Phase Diagram

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9783039219582 9783039219599 Year: Pages: 273 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-959-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Mathematics
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-30 16:39:46
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The book edition of the Universe Special Issue “Compact Stars in the QCD Phase Diagram” is devoted to the overarching aspects shared between heavy-ion collisions and compact star astrophysics in investigating the hadron-to-quark matter phase transition in the equation of state of strongly interacting matter in different regions of the phase diagram of QCD. It comprises 22 review and research articles that, together, will serve as a useful guide in educating both young and senior scientists in this emerging field that represents an intersection of the communities of strongly interacting matter theory, heavy-ion collision physics and compact star astrophysics.

Keywords

heavy-ion collisions --- directed flow --- hydrodynamics --- deconfinement --- hybrid stars --- neutron stars --- equation of state --- ? meson condensation --- maximum mass --- ? resonances --- finite temperature --- finite density --- quark-gluon plasma --- finite size --- speed of sound --- neutron stars --- equation of state --- in-medium effects --- neutrino --- Quantum Chromodynamics --- dense matter --- vector interaction --- neutron stars --- equation of state --- QCD matter --- phase transition --- critical point --- modified excluded-volume mechanism --- dense matter --- equation of state --- stars: neutron --- pulsars: general, pulsars: PSR J0737 ? 3039A --- pulsars: PSR J1757 ? 1854 --- relativistic heavy-ion collisions --- monte carlo simulations --- transport theory --- strangeness --- neutron stars --- star oscillations --- hadron–quark continuity --- neutron stars --- QCD phase diagram --- neutron stars --- stellar magnetic field --- stellar structure --- stellar evolution --- neutron star --- equation of state --- phase transition --- quark matter --- pulsars --- quark stars --- general relativity --- Gravitational waves --- Gamma-ray bursts --- nuclear matter --- neutron stars --- quarks --- combustion --- neutron star --- QCD matter --- phase transition --- critical point --- neutron stars --- gravitational waves --- equation of state --- chiral symmetry --- axion QED --- quark-hole pairing --- cold-dense QCD --- magnetic DCDW --- quark matter --- hadronic matter --- quark deconfinement --- neutron star matter --- nuclear equation of state --- phase transition --- crystalline structure --- neutrino emissivities --- cluster virial expansion --- quark-hadron matter --- Mott dissociation --- Beth-Uhlenbeck equation of state --- heavy-ion collisions --- supernova explosions --- mass-twin stars --- nuclear symmetry energy --- heavy-ion collisions --- transport theory --- collective flow --- light cluster emission --- meson production --- quark-hadron phase transition --- pasta phases --- speed of sound --- hybrid compact stars --- mass-radius relation --- GW170817

Science, Characterization and Technology of Joining and Welding

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ISBN: 9783039289974 / 9783039289981 Year: Pages: 251 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-998-1 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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As the Guest Editor of this Special Issue entitled ""Science, Characterization, and Technology of Joining and Welding"" of Metals, I am pleased to have this book published by MDPI. Joining, including welding, soldering, brazing, and assembly, is an essential requirement in manufacturing processes and is classified as a secondary manufacturing process. This Special Issue of Metals includes technical and review papers on, but not limited to, different aspects of joining and welding, including welding technologies (i.e., fusion-based welding and solid-state welding), characterization, metallurgy and materials science, quality control, and design and numerical simulation. This Special Issue also includes the joining of different materials, including metal and non-metals (polymers and composites), including 17 peer-reviewed papers from several researchers all around the globe (China, Germany, Brazil, South Koria, Slovakia, USA, Taiwan, Canada, and India). As of this date (April 2020), the papers in this Special Issue have been cited 47 times by other researchers, which I think is an eminent number and shows the high quality of the published papers in this Issue. This Special Issue includes a large diversity of various subjects in the field of joining: laser welding, friction stir welding, diffusion bonding, multipass welding, rotary friction-welding, friction bit joining, adhesive bonding, weldbonding, simulation and experimentation, metal/FRP joints, welding simulation, plasma–TIG coupled arc welding, liquation cracking, soldering, resin bonding, microstructural characteristics, brazing, and friction stir butt and scarf welding. I would like to sincerely thank all the researchers who contributed to this Special Issue for their high-quality research. I also would like to acknowledge Mr. Toliver Guo, Senior Assistant Editor at MDPI, who continuously and tirelessly contributed toward this Special Issue by assisting me with inviting the authors and the follow ups. I think this Special Issue will enhance our knowledge and understanding in the field of joining and assembly. I would like to dedicate this book to my wife, Mehrnoosh, for her continued support and encouragement.

Keywords

adhesive thermos-mechanical property --- SnBi58 solder joint morphology --- flex-on-board assembly --- thermal compression bonding --- ultrasonic bonding --- friction stir welding --- scarf joint --- butt joint --- tool pin profiles --- mechanical properties --- microstructure --- metallurgy --- vacuum brazing --- titanium --- eutectoid --- clad filler foil --- microstructure --- SA213-T23 --- Cr-Mo steel --- heat-affected zone --- m23c6 --- carbide dissolution --- tint etching --- high-crystalline content zirconia --- active monomers --- oxide layer --- solder --- ceramics --- copper --- flux-less soldering --- IN738 superalloy --- welding --- HAZ cracking --- microconstituent --- plasma-TIG --- coupled arc --- arc profile --- pressure distribution --- welding --- 22MnB5 --- flow stress --- thermophysical property --- numerical simulation --- hybrid joining --- surface structuring --- thermal spraying --- coating --- FRP --- hot pressing --- bonding strength --- adhesion --- mechanical interlocking --- phased array ultrasonic --- dissimilar weldments --- anisotropy --- longitudinal wave --- simulation --- dissimilar material joining --- carbon fiber-reinforced polymer --- dual-phase steel --- friction bit joining --- adhesive bonding --- weld bonding --- mechanical strength --- rotary friction-welding --- energy-input --- joint mechanical properties --- welding thermal cycles --- medium thick plate model --- distributed point heat sources model --- local brittle zone --- API 5L X80 steel --- Ti2AlNb alloy --- TAN alloy --- direct diffusion bonding --- interfacial microstructure --- mechanical properties --- friction stir welding --- aluminum --- copper --- dissimilar joints --- design of experiments --- taguchi design --- mechanical properties --- electrical properties --- tailor welded blanks --- laser welding --- Zn-coated low carbon microalloyed steels --- microstructure --- pores

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english (7)

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2020 (5)

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